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Identification
NameButorphanol
Accession NumberDB00611  (APRD00835)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Illicit, Vet Approved
Description

A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(-)-17-(Cyclobutylmethyl)morphinan-3,14-diol
(-)-Butorphanol
(-)-N-Cyclobutylmethyl-3,14-dihydroxymorphinan
Butorfanol
Butorphanol
Butorphanolum
External Identifiers
  • BC-2627
  • levo-BC 2627
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Butorphanol Nasal Sprayliquid10 mgnasalAa Pharma Inc2000-08-01Not applicableCanada
PMS-butorphanolspray10 mgnasalPharmascience Inc2002-06-07Not applicableCanada
Stadol NS - 10mg/ml Aem-liqmetered-dose aerosol; liquid10 mgnasalBristol Myers Squibb Canada1994-12-312004-08-04Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Butorphanol Tartratespray, metered10 mg/mLnasalRoxane Laboratories, Inc2002-03-12Not applicableUs
Butorphanol Tartrateinjection, solution2 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2013-08-14Not applicableUs
Butorphanol Tartrateinjection, solution2 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousHospira, Inc.1997-01-23Not applicableUs
Butorphanol Tartrateinjection, solution1 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousHospira, Inc.1997-01-23Not applicableUs
Butorphanol Tartratesolution10 mg/mLnasalApotex Corp.2002-12-04Not applicableUs
Butorphanol Tartratespray10 mg/mLnasalMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-01-21Not applicableUs
Butorphanol Tartrateinjection1 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousCardinal Health1998-10-15Not applicableUs
Butorphanol Tartrateinjection, solution2 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousWest ward Pharmaceutical Corp2009-05-01Not applicableUs
Butorphanol Tartrateinjection2 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousCardinal Health1998-10-15Not applicableUs
Butorphanol Tartrateinjection, solution1 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousWest ward Pharmaceutical Corp2009-05-01Not applicableUs
Butorphanol Tartratespray, metered10 mg/mLnasalA S Medication Solutions Llc2002-03-12Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
ButaroLotus Pharmaceuticals
ButrumAristo
StadolBristol-Myers Squibb
Stadol NSCephalon
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Butorphanol Tartrate
58786-99-5
Thumb
  • InChI Key: GMTYREVWZXJPLF-AFHUBHILSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 477.236267101
  • Average Mass: 477.5473
DBSALT000276
Categories
UNIIQV897JC36D
CAS number42408-82-2
WeightAverage: 327.4605
Monoisotopic: 327.219829177
Chemical FormulaC21H29NO2
InChI KeyInChIKey=IFKLAQQSCNILHL-QHAWAJNXSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C21H29NO2/c23-17-7-6-16-12-19-21(24)9-2-1-8-20(21,18(16)13-17)10-11-22(19)14-15-4-3-5-15/h6-7,13,15,19,23-24H,1-5,8-12,14H2/t19-,20+,21-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,9R,10S)-17-(cyclobutylmethyl)-17-azatetracyclo[7.5.3.0¹,¹⁰.0²,⁷]heptadeca-2(7),3,5-triene-4,10-diol
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC3=C(C=C(O)C=C3)[C@]3(CCCC[C@@]13O)CCN2CC1CCC1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as morphinans. These are polycyclic compounds with a four-ring skeleton with three condensed six-member rings forming a partially hydrogenated phenanthrene moiety, one of which is aromatic while the two others are alicyclic.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassMorphinans
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentMorphinans
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Morphinan
  • Benzylisoquinoline
  • Phenanthrene
  • Benzazocine
  • Tetralin
  • Aralkylamine
  • Benzenoid
  • Piperidine
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the relief of moderate to severe pain.
PharmacodynamicsButorphanol is a synthetic opioid agonist-antagonist analgesic with a pharmacological and therapeutic profile that has been well established since its launch as a parenteral formulation in 1978. The introduction of a transnasal formulation of butorphanol represents a new and noninvasive presentation of an analgesic for moderate to severe pain. This route of administration bypasses the gastrointestinal tract, and this is an advantage for a drug such as butorphanol that undergoes significant first-pass metabolism after oral administration. The onset of action and systemic bioavailability of butorphanol following transnasal delivery are similar to those after parenteral administration. Butorphanol blocks pain impulses at specific sites in the brain and spinal cord.
Mechanism of actionThe exact mechanism of action is unknown, but is believed to interact with an opiate receptor site in the CNS (probably in or associated with the limbic system). The opiate antagonistic effect may result from competitive inhibition at the opiate receptor, but may also be a result of other mechanisms. Butorphanol is a mixed agonist-antagonist that exerts antagonistic or partially antagonistic effects at mu opiate receptor sites, but is thought to exert its agonistic effects principally at the kappa and sigma opiate receptors.
Related Articles
AbsorptionRapidly absorbed after intramuscular injection and peak plasma levels are reached in 20-40 minutes. The absolute bioavailability is 60-70% and is unchanged in patients with allergic rhinitis. In patients using a nasal vasoconstrictor (oxymetazoline) the fraction of the dose absorbed was unchanged, but the rate of absorption was slowed. Oral bioavailability is only 5-17% because of extensive first-pass metabolism.
Volume of distribution
  • 305 to 901 L
Protein bindingSerum protein binding is approximately 80%.
Metabolism

Extensively metabolized in the liver. The pharmacological activity of butorphanol metabolites has not been studied in humans; in animal studies, butorphanol metabolites have demonstrated some analgesic activity.

Route of eliminationButorphanol is extensively metabolized in the liver. Elimination occurs by urine and fecal excretion.
Half lifeThe elimination half-life of butorphanol is about 18 hours. In renally impaired patients with creatinine clearances <30 mL/min the elimination half-life is approximately doubled. After intravenous administration to patients with hepatic impairment, the elimination half-life of butorphanol was approximately tripled.
Clearance
  • 99 +/- 23 L/h [Young with IV 2 mg]
  • 82 +/- 21 [Eldery with IV 2 mg]
ToxicityThe clinical manifestations of butorphanol overdose are those of opioid drugs in general. The most serious symptoms are hypoventilation, cardiovascular insufficiency, coma, and death.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9798
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9463
Caco-2 permeable+0.6844
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8494
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.5
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.5667
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.6508
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8248
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.509
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5842
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.6532
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9094
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.6572
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8456
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8744
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9017
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7587
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9573
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9368
Rat acute toxicity2.6466 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.5378
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.5983
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
  • Claris lifesciences ltd
  • Hikma farmaceutica (portugal) sa
  • Hikma farmaceutica sa
  • Hospira inc
  • Apothecon inc div bristol myers squibb
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Novex pharma
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Bristol myers squibb co pharmaceutical research institute
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Liquidnasal10 mg
Injectionintramuscular; intravenous1 mg/mL
Injectionintramuscular; intravenous2 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular; intravenous1 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular; intravenous2 mg/mL
Solutionnasal10 mg/mL
Spraynasal10 mg/mL
Spray, meterednasal10 mg/mL
Spraynasal10 mg
Metered-dose aerosol; liquidnasal10 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Butorphanol Tartrate 10 mg/ml Solution 2.5ml Bottle56.99USD bottle
Butorphanol 10 mg/ml spray39.63USD ml
Stadol 2 mg/ml vial10.11USD ml
Butorphanol 2 mg/ml vial7.2USD ml
Butorphanol 1 mg/ml vial3.6USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point272-274Monkovic, I. and Conway, T.T.; U.S. Patent 3,775,414; November 27,1973; Monkovic, I.,Wong, H. and Lim, G.; U.S. Patent 3,980,641; September 14, 1976; Pachter, IJ., Belleau, B.R. and Monkovic, I.; U.S. Patent 3,819,635; June 25,1974; and Lim, G. and Hooper, J.W.; U.S. Patent 4,017,497; April 12,1977; all assigned to Bristol-Myers Company.
water solubilityModerateNot Available
logP3.3Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.16 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.65ALOGPS
logP2.89ChemAxon
logS-3.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.86ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area43.7 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity95.92 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability37.94 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Monkovic, I. and Conway, T.T.; U.S. Patent 3,775,414; November 27,1973; Monkovic, I.,Wong, H. and Lim, G.; U.S. Patent 3,980,641; September 14, 1976; Pachter, IJ., Belleau, B.R. and Monkovic, I.; U.S. Patent 3,819,635; June 25,1974; and Lim, G. and Hooper, J.W.; U.S. Patent 4,017,497; April 12,1977; all assigned to Bristol-Myers Company.

General References
  1. Gear RW, Miaskowski C, Gordon NC, Paul SM, Heller PH, Levine JD: The kappa opioid nalbuphine produces gender- and dose-dependent analgesia and antianalgesia in patients with postoperative pain. Pain. 1999 Nov;83(2):339-45. [PubMed:10534607 ]
  2. Fan LW, Tanaka S, Tien LT, Ma T, Rockhold RW, Ho IK: Withdrawal from dependence upon butorphanol uniquely increases kappa(1)-opioid receptor binding in the rat brain. Brain Res Bull. 2002 Jun;58(2):149-60. [PubMed:12127012 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN02AF01
AHFS Codes
  • 28:08.12
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (320 KB)
MSDSDownload (60.6 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcepromazineAcepromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Butorphanol.
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Acetazolamide.
Acetylsalicylic acidButorphanol may decrease the analgesic activities of Acetylsalicylic acid.
AlfentanilButorphanol may decrease the analgesic activities of Alfentanil.
AlvimopanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Alvimopan.
AmilorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Amiloride.
Ammonium chlorideAmmonium chloride may increase the excretion rate of Butorphanol which could result in a higher serum level.
AmphetamineAmphetamine may increase the analgesic activities of Butorphanol.
AzelastineButorphanol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Butorphanol.
BendroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Bendroflumethiazide.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Butorphanol.
BumetanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Bumetanide.
BuprenorphineButorphanol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.
CaffeineButorphanol may decrease the analgesic activities of Caffeine.
CathinoneCathinone may increase the analgesic activities of Butorphanol.
ChlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Chlorothiazide.
ChlorphenamineButorphanol may decrease the analgesic activities of Chlorphenamine.
ChlorthalidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Chlorthalidone.
CodeineButorphanol may decrease the analgesic activities of Codeine.
CyclothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Cyclothiazide.
DesmopressinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Desmopressin.
DihydrocodeineButorphanol may decrease the analgesic activities of Dihydrocodeine.
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Butorphanol.
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Butorphanol.
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Butorphanol.
EluxadolineButorphanol may increase the activities of Eluxadoline.
Etacrynic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Ethacrynic acid.
EthanolButorphanol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
EthoxzolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Ethoxzolamide.
FentanylButorphanol may decrease the analgesic activities of Fentanyl.
FurosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Furosemide.
HydrochlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Hydrochlorothiazide.
HydrocodoneButorphanol may decrease the analgesic activities of Hydrocodone.
HydroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Hydroflumethiazide.
HydromorphoneButorphanol may decrease the analgesic activities of Hydromorphone.
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Butorphanol.
IndapamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Indapamide.
LevorphanolButorphanol may decrease the analgesic activities of Levorphanol.
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Butorphanol.
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Butorphanol.
MethadoneButorphanol may decrease the analgesic activities of Methadone.
MethotrimeprazineButorphanol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.
MetolazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Metolazone.
MetyrosineButorphanol may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Butorphanol.
MirtazapineButorphanol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.
MorphineButorphanol may decrease the analgesic activities of Morphine.
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Butorphanol.
NaltrexoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Butorphanol can be decreased when used in combination with Naltrexone.
OrphenadrineButorphanol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.
OxycodoneButorphanol may decrease the analgesic activities of Oxycodone.
OxymorphoneButorphanol may decrease the analgesic activities of Oxymorphone.
ParaldehydeButorphanol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.
ParoxetineButorphanol may increase the serotonergic activities of Paroxetine.
PegvisomantThe therapeutic efficacy of Pegvisomant can be decreased when used in combination with Butorphanol.
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Butorphanol.
PethidineButorphanol may decrease the analgesic activities of Pethidine.
PramipexoleButorphanol may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.
ProcyclidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procyclidine is combined with Butorphanol.
RamosetronButorphanol may increase the activities of Ramosetron.
RemifentanilButorphanol may decrease the analgesic activities of Remifentanil.
RopiniroleButorphanol may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.
RotigotineButorphanol may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Butorphanol.
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Butorphanol.
SpironolactoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Spironolactone.
SuccinylcholineSuccinylcholine may increase the bradycardic activities of Butorphanol.
SufentanilButorphanol may decrease the analgesic activities of Sufentanil.
SuvorexantButorphanol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.
TapentadolButorphanol may decrease the analgesic activities of Tapentadol.
ThalidomideButorphanol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.
TicrynafenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Ticrynafen.
TorasemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Torasemide.
TramadolButorphanol may decrease the analgesic activities of Tramadol.
TriamtereneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Triamterene.
TrichlormethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Trichlormethiazide.
ZolpidemButorphanol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled opioid receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous alpha-neoendorphins and dynorphins, but has low affinity for beta-endorphins. Also functions as receptor for various synthetic opioids and for the psychoactive diterpene salvinorin A. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates th...
Gene Name:
OPRK1
Uniprot ID:
P41145
Molecular Weight:
42644.665 Da
References
  1. Vivian JA, DeYoung MB, Sumpter TL, Traynor JR, Lewis JW, Woods JH: kappa-Opioid receptor effects of butorphanol in rhesus monkeys. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Jul;290(1):259-65. [PubMed:10381785 ]
  2. Park Y, Jang CG, Ho IK, Ko KH: kappa-opioid agonist stimulated regional distribution of [(35)S]GTPgammas binding in butorphanol continuously infused rat. Brain Res Bull. 2000 May 1;52(1):17-20. [PubMed:10779697 ]
  3. Fan LW, Tanaka S, Tien LT, Ma T, Rockhold RW, Ho IK: Withdrawal from dependence upon butorphanol uniquely increases kappa(1)-opioid receptor binding in the rat brain. Brain Res Bull. 2002 Jun;58(2):149-60. [PubMed:12127012 ]
  4. Fan LW, Tanaka S, Park Y, Sasaki K, Ma T, Tien LT, Rockhold RW, Ho IK: Butorphanol dependence and withdrawal decrease hippocampal kappa 2-opioid receptor binding. Brain Res. 2002 Dec 27;958(2):277-90. [PubMed:12470863 ]
  5. Commiskey S, Fan LW, Ho IK, Rockhold RW: Butorphanol: effects of a prototypical agonist-antagonist analgesic on kappa-opioid receptors. J Pharmacol Sci. 2005 Jun;98(2):109-16. Epub 2005 Jun 8. [PubMed:15942128 ]
  6. Picker MJ, Benyas S, Horwitz JA, Thompson K, Mathewson C, Smith MA: Discriminative stimulus effects of butorphanol: influence of training dose on the substitution patterns produced by Mu, Kappa and Delta opioid agonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Dec;279(3):1130-41. [PubMed:8968334 ]
  7. Wakabayashi H, Tokuyama S, Ho IK: Simultaneous measurement of biogenic amines and their metabolites in rat brain regions after acute administration of and abrupt withdrawal from butorphanol or morphine. Neurochem Res. 1995 Oct;20(10):1179-85. [PubMed:8746803 ]
  8. Narita M, Feng Y, Makimura M, Hoskins B, Ho IK: Repeated administration of opioids alters characteristics of membrane-bound phorbol ester binding in rat brain. Eur J Pharmacol. 1994 Dec 27;271(2-3):547-50. [PubMed:7705457 ]
  9. Ohta S, Niwa M, Nozaki M, Tsurumi K, Shimonaka H, Tanahashi T, Uematsu H, Yamamoto M, Fujimura H: [Kappa-type opioid receptor in human placental membrane]. Masui. 1989 Oct;38(10):1293-300. [PubMed:2555580 ]
  10. Walsh SL, Chausmer AE, Strain EC, Bigelow GE: Evaluation of the mu and kappa opioid actions of butorphanol in humans through differential naltrexone blockade. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008 Jan;196(1):143-55. Epub 2007 Oct 2. [PubMed:17909753 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous enkephalins and for a subset of other opioids. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling leads to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. Inhibits neurot...
Gene Name:
OPRD1
Uniprot ID:
P41143
Molecular Weight:
40368.235 Da
References
  1. Fan LW, Tanaka S, Tien LT, Ma T, Rockhold RW, Ho IK: Withdrawal from dependence upon butorphanol uniquely increases kappa(1)-opioid receptor binding in the rat brain. Brain Res Bull. 2002 Jun;58(2):149-60. [PubMed:12127012 ]
  2. Fan LW, Tanaka S, Park Y, Sasaki K, Ma T, Tien LT, Rockhold RW, Ho IK: Butorphanol dependence and withdrawal decrease hippocampal kappa 2-opioid receptor binding. Brain Res. 2002 Dec 27;958(2):277-90. [PubMed:12470863 ]
  3. Commiskey S, Fan LW, Ho IK, Rockhold RW: Butorphanol: effects of a prototypical agonist-antagonist analgesic on kappa-opioid receptors. J Pharmacol Sci. 2005 Jun;98(2):109-16. Epub 2005 Jun 8. [PubMed:15942128 ]
  4. Picker MJ, Benyas S, Horwitz JA, Thompson K, Mathewson C, Smith MA: Discriminative stimulus effects of butorphanol: influence of training dose on the substitution patterns produced by Mu, Kappa and Delta opioid agonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Dec;279(3):1130-41. [PubMed:8968334 ]
  5. Wakabayashi H, Tokuyama S, Ho IK: Simultaneous measurement of biogenic amines and their metabolites in rat brain regions after acute administration of and abrupt withdrawal from butorphanol or morphine. Neurochem Res. 1995 Oct;20(10):1179-85. [PubMed:8746803 ]
  6. Narita M, Feng Y, Makimura M, Hoskins B, Ho IK: Repeated administration of opioids alters characteristics of membrane-bound phorbol ester binding in rat brain. Eur J Pharmacol. 1994 Dec 27;271(2-3):547-50. [PubMed:7705457 ]
  7. Walsh SL, Chausmer AE, Strain EC, Bigelow GE: Evaluation of the mu and kappa opioid actions of butorphanol in humans through differential naltrexone blockade. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008 Jan;196(1):143-55. Epub 2007 Oct 2. [PubMed:17909753 ]
  8. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
partial antagonist
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for endogenous opioids such as beta-endorphin and endomorphin. Receptor for natural and synthetic opioids including morphine, heroin, DAMGO, fentanyl, etorphine, buprenorphin and methadone. Agonist binding to the receptor induces coupling to an inactive GDP-bound heterotrimeric G-protein complex and subsequent exchange of GDP for GTP in the G-protein alpha subunit leading to dissociati...
Gene Name:
OPRM1
Uniprot ID:
P35372
Molecular Weight:
44778.855 Da
References
  1. Vivian JA, DeYoung MB, Sumpter TL, Traynor JR, Lewis JW, Woods JH: kappa-Opioid receptor effects of butorphanol in rhesus monkeys. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Jul;290(1):259-65. [PubMed:10381785 ]
  2. Fan LW, Tanaka S, Tien LT, Ma T, Rockhold RW, Ho IK: Withdrawal from dependence upon butorphanol uniquely increases kappa(1)-opioid receptor binding in the rat brain. Brain Res Bull. 2002 Jun;58(2):149-60. [PubMed:12127012 ]
  3. Fan LW, Tanaka S, Park Y, Sasaki K, Ma T, Tien LT, Rockhold RW, Ho IK: Butorphanol dependence and withdrawal decrease hippocampal kappa 2-opioid receptor binding. Brain Res. 2002 Dec 27;958(2):277-90. [PubMed:12470863 ]
  4. Commiskey S, Fan LW, Ho IK, Rockhold RW: Butorphanol: effects of a prototypical agonist-antagonist analgesic on kappa-opioid receptors. J Pharmacol Sci. 2005 Jun;98(2):109-16. Epub 2005 Jun 8. [PubMed:15942128 ]
  5. Picker MJ, Benyas S, Horwitz JA, Thompson K, Mathewson C, Smith MA: Discriminative stimulus effects of butorphanol: influence of training dose on the substitution patterns produced by Mu, Kappa and Delta opioid agonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Dec;279(3):1130-41. [PubMed:8968334 ]
  6. Wakabayashi H, Tokuyama S, Ho IK: Simultaneous measurement of biogenic amines and their metabolites in rat brain regions after acute administration of and abrupt withdrawal from butorphanol or morphine. Neurochem Res. 1995 Oct;20(10):1179-85. [PubMed:8746803 ]
  7. Picker MJ: Discriminative stimulus effects of the mixed-opioid agonist/antagonist dezocine: cross-substitution by mu and delta opioid agonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Dec;283(3):1009-17. [PubMed:9399970 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on April 02, 2014 11:06