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Identification
NameChlorpromazine
Accession NumberDB00477  (APRD00482)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved
Description

The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class, chlorpromazine’s antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking dopamine receptors. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
3-(2-chloro-10H-Phenothiazin-10-yl)-N,N-dimethyl-1-propanamineNot AvailableNot Available
3-(2-Chlorophenothiazin-10-yl)-N,N-dimethyl-propan-1-amineNot AvailableNot Available
AminazineNot AvailableNot Available
ChlorderazinNot AvailableNot Available
ChloropromazineNot AvailableNot Available
ChlorpromadosNot AvailableNot Available
ChlorpromazineNot AvailableNot Available
ChlorpromazinumNot AvailableNot Available
ClorpromazinaNot AvailableNot Available
ContominNot AvailableNot Available
CPZNot AvailableNot Available
LargactilNot AvailableNot Available
N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-3-chlorophenothiazineNot AvailableNot Available
ThorazineNot AvailableNot Available
Salts
Name/CAS Structure Properties
Chlorpromazine hydrochloride
69-09-0
Thumb
  • InChI Key: FBSMERQALIEGJT-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 354.072424754
  • Average Mass: 355.325
DBSALT000026
Brand names
NameCompany
ChlorpromanylTechnilab (Canada)
LargactilSpecia
ThorazineGlaxoSmithKline
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number50-53-3
WeightAverage: 318.864
Monoisotopic: 318.095747015
Chemical FormulaC17H19ClN2S
InChI KeyZPEIMTDSQAKGNT-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H19ClN2S/c1-19(2)10-5-11-20-14-6-3-4-7-16(14)21-17-9-8-13(18)12-15(17)20/h3-4,6-9,12H,5,10-11H2,1-2H3
IUPAC Name
[3-(2-chloro-10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)propyl]dimethylamine
SMILES
CN(C)CCCN1C2=CC=CC=C2SC2=C1C=C(Cl)C=C2
Mass Specshow(8.36 KB)
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassHeterocyclic Compounds
ClassBenzothiazines
SubclassPhenothiazines
Direct parentPhenothiazines
Alternative parentsChlorobenzenes; Aryl Chlorides; Tertiary Amines; Polyamines; Thioethers; Organochlorides
Substituentschlorobenzene; aryl halide; aryl chloride; benzene; tertiary amine; polyamine; thioether; organochloride; organohalogen; amine; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the phenothiazines. These are polycyclic aromatic compounds containing a phenothiazine moiety, which is a linear tricyclic system that consists of a two benzene rings joined by a para-thiazine ring.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of schizophrenia, control nausea and vomiting, For relief of restlessness and apprehension before surgery, adjunct in the treatment of tetanus, control the manifestations of the manic type of manic-depressive illness.
PharmacodynamicsChlorpromazine is a psychotropic agent indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia. It also exerts sedative and antiemetic activity. Chlorpromazine has actions at all levels of the central nervous system-primarily at subcortical levels-as well as on multiple organ systems. Chlorpromazine has strong antiadrenergic and weaker peripheral anticholinergic activity; ganglionic blocking action is relatively slight. It also possesses slight antihistaminic and antiserotonin activity.
Mechanism of actionChlorpromazine acts as an antagonist (blocking agent) on different postsysnaptic receptors -on dopaminergic-receptors (subtypes D1, D2, D3 and D4 - different antipsychotic properties on productive and unproductive symptoms), on serotonergic-receptors (5-HT1 and 5-HT2, with anxiolytic, antidepressive and antiaggressive properties as well as an attenuation of extrapypramidal side-effects, but also leading to weight gain, fall in blood pressure, sedation and ejaculation difficulties), on histaminergic-receptors (H1-receptors, sedation, antiemesis, vertigo, fall in blood pressure and weight gain), alpha1/alpha2-receptors (antisympathomimetic properties, lowering of blood pressure, reflex tachycardia, vertigo, sedation, hypersalivation and incontinence as well as sexual dysfunction, but may also attenuate pseudoparkinsonism - controversial) and finally on muscarinic (cholinergic) M1/M2-receptors (causing anticholinergic symptoms like dry mouth, blurred vision, obstipation, difficulty/inability to urinate, sinus tachycardia, ECG-changes and loss of memory, but the anticholinergic action may attenuate extrapyramidal side-effects). Additionally, Chlorpromazine is a weak presynaptic inhibitor of Dopamine reuptake, which may lead to (mild) antidepressive and antiparkinsonian effects. This action could also account for psychomotor agitation and amplification of psychosis (very rarely noted in clinical use).
AbsorptionReadily absorbed from the GI tract. Bioavailability varies due to first-pass metabolism by the liver.
Volume of distribution
  • 20 L/kg
Protein binding> 90% to plasma proteins, primarily albumin
Metabolism

Extensively metabolized in the liver and kidneys. It is extensively metabolized by cytochrome P450 isozymes CYP2D6 (major pathway), CYP1A2 and CYP3A4. Approximately 10 to 12 major metabolite have been identified. Hydroxylation at positions 3 and 7 of the phenothiazine nucleus and the N-dimethylaminopropyl side chain undergoes demethylation and is also metabolized to an N-oxide. In urine, 20% of chlopromazine and its metabolites are excreted unconjugated in the urine as unchanged drug, demonomethylchlorpromazine, dedimethylchlorpromazine, their sulfoxide metabolites, and chlorpromazine-N-oxide. The remaining 80% consists of conjugated metabolites, principally O-glucuronides and small amounts of ethereal sulfates of the mono- and dihydroxy-derivatives of chlorpromazine and their sulfoxide metabolites. The major metabolites are the monoglucuronide of N-dedimethylchlorpromazine and 7-hydroxychlorpromazine. Approximately 37% of the administered dose of chlorpromazine is excreted in urine.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Chlorpromazine
hydroxychlorpromazineDetails
Chlorpromazine
Not Available
chlorpromazine-N-oxideDetails
Chlorpromazine
Not Available
dedimethylchlorpromazineDetails
Chlorpromazine
Not Available
demonomethylchlorpromazineDetails
Chlorpromazine
Not Available
N-dedimethylchlorpromazineDetails
Route of eliminationKidneys, ~ 37% excreted in urine
Half life~ 30 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityAgitation, coma, convulsions, difficulty breathing, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, extreme sleepiness, fever, intestinal blockage, irregular heart rate, low blood pressure, restlessness
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9757
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9795
Caco-2 permeable + 0.8867
P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.787
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Inhibitor 0.7164
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Inhibitor 0.8387
Renal organic cation transporter Inhibitor 0.7557
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.7617
CYP450 2D6 substrate Substrate 0.8919
CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.6477
CYP450 1A2 substrate Inhibitor 0.9305
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9071
CYP450 2D6 substrate Inhibitor 0.9422
CYP450 2C19 substrate Inhibitor 0.5512
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9375
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity High CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.6601
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.9133
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9309
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 1.0
Rat acute toxicity 3.3196 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9536
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Inhibitor 0.787
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Glaxosmithkline
  • Actavis mid atlantic llc
  • Pharmaceutical assoc inc div beach products
  • Wockhardt eu operations (swiss) ag
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Abraxis pharmaceutical products
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
  • Marsam pharmaceuticals llc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Wyeth ayerst laboratories
  • Alpharma us pharmaceuticals division
  • Abbott laboratories pharmaceutical products div
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Kv pharmaceutical co
  • Lederle laboratories div american cyanamid co
  • Purepac pharmaceutical co
  • Private formulations inc
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Vangard laboratories inc div midway medical co
  • West ward pharmaceutical corp
  • Parke davis div warner lambert co
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionParenteral25 mg/ml
SolutionOral10 mg/5 ml
Solution, concentrateOral100 mg/ml
Solution, concentrateOral30 mg/ml
SuppositoryRectal25 mg
SuppositoryRectal50 mg
TabletOral10 mg
TabletOral100 mg
TabletOral200 mg
TabletOral25 mg
TabletOral50 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Chlorpromazine 25 mg/ml amp8.04USDml
ChlorproMAZINE HCl 200 mg tablet1.19USDtablet
Chlorpromazine 200 mg tablet1.05USDtablet
ChlorproMAZINE HCl 100 mg tablet0.84USDtablet
ChlorproMAZINE HCl 50 mg tablet0.73USDtablet
ChlorproMAZINE HCl 25 mg tablet0.55USDtablet
Chlorpromazine 100 mg tablet0.39USDtablet
ChlorproMAZINE HCl 10 mg tablet0.37USDtablet
Chlorpromazine 10 mg tablet0.32USDtablet
Chlorpromazine 50 mg tablet0.3USDtablet
Chlorpromazine 25 mg tablet0.17USDtablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Stateliquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point177-178Charpentier, P.; U S . Patent 2,645,640; July 14, 1953; assigned to Societe des Usines Chimiques Rhone-Poulenc, France
boiling point200-205 °C at 8.00E-01 mm HgPhysProp
water solubility2.55 mg/L (at 24 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP5.41AVDEEF,A (1995)
logS-5.01ADME Research, USCD
Caco2 permeability-4.7ADME Research, USCD
pKa9.3 (at 25 °C)HANSCH,C & LEO,AJ (1985)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility4.17e-03 g/lALOGPS
logP5.18ALOGPS
logP4.54ChemAxon
logS-4.9ALOGPS
pKa (strongest basic)9.2ChemAxon
physiological charge1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count2ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area6.48ChemAxon
rotatable bond count4ChemAxon
refractivity93.76ChemAxon
polarizability35.1ChemAxon
number of rings3ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveYesChemAxon
Ghose filterYesChemAxon
Veber's ruleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Charpentier, P.; U S . Patent 2,645,640; July 14, 1953; assigned to Societe des Usines Chimiques Rhone-Poulenc, France.

US2645640
General Reference
  1. Leucht S, Wahlbeck K, Hamann J, Kissling W: New generation antipsychotics versus low-potency conventional antipsychotics: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2003 May 10;361(9369):1581-9. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD00270
KEGG CompoundC06906
PubChem Compound2726
PubChem Substance46508395
ChemSpider2625
ChEBI3647
ChEMBLCHEMBL71
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000374
PharmGKBPA448964
IUPHAR83
Guide to Pharmacology83
Drug Product Database21342
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic3/chlorpromazine.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cdi/chlorpromazine.html
PDRhealthhttp://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/rxdrugprofiles/drugs/chl1441.shtml
WikipediaChlorpromazine
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS Codes
  • 28:16.08.24
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSshow(75.4 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AmphetamineDecreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms
ArtemetherAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
BenzphetamineAntipsychotics may diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines. Monitor effectiveness of amphetamine therapy when altering concurrent antipsychotic therapy as antipsychotic agents may impair the stimulatory effect of amphetamines.
BromocriptineThe phenothiazine decreases the effect of bromocriptine
CisaprideIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
DexfenfluramineDecreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms.
DextroamphetamineDecreased anorexic effect, may increases psychotic symptoms
DiethylpropionDecreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms
DihydrocodeinePhenothiazines may enhance hypotensive effects of opioid analgesics. It is recommended to monitor patients for hypotension.
DonepezilPossible antagonism of action
FenfluramineDecreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms
GalantaminePossible antagonism of action
GatifloxacinIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
GrepafloxacinIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
GuanethidineChlorpromazine may decrease the effect of guanethidine.
LevofloxacinIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
LumefantrineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
MazindolDecreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms
MesoridazineIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
MethamphetamineDecreased anorexic effect, may increases psychotic symptoms
MetrizamideIncreased risk of convulsions
PethidineIncreased sedation and hypotension
PhendimetrazineDecreased anorexic effect, may increases psychotic symptoms
PhenmetrazineDecreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms
PhentermineDecreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms
PhenylpropanolamineDecreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms
PindololIncreased effect of both drugs
PropranololIncreased effect of both drugs
RivastigminePossible antagonism of action
SparfloxacinIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
TacrineThe therapeutic effects of the central acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI), Tacrine, and/or the anticholinergic/antipsychotic, Chlorpromazine, may be reduced due to antagonism. This interaction may be beneficial when the anticholinergic action is a side effect. AChEIs may also augment the central neurotoxic effect of antipsychotics. Monitor for extrapyramidal symptoms and decreased efficacy of both agents.
TacrolimusAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur increasing the risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias. Concomitant therapy should be used with caution.
TamoxifenChlorpromazine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
TamsulosinChlorpromazine, a CYP2D6 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tamsulosin, a CYP2D6 substrate. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamsulosin if Chlorpromazine is initiated, discontinued, or dose changed.
TerbinafineTerbinafine may reduce the metabolism and clearance of Chlorpromazine. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for therapeutic/adverse effects of Chlorpromazine if Terbinafine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TerfenadineIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
TetrabenazineMay cause dopamine deficiency. Similar pharmacologic properties thus combination therapy will worsen the severity of sedative, parkinsonian, and extrapyramidal adverse effects.
ThioridazineIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
ThiothixeneMay cause additive QTc-prolonging effects. Increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias. Consider alternate therapy. Thorough risk:benefit assessment is required prior to co-administration.
TolterodineChlorpromazine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tolterodine. Monitor for adverse/toxic effects of Tolterodine.
ToremifeneAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur, increasing the risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias. Consider alternate therapy. A thorough risk:benefit assessment is required prior to co-administration.
TramadolChlorpromazine may decrease the effect of Tramadol by decreasing active metabolite production.
TrimethobenzamideTrimethobenzamide and Chlorpromazine, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhance their adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.
TrimipramineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur, increasing the risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias. Chlorpromazine, a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor, may also decrease the metabolism and clearance of Trimipramine, a CYP2D6 substrate. Caution should be used during concomitant therapy.
TriprolidineThe antihistamine, Triprolidine, may increase the arrhythmogenic effect of the phenothiazine, Chlorpromazine. Monitor for symptoms of ventricular arrhythmias. Additive anticholinergic and CNS depressant effects may also occur. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic and CNS depressant effects.
TrospiumTrospium and Chlorpromazine, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhanced adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.
VenlafaxineChlorpromazine, a CYP2D6 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Venlafaxine, a CYP2D6 substrate. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Venlafaxine if Chlorpromazine is initiated, discontinued, or dose changed.
VorinostatAdditive QTc prolongation may occur. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for QTc prolongation as this can lead to Torsade de Pointes (TdP).
ZiprasidoneAdditive QTc-prolonging effects may increase the risk of severe arrhythmias. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
ZuclopenthixolAdditive QTc prolongation may occur. Consider alternate therapy or use caution and monitor for QTc prolongation as this can lead to Torsade de Pointes (TdP). Chlorpromazine, a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zuclopenthixol by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zuclopenthixol if chlorpromazine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
Zuclopenthixol acetateAdditive QTc prolongation may occur. Consider alternate therapy or use caution and monitor for QTc prolongation as this can lead to Torsade de Pointes (TdP). Chlorpromazine, a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zuclopenthixol by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zuclopenthixol if chlorpromazine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
Zuclopenthixol decanoateAdditive QTc prolongation may occur. Consider alternate therapy or use caution and monitor for QTc prolongation as this can lead to Torsade de Pointes (TdP). Chlorpromazine, a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zuclopenthixol by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zuclopenthixol if chlorpromazine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take with food to reduce irritation.

Targets

1. D(2) dopamine receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
D(2) dopamine receptor P14416 Details

References:

  1. Oades RD, Rao ML, Bender S, Sartory G, Muller BW: Neuropsychological and conditioned blocking performance in patients with schizophrenia: assessment of the contribution of neuroleptic dose, serum levels and dopamine D2-receptor occupancy. Behav Pharmacol. 2000 Jun;11(3-4):317-30. Pubmed
  2. Seeman P: Atypical antipsychotics: mechanism of action. Can J Psychiatry. 2002 Feb;47(1):27-38. Pubmed
  3. Wu S, Xing Q, Gao R, Li X, Gu N, Feng G, He L: Response to chlorpromazine treatment may be associated with polymorphisms of the DRD2 gene in Chinese schizophrenic patients. Neurosci Lett. 2005 Mar 7;376(1):1-4. Epub 2004 Dec 2. Pubmed
  4. Wu SN, Gao R, Xing QH, Li HF, Shen YF, Gu NF, Feng GY, He L: Association of DRD2 polymorphisms and chlorpromazine-induced extrapyramidal syndrome in Chinese schizophrenic patients. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2006 Aug;27(8):966-70. Pubmed
  5. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  6. Seeman P: Dopamine D2 receptors as treatment targets in schizophrenia. Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses. 2010 Apr;4(1):56-73. Pubmed
  7. Roth BL, Craigo SC, Choudhary MS, Uluer A, Monsma FJ Jr, Shen Y, Meltzer HY, Sibley DR: Binding of typical and atypical antipsychotic agents to 5-hydroxytryptamine-6 and 5-hydroxytryptamine-7 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Mar;268(3):1403-10. Pubmed
  8. Roth BL, Tandra S, Burgess LH, Sibley DR, Meltzer HY: D4 dopamine receptor binding affinity does not distinguish between typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1995 Aug;120(3):365-8. Pubmed

2. D(1A) dopamine receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
D(1A) dopamine receptor P21728 Details

References:

  1. Kanba S, Suzuki E, Nomura S, Nakaki T, Yagi G, Asai M, Richelson E: Affinity of neuroleptics for D1 receptor of human brain striatum. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 1994 Jul;19(4):265-9. Pubmed

3. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A P28223 Details

References:

  1. Kusumi I, Takahashi Y, Suzuki K, Kameda K, Koyama T: Differential effects of subchronic treatments with atypical antipsychotic drugs on dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in the rat brain. J Neural Transm. 2000;107(3):295-302. Pubmed
  2. Yamada J, Sugimoto Y, Horisaka K: Serotonin2 (5-HT2) receptor agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) inhibits chlorpromazine- and haloperidol-induced hypothermia in mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 1995 Nov;18(11):1580-3. Pubmed

4. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A P08908 Details

References:

  1. Cosi C, Koek W: Agonist, antagonist, and inverse agonist properties of antipsychotics at human recombinant 5-HT receptors expressed in HeLa cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001 Dec 14;433(1):55-62. Pubmed
  2. Newman-Tancredi A, Gavaudan S, Conte C, Chaput C, Touzard M, Verriele L, Audinot V, Millan MJ: Agonist and antagonist actions of antipsychotic agents at 5-HT1A receptors: a [35S]GTPgammaS binding study. Eur J Pharmacol. 1998 Aug 21;355(2-3):245-56. Pubmed

5. Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor P35348 Details

References:

  1. Cahir M, King DJ: Antipsychotics lack alpha 1A/B adrenoceptor subtype selectivity in the rat. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005 Mar;15(2):231-4. Pubmed

6. Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor P35368 Details

References:

  1. Cahir M, King DJ: Antipsychotics lack alpha 1A/B adrenoceptor subtype selectivity in the rat. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005 Mar;15(2):231-4. Pubmed

7. Histamine H1 receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Histamine H1 receptor P35367 Details

References:

  1. Hals PA, Hall H, Dahl SG: Muscarinic cholinergic and histamine H1 receptor binding of phenothiazine drug metabolites. Life Sci. 1988;43(5):405-12. Pubmed
  2. Church MK, Young KD: The characteristics of inhibition of histamine release from human lung fragments by sodium cromoglycate, salbutamol and chlorpromazine. Br J Pharmacol. 1983 Apr;78(4):671-9. Pubmed
  3. Johnson HG, Miller MD: Inhibition of histamine release and ionophore-induced calcium flux in rat mast cells by lidocaine and chlorpromazine. Agents Actions. 1979 Aug;9(3):239-43. Pubmed
  4. Palmer GC, Wagner HR, Palmer SJ, Manian AA: Histamine-, norepinephrine-, and dopamine-sensitive central adenylate cyclases: effects of chlorpromazine derivatives and butaclamol. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1978 Jun;233(2):314-25. Pubmed
  5. Ruffolo RR, Patil PN: Kinetics of blockade of different receptors by chlorpromazine in rabbit stomach strips. Eur J Pharmacol. 1978 Mar 15;48(2):151-7. Pubmed

8. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2 Q12809 Details

References:

  1. Thomas D, Wu K, Kathofer S, Katus HA, Schoels W, Kiehn J, Karle CA: The antipsychotic drug chlorpromazine inhibits HERG potassium channels. Br J Pharmacol. 2003 Jun;139(3):567-74. Pubmed

9. D(1) dopamine receptor

Kind: protein group

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
D(1A) dopamine receptor P21728 Details
D(1B) dopamine receptor P21918 Details

References:

  1. Seeman P, Van Tol HH: Dopamine receptor pharmacology. Curr Opin Neurol Neurosurg. 1993 Aug;6(4):602-8. Pubmed

10. D(3) dopamine receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
D(3) dopamine receptor P35462 Details

References:

  1. Freedman SB, Patel S, Marwood R, Emms F, Seabrook GR, Knowles MR, McAllister G: Expression and pharmacological characterization of the human D3 dopamine receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Jan;268(1):417-26. Pubmed

11. D(4) dopamine receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
D(4) dopamine receptor P21917 Details

References:

  1. Roth BL, Tandra S, Burgess LH, Sibley DR, Meltzer HY: D4 dopamine receptor binding affinity does not distinguish between typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1995 Aug;120(3):365-8. Pubmed

12. D(1B) dopamine receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
D(1B) dopamine receptor P21918 Details

References:

  1. Seeman P, Van Tol HH: Dopamine receptor pharmacology. Curr Opin Neurol Neurosurg. 1993 Aug;6(4):602-8. Pubmed

13. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C P28335 Details

References:

  1. Roth BL, Craigo SC, Choudhary MS, Uluer A, Monsma FJ Jr, Shen Y, Meltzer HY, Sibley DR: Binding of typical and atypical antipsychotic agents to 5-hydroxytryptamine-6 and 5-hydroxytryptamine-7 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Mar;268(3):1403-10. Pubmed

14. 5-hydroxytryptamine 2 receptor

Kind: protein group

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A P28223 Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B P41595 Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C P28335 Details

References:

  1. Roth BL, Craigo SC, Choudhary MS, Uluer A, Monsma FJ Jr, Shen Y, Meltzer HY, Sibley DR: Binding of typical and atypical antipsychotic agents to 5-hydroxytryptamine-6 and 5-hydroxytryptamine-7 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Mar;268(3):1403-10. Pubmed

15. Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor

Kind: protein group

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor P35348 Details
Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor P35368 Details
Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor P25100 Details

References:

  1. Huerta-Bahena J, Villalobos-Molina R, Garcia-Sainz JA: Trifluoperazine and chlorpromazine antagonize alpha 1- but not alpha2- adrenergic effects. Mol Pharmacol. 1983 Jan;23(1):67-70. Pubmed

16. Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor

Kind: protein group

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor P08913 Details
Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor P18089 Details
Alpha-2C adrenergic receptor P18825 Details

References:

  1. Bylund DB, Ray-Prenger C, Murphy TJ: Alpha-2A and alpha-2B adrenergic receptor subtypes: antagonist binding in tissues and cell lines containing only one subtype. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988 May;245(2):600-7. Pubmed

17. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 P11229 Details

References:

  1. Davies MA, Compton-Toth BA, Hufeisen SJ, Meltzer HY, Roth BL: The highly efficacious actions of N-desmethylclozapine at muscarinic receptors are unique and not a common property of either typical or atypical antipsychotic drugs: is M1 agonism a pre-requisite for mimicking clozapine’s actions? Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 Apr;178(4):451-60. Epub 2004 Oct 13. Pubmed

18. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 P20309 Details

References:

  1. Davies MA, Compton-Toth BA, Hufeisen SJ, Meltzer HY, Roth BL: The highly efficacious actions of N-desmethylclozapine at muscarinic receptors are unique and not a common property of either typical or atypical antipsychotic drugs: is M1 agonism a pre-requisite for mimicking clozapine’s actions? Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 Apr;178(4):451-60. Epub 2004 Oct 13. Pubmed

19. Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase P17405 Details

References:

  1. Yoshida Y, Arimoto K, Sato M, Sakuragawa N, Arima M, Satoyoshi E: Reduction of acid sphingomyelinase activity in human fibroblasts induced by AY-9944 and other cationic amphiphilic drugs. J Biochem. 1985 Dec;98(6):1669-79. Pubmed

20. Calmodulin

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Calmodulin P62158 Details

References:

  1. Marshak DR, Lukas TJ, Watterson DM: Drug-protein interactions: binding of chlorpromazine to calmodulin, calmodulin fragments, and related calcium binding proteins. Biochemistry. 1985 Jan 1;24(1):144-50. Pubmed

21. alpha1-acid glycoprotein

Kind: protein group

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1 P02763 Details
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 2 P19652 Details

References:

  1. Herve F, Duche JC, d’Athis P, Marche C, Barre J, Tillement JP: Binding of disopyramide, methadone, dipyridamole, chlorpromazine, lignocaine and progesterone to the two main genetic variants of human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein: evidence for drug-binding differences between the variants and for the presence of two separate drug-binding sites on alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. Pharmacogenetics. 1996 Oct;6(5):403-15. Pubmed

22. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6 P50406 Details

References:

  1. Roth BL, Craigo SC, Choudhary MS, Uluer A, Monsma FJ Jr, Shen Y, Meltzer HY, Sibley DR: Binding of typical and atypical antipsychotic agents to 5-hydroxytryptamine-6 and 5-hydroxytryptamine-7 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Mar;268(3):1403-10. Pubmed

23. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7 P34969 Details

References:

  1. Roth BL, Craigo SC, Choudhary MS, Uluer A, Monsma FJ Jr, Shen Y, Meltzer HY, Sibley DR: Binding of typical and atypical antipsychotic agents to 5-hydroxytryptamine-6 and 5-hydroxytryptamine-7 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Mar;268(3):1403-10. Pubmed

24. Histamine H4 receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Histamine H4 receptor Q9H3N8 Details

References:

  1. Nguyen T, Shapiro DA, George SR, Setola V, Lee DK, Cheng R, Rauser L, Lee SP, Lynch KR, Roth BL, O’Dowd BF: Discovery of a novel member of the histamine receptor family. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Mar;59(3):427-33. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 2D6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

References:

  1. Micallef J, Fakra E, Blin O: [Use of antidepressant drugs in schizophrenic patients with depression] Encephale. 2006 Mar-Apr;32(2 Pt 1):263-9. Pubmed
  2. Otani K, Aoshima T: Pharmacogenetics of classical and new antipsychotic drugs. Ther Drug Monit. 2000 Feb;22(1):118-21. Pubmed
  3. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  4. Yoshii K, Kobayashi K, Tsumuji M, Tani M, Shimada N, Chiba K: Identification of human cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the 7-hydroxylation of chlorpromazine by human liver microsomes. Life Sci. 2000;67(2):175-84. Pubmed
  5. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. Pubmed
  6. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

References:

  1. Yoshii K, Kobayashi K, Tsumuji M, Tani M, Shimada N, Chiba K: Identification of human cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the 7-hydroxylation of chlorpromazine by human liver microsomes. Life Sci. 2000;67(2):175-84. Pubmed
  2. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. Pubmed
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

3. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. Pubmed
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

4. Cytochrome P450 2E1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2E1 P05181 Details

References:

  1. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. Pubmed
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

5. Cholinesterase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cholinesterase P06276 Details

References:

  1. Nasello AG, Gidali D, Felicio LF: A comparative study of the anticholinesterase activity of several antipsychotic agents. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003 Jul;75(4):895-901. Pubmed
  2. Muraoka S, Miura T: Inactivation of cholinesterase induced by chlorpromazine cation radicals. Pharmacol Toxicol. 2003 Feb;92(2):100-4. Pubmed
  3. Spinedi A, Pacini L, Limatola C, Luly P, Farias RN: A study of human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase inhibition by chlorpromazine. Biochem J. 1991 Sep 1;278 ( Pt 2):461-3. Pubmed

Carriers

1. Serum albumin

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serum albumin P02768 Details

References:

  1. Kitamura K, Omran AA, Nagata C, Kamijima Y, Tanaka R, Takegami S, Kitade T: Effects of inorganic ions on the binding of triflupromazine and chlorpromazine to bovine serum albumin studied by spectrometric methods. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2006 Jul;54(7):972-6. Pubmed
  2. Rukhadze MD, Bezarashvili GS, Sidamonidze NS, Tsagareli SK: Investigation of binding process of chlorpromazine to bovine serum albumin by means of passive and active experiments. Biomed Chromatogr. 2001 Oct;15(6):365-73. Pubmed
  3. Silva D, Cortez CM, Louro SR: Quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of bovine serum albumin by chlorpromazine and hemin. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2004 Jul;37(7):963-8. Epub 2004 Jun 22. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Multidrug resistance protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

References:

  1. Polli JW, Wring SA, Humphreys JE, Huang L, Morgan JB, Webster LO, Serabjit-Singh CS: Rational use of in vitro P-glycoprotein assays in drug discovery. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Nov;299(2):620-8. Pubmed
  2. Boulton DW, DeVane CL, Liston HL, Markowitz JS: In vitro P-glycoprotein affinity for atypical and conventional antipsychotics. Life Sci. 2002 May 31;71(2):163-9. Pubmed

2. Solute carrier family 22 member 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 1 O15245 Details

References:

  1. Bednarczyk D, Ekins S, Wikel JH, Wright SH: Influence of molecular structure on substrate binding to the human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Mar;63(3):489-98. Pubmed

3. Bile salt export pump

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Bile salt export pump O95342 Details

References:

  1. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Fluorescent substrates of sister-P-glycoprotein (BSEP) evaluated as markers of active transport and inhibition: evidence for contingent unequal binding sites. Pharm Res. 2003 Apr;20(4):537-44. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on April 04, 2014 11:41