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Identification
NameRitonavir
Accession NumberDB00503  (APRD00312)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Norvir
Ritonavir
Ritonavirum
External Identifiers
  • Abbott 84538
  • ABT 538
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Norvirsolution80 mg/mLoralAbb Vie Inc.2010-05-06Not applicableUs
Norvircapsule100 mgoralAbbvie Corporation1996-09-162012-11-08Canada
Norvirtablet100 mgoralAbbvie Corporation2010-12-17Not applicableCanada
Norvirsolution80 mgoralAbbvie Corporation1996-09-25Not applicableCanada
Norvirtablet, film coated100 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-07-30Not applicableUs
Norvircapsule100 mg/1oralAbb Vie Inc.2010-05-06Not applicableUs
Norvirtablet, film coated100 mg/1oralAbb Vie Inc.2010-05-06Not applicableUs
Norvir Seccapsule100 mgoralAbbvie Corporation2000-01-072014-11-25Canada
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
BusvirConifarma
EmpetusEmcure
NormuneGrey Inversiones
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Holkira PakAbbvie Corporation
KaletraAbb Vie Inc.
TechnivieAbb Vie Inc.
Viekira PakAbb Vie Inc.
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIO3J8G9O825
CAS number155213-67-5
WeightAverage: 720.944
Monoisotopic: 720.312760056
Chemical FormulaC37H48N6O5S2
InChI KeyInChIKey=NCDNCNXCDXHOMX-XGKFQTDJSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C37H48N6O5S2/c1-24(2)33(42-36(46)43(5)20-29-22-49-35(40-29)25(3)4)34(45)39-28(16-26-12-8-6-9-13-26)18-32(44)31(17-27-14-10-7-11-15-27)41-37(47)48-21-30-19-38-23-50-30/h6-15,19,22-25,28,31-33,44H,16-18,20-21H2,1-5H3,(H,39,45)(H,41,47)(H,42,46)/t28-,31-,32-,33-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
1,3-thiazol-5-ylmethyl N-[(2S,3S,5S)-3-hydroxy-5-[(2S)-3-methyl-2-{[methyl({[2-(propan-2-yl)-1,3-thiazol-4-yl]methyl})carbamoyl]amino}butanamido]-1,6-diphenylhexan-2-yl]carbamate
SMILES
CC(C)[[email protected]](NC(=O)N(C)CC1=CSC(=N1)C(C)C)C(=O)N[[email protected]](C[[email protected]](O)[[email protected]](CC1=CC=CC=C1)NC(=O)OCC1=CN=CS1)CC1=CC=CC=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as n-carbamoyl-alpha amino acids and derivatives. These are compounds containing an alpha amino acid (or a derivative thereof) which bears an carbamoyl group at its terminal nitrogen atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentN-carbamoyl-alpha amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • N-carbamoyl-alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid amide
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • 2,4-disubstituted 1,3-thiazole
  • Fatty acyl
  • Benzenoid
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Fatty amide
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Thiazole
  • Azole
  • Urea
  • Tertiary amine
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationIndicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-infection.
PharmacodynamicsRitonavir is a protease inhibitor with activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1). Protease inhibitors block the part of HIV called protease. HIV-1 protease is an enzyme required for the proteolytic cleavage of the viral polyprotein precursors into the individual functional proteins found in infectious HIV-1. Ritonavir binds to the protease active site and inhibits the activity of the enzyme. This inhibition prevents cleavage of the viral polyproteins resulting in the formation of immature non-infectious viral particles. Protease inhibitors are almost always used in combination with at least two other anti-HIV drugs.
Mechanism of actionRitonavir inhibits the HIV viral proteinase enzyme which prevents cleavage of the gag-pol polyprotein, resulting in noninfectious, immature viral particles.
Related Articles
AbsorptionThe absolute bioavailability of ritonavir has not been determined.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding98-99%
Metabolism

Hepatic. Five metabolites have been identified. The isopropylthiazole oxidation metabolite (M-2) is the major metabolite and has antiviral activity similar to that of ritonavir, however, plasma concentrations are low. The cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP3A and CYP2D6 are primarily involved in the metabolism of ritonavir.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Ritonavir
N-DesmethylritonavirDetails
Ritonavir
Hydroxy RitonavirDetails
Ritonavir
Ritonavir metabolite M1Details
Ritonavir
Ritonavir metabolite M11Details
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life3-5 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityHuman experience of acute overdose with ritonavir is limited. One patient in clinical trials took ritonavir 1500 mg/day for two days. The patient reported paresthesias which resolved after the dose was decreased. A post-marketing case of renal failure with eosinophilia has been reported with ritonavir overdose. The approximate lethal dose was found to be greater than 20 times the related human dose in rats and 10 times the related human dose in mice.
Affected organisms
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.7195
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9717
Caco-2 permeable-0.8957
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8307
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8317
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8753
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9009
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.694
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8918
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5973
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.67
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6229
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8424
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.5399
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.5843
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5946
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7378
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8664
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9633
Rat acute toxicity2.6154 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9774
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8457
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Abbott laboratories pharmaceutical products div
  • Abbott laboratories
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Kit; tabletoral
Capsuleoral
Solutionoral
Tabletoral
Tablet, film coatedoral
Capsuleoral100 mg
Capsuleoral100 mg/1
Solutionoral80 mg
Solutionoral80 mg/mL
Tabletoral100 mg
Tablet, film coatedoral100 mg/1
Kit
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Norvir 100 mg softgel cap10.29USD softgel capsule
Norvir 100 mg tablet10.29USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2135890 No1996-08-272013-12-16Canada
CA2178632 No2006-04-112015-01-03Canada
US5541206 No1993-07-302013-07-30Us
US5914332 Yes1996-06-132016-06-13Us
US6037157 Yes1996-12-262016-12-26Us
US6232333 Yes1998-05-072018-05-07Us
US6284767 Yes1996-08-152016-08-15Us
US6458818 Yes1998-05-072018-05-07Us
US6521651 Yes1998-05-072018-05-07Us
US6703403 Yes1996-12-262016-12-26Us
US6911214 Yes2002-05-282022-05-28Us
US7141593 Yes2000-11-222020-11-22Us
US7148359 Yes2000-01-192020-01-19Us
US7364752 Yes2001-05-102021-05-10Us
US7432294 Yes2000-11-222020-11-22Us
US8025899 Yes2008-06-142028-06-14Us
US8188104 No2009-05-172029-05-17Us
US8268349 Yes2005-02-252025-02-25Us
US8309613 Yes2005-06-242025-06-24Us
US8377952 Yes2008-04-222028-04-22Us
US8399015 Yes2005-02-252025-02-25Us
US8420596 Yes2011-10-102031-10-10Us
US8466159 No2012-09-042032-09-04Us
US8470347 Yes2007-03-172027-03-17Us
US8492386 No2012-09-042032-09-04Us
US8501219 No2001-11-282021-11-28Us
US8501238 No2008-09-172028-09-17Us
US8642538 No2009-09-102029-09-10Us
US8680106 No2012-09-042032-09-04Us
US8685984 No2012-09-042032-09-04Us
US8686026 No2011-06-092031-06-09Us
US8691878 Yes2005-02-252025-02-25Us
US8691938 No2012-04-132032-04-13Us
US9006387 No2010-06-102030-06-10Us
US9044480 No2011-04-102031-04-10Us
US9139536 No2008-11-092028-11-09Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilityPractically insolubleNot Available
logP3.9Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00126 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.24ALOGPS
logP5.22ChemAxon
logS-5.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.68ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.84ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area145.78 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count18ChemAxon
Refractivity194.59 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability77.4 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

DrugSyn.org

US5484801
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesJ05AE03J05AR10J05AX66J05AX67
AHFS Codes
  • 08:18.08.08
PDB Entries
FDA labelDownload (350 KB)
MSDSDownload (57.4 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbacavirThe serum concentration of Abacavir can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
AcetohexamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acetohexamide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Afatinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
AlfentanilThe serum concentration of Alfentanil can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
AlfuzosinThe serum concentration of Alfuzosin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
AlmotriptanThe serum concentration of Almotriptan can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
AlogliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Alogliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
AlosetronThe serum concentration of Alosetron can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
AlprazolamThe serum concentration of Alprazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
AmiodaroneThe serum concentration of Amiodarone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
AmitriptylineThe metabolism of Amitriptyline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
AmodiaquineThe serum concentration of Amodiaquine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
AmoxapineThe metabolism of Amoxapine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
ApixabanThe serum concentration of Apixaban can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aripiprazole is combined with Ritonavir.
AstemizoleThe serum concentration of Astemizole can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Atazanavir.
AtomoxetineThe serum concentration of Atomoxetine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
AtorvastatinThe serum concentration of Atorvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
AtovaquoneThe serum concentration of Atovaquone can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
AvanafilThe serum concentration of Avanafil can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
AxitinibThe serum concentration of Axitinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
BarnidipineThe serum concentration of Barnidipine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
BatimastatThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Batimastat.
BedaquilineThe serum concentration of Bedaquiline can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
BepridilThe metabolism of Bepridil can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Boceprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
BortezomibThe serum concentration of Bortezomib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
BosentanThe serum concentration of Bosentan can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Bosutinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
Brentuximab vedotinThe serum concentration of Brentuximab vedotin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
BrexpiprazoleThe serum concentration of Brexpiprazole can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
BrinzolamideThe serum concentration of Brinzolamide can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
BudesonideThe serum concentration of Budesonide can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
BuprenorphineThe serum concentration of Buprenorphine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
BupropionThe serum concentration of Bupropion can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
CabazitaxelThe serum concentration of Cabazitaxel can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
CabozantinibThe serum concentration of Cabozantinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
CanagliflozinThe therapeutic efficacy of Canagliflozin can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
CaptoprilThe metabolism of Captopril can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Carbamazepine.
CarvedilolThe metabolism of Carvedilol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Ceritinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
ChloroquineThe metabolism of Chloroquine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
ChlorotrianiseneThe serum concentration of Chlorotrianisene can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
ChlorphenamineThe metabolism of Chlorphenamine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
ChlorpromazineThe metabolism of Chlorpromazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
ChlorpropamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorpropamide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
CilostazolThe serum concentration of Cilostazol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
CisaprideThe serum concentration of Cisapride can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
CitalopramRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Citalopram.
ClarithromycinThe therapeutic efficacy of Clarithromycin can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
ClomipramineThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
ClopidogrelThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Clopidogrel.
ClorazepateThe serum concentration of Clorazepate can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
CodeineThe therapeutic efficacy of Codeine can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Colchicine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Conivaptan can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
CrizotinibThe serum concentration of Crizotinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
CyclophosphamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritonavir is combined with Cyclophosphamide.
CyclosporineThe serum concentration of Cyclosporine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Dabigatran etexilate can be increased when Dabigatran etexilate is used in combination with Ritonavir.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DaclatasvirThe serum concentration of Daclatasvir can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
DapoxetineThe serum concentration of Dapoxetine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Darunavir can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
DasabuvirThe serum concentration of Dasabuvir can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Dasatinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Deferasirox can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
DelavirdineThe serum concentration of Delavirdine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
DesipramineThe metabolism of Desipramine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
DextromethorphanThe metabolism of Dextromethorphan can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
DiazepamThe serum concentration of Diazepam can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
DienogestThe serum concentration of Dienogest can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Digoxin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
DisulfiramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritonavir is combined with Disulfiram.
DofetilideRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dofetilide.
DomperidoneThe serum concentration of Domperidone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
DoxepinThe metabolism of Doxepin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
DronabinolThe serum concentration of Dronabinol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
DronedaroneThe serum concentration of Dronedarone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
DrospirenoneThe serum concentration of Drospirenone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
DuloxetineThe serum concentration of Duloxetine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
DutasterideThe serum concentration of Dutasteride can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
EdoxabanThe serum concentration of Edoxaban can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
EfavirenzThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Efavirenz is combined with Ritonavir.
EletriptanThe serum concentration of Eletriptan can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
EliglustatThe serum concentration of Eliglustat can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
EluxadolineThe serum concentration of Eluxadoline can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
EnfuvirtideThe serum concentration of Enfuvirtide can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Enzalutamide can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
EplerenoneThe serum concentration of Eplerenone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
ErlotinibThe serum concentration of Erlotinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
EstazolamThe serum concentration of Estazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
EtizolamThe serum concentration of Etizolam can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Etravirine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
EverolimusThe serum concentration of Everolimus can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
FentanylThe serum concentration of Fentanyl can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
FesoterodineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Fesoterodine can be increased when Fesoterodine is used in combination with Ritonavir.
FlecainideThe serum concentration of Flecainide can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
FlibanserinThe serum concentration of Flibanserin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
FludrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Fludrocortisone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
FlunisolideThe serum concentration of Flunisolide can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Fluoxetine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
FluphenazineThe metabolism of Fluphenazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
FlurazepamThe serum concentration of Flurazepam can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
Fluticasone furoateThe serum concentration of Fluticasone furoate can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
Fluticasone PropionateThe serum concentration of Fluticasone Propionate can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
FluvastatinThe serum concentration of Fluvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Fluvoxamine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Fosphenytoin.
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Fusidic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
GarlicThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Garlic.
GefitinibThe metabolism of Gefitinib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
GemfibrozilThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Gemfibrozil.
GliclazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Gliclazide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
GlimepirideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glimepiride can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
GliquidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Gliquidone can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
GlyburideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glyburide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
GoserelinRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Goserelin.
GuanfacineThe serum concentration of Guanfacine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
HalofantrineThe serum concentration of Halofantrine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
HaloperidolThe metabolism of Haloperidol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
HydrocodoneThe serum concentration of Hydrocodone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
IbrutinibThe serum concentration of Ibrutinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Idelalisib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
IfosfamideThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Ifosfamide can be reduced when Ifosfamide is used in combination with Ritonavir resulting in a loss in efficacy.
IloperidoneThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Iloperidone can be increased when Iloperidone is used in combination with Ritonavir.
ImatinibThe serum concentration of Imatinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
ImidafenacinThe serum concentration of Imidafenacin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
ImipramineThe metabolism of Imipramine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
Insulin AspartThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
Insulin DetemirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
Insulin GlargineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glargine can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
Insulin GlulisineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
Insulin HumanThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
Insulin LisproThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Lispro can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
IrinotecanThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Irinotecan can be increased when Irinotecan is used in combination with Ritonavir.
IsavuconazoniumThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Isavuconazonium can be increased when Isavuconazonium is used in combination with Ritonavir.
IsoflurophateThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Isoflurophate.
ItraconazoleThe serum concentration of Itraconazole can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
IvabradineThe serum concentration of Ivabradine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Ivacaftor can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
IxabepiloneThe serum concentration of Ixabepilone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
KetoconazoleThe serum concentration of Ketoconazole can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
LacosamideThe serum concentration of Lacosamide can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
LamotrigineThe serum concentration of Lamotrigine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
LapatinibThe serum concentration of Lapatinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
LedipasvirThe serum concentration of Ledipasvir can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
LercanidipineThe serum concentration of Lercanidipine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
LeuprolideRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Leuprolide.
LevobupivacaineThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
LevomilnacipranThe serum concentration of Levomilnacipran can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
LinagliptinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
LomitapideThe serum concentration of Lomitapide can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
LopinavirThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Lopinavir.
LovastatinThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
LurasidoneThe serum concentration of Lurasidone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
MacitentanThe serum concentration of MACITENTAN can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
MaprotilineThe metabolism of Maprotiline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
MaravirocThe serum concentration of Maraviroc can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
Medroxyprogesterone acetateThe serum concentration of Medroxyprogesterone Acetate can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
MequitazineThe serum concentration of Mequitazine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
MetforminThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
MethadoneThe serum concentration of Methadone can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
MethamphetamineThe metabolism of Methamphetamine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
MethylprednisoloneThe serum concentration of Methylprednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Metoprolol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
MetronidazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritonavir is combined with Metronidazole.
MexiletineThe metabolism of Mexiletine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
MidazolamThe serum concentration of Midazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Mifepristone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
MirtazapineThe metabolism of Mirtazapine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.
NaloxegolThe serum concentration of Naloxegol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
NebivololThe serum concentration of Nebivolol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
NefazodoneThe serum concentration of Nefazodone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
NilotinibThe serum concentration of Nilotinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
NimodipineThe serum concentration of Nimodipine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
NintedanibThe serum concentration of Nintedanib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
NisoldipineThe serum concentration of Nisoldipine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
NorethisteroneThe serum concentration of Norethindrone can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
NortriptylineThe metabolism of Nortriptyline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
OctreotideOctreotide may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ritonavir.
OlanzapineThe serum concentration of Olanzapine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
OlaparibThe serum concentration of Olaparib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
OspemifeneThe serum concentration of Ospemifene can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
OxybutyninThe serum concentration of Oxybutynin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritonavir is combined with Oxycodone.
PaclitaxelThe metabolism of Paclitaxel can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Palbociclib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
PanobinostatThe serum concentration of Panobinostat can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
PantoprazoleThe metabolism of Pantoprazole can be increased when combined with Ritonavir.
ParecoxibThe serum concentration of Parecoxib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
ParicalcitolThe serum concentration of Paricalcitol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Paroxetine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
PazopanibThe serum concentration of Pazopanib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
PerphenazineThe metabolism of Perphenazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritonavir is combined with Pethidine.
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
PimecrolimusThe metabolism of Pimecrolimus can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
PimozideThe serum concentration of Pimozide can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
PioglitazoneThe serum concentration of Pioglitazone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
PipotiazineThe metabolism of Pipotiazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
PitavastatinThe serum concentration of Pitavastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
PonatinibThe serum concentration of Ponatinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
PosaconazoleThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Posaconazole.
PranlukastThe serum concentration of Pranlukast can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
PrasugrelThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Prasugrel can be reduced when Prasugrel is used in combination with Ritonavir resulting in a loss in efficacy.
PrednisoloneThe serum concentration of Prednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
PrednisoneThe serum concentration of Prednisone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
PrimaquineThe metabolism of Primaquine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
PrimidoneThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Primidone.
ProcainamideThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
ProguanilThe serum concentration of Proguanil can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
PromazineThe metabolism of Promazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
PromethazineThe metabolism of Promethazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Propafenone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
PropranololThe metabolism of Propranolol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
ProtriptylineThe metabolism of Protriptyline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
PrucaloprideThe serum concentration of Prucalopride can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
QuetiapineThe serum concentration of Quetiapine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
QuinidineThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
QuinineThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
RamelteonThe serum concentration of Ramelteon can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Ranolazine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
RegorafenibThe serum concentration of Regorafenib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
RepaglinideThe therapeutic efficacy of Repaglinide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
RetapamulinThe serum concentration of Retapamulin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
RifabutinThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Rifabutin can be increased when Rifabutin is used in combination with Ritonavir.
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Rifampicin.
RifapentineThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Rifapentine.
RifaximinThe serum concentration of Rifaximin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
RilpivirineThe serum concentration of Rilpivirine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
RiociguatThe serum concentration of Riociguat can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
RisperidoneThe metabolism of Risperidone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
RivaroxabanThe serum concentration of Rivaroxaban can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
RomidepsinThe serum concentration of Romidepsin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
RosiglitazoneThe metabolism of Rosiglitazone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
RosuvastatinThe serum concentration of Rosuvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
RuxolitinibThe serum concentration of Ruxolitinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
SalmeterolThe serum concentration of Salmeterol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
SaquinavirThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
SaxagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Saxagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
SecobarbitalThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
SildenafilThe serum concentration of Sildenafil can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
SilodosinThe serum concentration of Silodosin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Simeprevir can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
SimvastatinThe serum concentration of Simvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
SirolimusThe serum concentration of Sirolimus can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
SonidegibThe serum concentration of Sonidegib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
SorafenibThe serum concentration of Sorafenib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
St. John's WortThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be increased when combined with St. John's Wort.
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.
SuvorexantThe serum concentration of Suvorexant can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
TacrolimusThe metabolism of Tacrolimus can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
TadalafilThe serum concentration of Tadalafil can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
TamoxifenThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Tamoxifen can be reduced when Tamoxifen is used in combination with Ritonavir resulting in a loss in efficacy.
TamsulosinThe serum concentration of Tamsulosin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
TasimelteonThe serum concentration of Tasimelteon can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Telaprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
TemsirolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritonavir is combined with Temsirolimus.
TerfenadineThe serum concentration of Terfenadine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
TetrabenazineThe serum concentration of Tetrabenazine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
ThioridazineThe serum concentration of Thioridazine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
TicagrelorThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Ticagrelor can be reduced when Ticagrelor is used in combination with Ritonavir resulting in a loss in efficacy.
TimololThe metabolism of Timolol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.
TofacitinibThe serum concentration of Tofacitinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
TolbutamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolbutamide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
TolterodineThe serum concentration of Tolterodine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
TolvaptanThe serum concentration of Tolvaptan can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
TopotecanThe serum concentration of Topotecan can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
TorasemideThe metabolism of Torasemide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
ToremifeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritonavir is combined with Toremifene.
TrabectedinThe serum concentration of Trabectedin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
TramadolThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
Trastuzumab emtansineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of ado-trastuzumab emtansine can be increased when ado-trastuzumab emtansine is used in combination with Ritonavir.
TrazodoneThe serum concentration of Trazodone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
TreprostinilThe serum concentration of Treprostinil can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
TretinoinThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
TriamcinoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritonavir is combined with Triamcinolone.
TriazolamThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
TrimipramineThe metabolism of Trimipramine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
UlipristalThe serum concentration of Ulipristal can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
Valproic AcidThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
VardenafilThe serum concentration of Vardenafil can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Vemurafenib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Venlafaxine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
VerapamilThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.
VilazodoneThe serum concentration of Vilazodone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
VildagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Vildagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
VinblastineThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
VincristineThe serum concentration of Vincristine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
VindesineThe serum concentration of Vindesine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
VorapaxarThe serum concentration of Vorapaxar can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
VoriconazoleThe serum concentration of Voriconazole can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
VortioxetineThe serum concentration of Vortioxetine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
WarfarinThe serum concentration of Warfarin can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
ZidovudineThe serum concentration of Zidovudine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
ZopicloneThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
ZuclopenthixolThe serum concentration of Zuclopenthixol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid St.John's Wort.
  • Take with food.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human immunodeficiency virus 1
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Aspartic-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
pol
Uniprot ID:
Q72874
Molecular Weight:
10778.7 Da
References
  1. Garriga C, Perez-Elias MJ, Delgado R, Ruiz L, Najera R, Pumarola T, Alonso-Socas Mdel M, Garcia-Bujalance S, Menendez-Arias L: Mutational patterns and correlated amino acid substitutions in the HIV-1 protease after virological failure to nelfinavir- and lopinavir/ritonavir-based treatments. J Med Virol. 2007 Nov;79(11):1617-28. [PubMed:17854027 ]
  2. Das A, Rao DR, Hosur MV: X-ray structure of HIV-1 protease tethered dimer complexed to ritonavir. Protein Pept Lett. 2007;14(6):565-8. [PubMed:17627597 ]
  3. Wittayanarakul K, Hannongbua S, Feig M: Accurate prediction of protonation state as a prerequisite for reliable MM-PB(GB)SA binding free energy calculations of HIV-1 protease inhibitors. J Comput Chem. 2008 Apr 15;29(5):673-85. [PubMed:17849388 ]
  4. Markowitz M, Saag M, Powderly WG, Hurley AM, Hsu A, Valdes JM, Henry D, Sattler F, La Marca A, Leonard JM, et al.: A preliminary study of ritonavir, an inhibitor of HIV-1 protease, to treat HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med. 1995 Dec 7;333(23):1534-9. [PubMed:7477168 ]
  5. Hoetelmans RM, Meenhorst PL, Mulder JW, Burger DM, Koks CH, Beijnen JH: Clinical pharmacology of HIV protease inhibitors: focus on saquinavir, indinavir, and ritonavir. Pharm World Sci. 1997 Aug;19(4):159-75. [PubMed:9297727 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitorinducer
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitorinducer
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitorinducer
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitorinducer
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Tanabe M, Hashimoto M, Ono H: Imidazoline I(1) receptor-mediated reduction of muscle rigidity in the reserpine-treated murine model of Parkinson's disease. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 Jul 28;589(1-3):102-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.06.013. Epub 2008 Jun 7. [PubMed:18602099 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitorinducer
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Walsky RL, Gaman EA, Obach RS: Examination of 209 drugs for inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C8. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;45(1):68-78. [PubMed:15601807 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular Weight:
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular Weight:
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinducer
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular Weight:
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitorinducer
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Perloff MD, Von Moltke LL, Marchand JE, Greenblatt DJ: Ritonavir induces P-glycoprotein expression, multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) expression, and drug transporter-mediated activity in a human intestinal cell line. J Pharm Sci. 2001 Nov;90(11):1829-37. [PubMed:11745741 ]
  2. Choo EF, Leake B, Wandel C, Imamura H, Wood AJ, Wilkinson GR, Kim RB: Pharmacological inhibition of P-glycoprotein transport enhances the distribution of HIV-1 protease inhibitors into brain and testes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Jun;28(6):655-60. [PubMed:10820137 ]
  3. Kumar S, Kwei GY, Poon GK, Iliff SA, Wang Y, Chen Q, Franklin RB, Didolkar V, Wang RW, Yamazaki M, Chiu SH, Lin JH, Pearson PG, Baillie TA: Pharmacokinetics and interactions of a novel antagonist of chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) with ritonavir in rats and monkeys: role of CYP3A and P-glycoprotein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Mar;304(3):1161-71. [PubMed:12604693 ]
  4. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. [PubMed:12699389 ]
  5. Yamazaki M, Neway WE, Ohe T, Chen I, Rowe JF, Hochman JH, Chiba M, Lin JH: In vitro substrate identification studies for p-glycoprotein-mediated transport: species difference and predictability of in vivo results. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Mar;296(3):723-35. [PubMed:11181899 ]
  6. Huisman MT, Smit JW, Wiltshire HR, Hoetelmans RM, Beijnen JH, Schinkel AH: P-glycoprotein limits oral availability, brain, and fetal penetration of saquinavir even with high doses of ritonavir. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Apr;59(4):806-13. [PubMed:11259625 ]
  7. Troutman MD, Thakker DR: Novel experimental parameters to quantify the modulation of absorptive and secretory transport of compounds by P-glycoprotein in cell culture models of intestinal epithelium. Pharm Res. 2003 Aug;20(8):1210-24. [PubMed:12948019 ]
  8. Adachi Y, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Comparative studies on in vitro methods for evaluating in vivo function of MDR1 P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res. 2001 Dec;18(12):1660-8. [PubMed:11785684 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitorinducer
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotrexate, antiviral drugs and other xenobiotics. Confers resistance to anticancer drugs. Hydrolyzes ATP with low efficiency.
Gene Name:
ABCC1
Uniprot ID:
P33527
Molecular Weight:
171589.5 Da
References
  1. Perloff MD, Von Moltke LL, Marchand JE, Greenblatt DJ: Ritonavir induces P-glycoprotein expression, multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) expression, and drug transporter-mediated activity in a human intestinal cell line. J Pharm Sci. 2001 Nov;90(11):1829-37. [PubMed:11745741 ]
  2. Olson DP, Scadden DT, D'Aquila RT, De Pasquale MP: The protease inhibitor ritonavir inhibits the functional activity of the multidrug resistance related-protein 1 (MRP-1). AIDS. 2002 Sep 6;16(13):1743-7. [PubMed:12218384 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinducer
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name:
ABCC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92887
Molecular Weight:
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Dussault I, Lin M, Hollister K, Wang EH, Synold TW, Forman BM: Peptide mimetic HIV protease inhibitors are ligands for the orphan receptor SXR. J Biol Chem. 2001 Sep 7;276(36):33309-12. Epub 2001 Jul 20. [PubMed:11466304 ]
  2. Huisman MT, Smit JW, Crommentuyn KM, Zelcer N, Wiltshire HR, Beijnen JH, Schinkel AH: Multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) transports HIV protease inhibitors, and transport can be enhanced by other drugs. AIDS. 2002 Nov 22;16(17):2295-301. [PubMed:12441801 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibited by the grapefruit juice component naringin.
Gene Name:
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID:
P46721
Molecular Weight:
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Cvetkovic M, Leake B, Fromm MF, Wilkinson GR, Kim RB: OATP and P-glycoprotein transporters mediate the cellular uptake and excretion of fexofenadine. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Aug;27(8):866-71. [PubMed:10421612 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both from mitochondria to cytosol and from cytosol to extracellular space, and cellular export of hemin, and heme. Xenobiotic transporter that may play an important role in the exclusion of xenobiotics from t...
Gene Name:
ABCG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNQ0
Molecular Weight:
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Gupta A, Zhang Y, Unadkat JD, Mao Q: HIV protease inhibitors are inhibitors but not substrates of the human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Jul;310(1):334-41. Epub 2004 Mar 8. [PubMed:15007102 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2, leukotriene C3, leukotriene E4, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Involved in the clearance of bile acids and organic anions from the liver.
Gene Name:
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6L6
Molecular Weight:
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Tirona RG, Leake BF, Wolkoff AW, Kim RB: Human organic anion transporting polypeptide-C (SLC21A6) is a major determinant of rifampin-mediated pregnane X receptor activation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Jan;304(1):223-8. [PubMed:12490595 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on June 30, 2016 03:05