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Identification
NameRifabutin
Accession NumberDB00615  (APRD00094)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

A broad-spectrum antibiotic that is being used as prophylaxis against disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV-positive patients. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
1,4-Dihydro-1-deoxy-1',4-didehydro-5'-(2-methylpropyl)-1-oxorifamycin xivNot AvailableNot Available
4-Deoxo-3,4-(2-spiro(N-isobutyl-4-piperidyl)-2,5-dihydro-1H-imidazo)-rifamycin SNot AvailableNot Available
4-N-Isobutylspiropiperidylrifamycin SNot AvailableNot Available
AnsamicinNot AvailableIS
AnsamycinNot AvailableIS
Mycobutin (tn)Not AvailableNot Available
RifabutinGermanINN
RifabutinaSpanish/ItalianINN/DCIT
RifabutineFrenchINN
RifabutinumLatinINN
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
AnsatipinPfizer
AnsatipineSERB
MycobutinPfizer
RibutinLupin
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number72559-06-9
WeightAverage: 847.0047
Monoisotopic: 846.441508846
Chemical FormulaC46H62N4O11
InChI KeyATEBXHFBFRCZMA-VXTBVIBXSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C46H62N4O11/c1-22(2)21-50-18-16-46(17-19-50)48-34-31-32-39(54)28(8)42-33(31)43(56)45(10,61-42)59-20-15-30(58-11)25(5)41(60-29(9)51)27(7)38(53)26(6)37(52)23(3)13-12-14-24(4)44(57)47-36(40(32)55)35(34)49-46/h12-15,20,22-23,25-27,30,37-38,41,49,52-54H,16-19,21H2,1-11H3,(H,47,57)/b13-12+,20-15+,24-14-/t23-,25+,26+,27+,30-,37-,38+,41+,45-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(7S,11S,12R,13S,14R,15R,16R,17S,18S)-2,15,17-trihydroxy-11-methoxy-3,7,12,14,16,18,22-heptamethyl-1'-(2-methylpropyl)-6,23,32-trioxo-8,33-dioxa-24,27,29-triazaspiro[pentacyclo[23.6.1.1^{4,7}.0^{5,31}.0^{26,30}]tritriacontane-28,4'-piperidin]-1,3,5(31),9,19,21,25,29-octaen-13-yl acetate
SMILES
CO[C@H]1\C=C\O[C@@]2(C)OC3=C(C2=O)C2=C(C(O)=C3C)C(=O)C(NC(=O)\C(C)=C/C=C/[C@H](C)[C@H](O)[C@@H](C)[C@@H](O)[C@@H](C)[C@H](OC(C)=O)[C@@H]1C)=C1NC3(CCN(CC3)CC(C)C)N=C21
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassHeterocyclic Compounds
ClassNaphthofurans
SubclassNot Available
Direct parentNaphthofurans
Alternative parentsAzaspirodecane Derivatives; Naphthalenes; Benzofurans; Ortho Cresols; Toluenes; Alkyl Aryl Ethers; Piperidines; Imidazolines; Ketones; Tertiary Amines; Polyols; Secondary Carboxylic Acid Amides; Secondary Alcohols; Carboxylic Acid Esters; Carboxylic Acids; Enolates; Enols; Polyamines; Acetals
Substituentsacene; azaspirodecane; naphthalene; benzofuran; o-cresol; phenol derivative; alkyl aryl ether; toluene; piperidine; benzene; 3-imidazoline; ketone; polyol; secondary carboxylic acid amide; carboxamide group; tertiary amine; carboxylic acid ester; secondary alcohol; carboxylic acid; enol; ether; enolate; carboxylic acid derivative; acetal; polyamine; organonitrogen compound; amine; alcohol; carbonyl group
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the naphthofurans. These are compounds containing a furan ring fused to a naphthalene moeity.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the prevention of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease in patients with advanced HIV infection.
PharmacodynamicsRifabutin is an antibiotic that inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in susceptible cells. Specifically, it interacts with bacterial RNA polymerase but does not inhibit the mammalian enzyme. It is bactericidal and has a very broad spectrum of activity against most gram-positive and gram-negative organisms (including Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and specifically Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Because of rapid emergence of resistant bacteria, use is restricted to treatment of mycobacterial infections and a few other indications. Rifabutin is well absorbed when taken orally and is distributed widely in body tissues and fluids, including the CSF. It is metabolized in the liver and eliminated in bile and, to a much lesser extent, in urine, but dose adjustments are unnecessary with renal insufficiency.
Mechanism of actionRifabutin acts via the inhibition of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase in gram-positive and some gram-negative bacteria, leading to a suppression of RNA synthesis and cell death.
AbsorptionRifabutin is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, with an absolute bioavailability averaging 20%.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding85%
Metabolism

Hepatic. Of the five metabolites that have been identified, 25-O-desacetyl and 31-hydroxy are the most predominant. The former metabolite has an activity equal to the parent drug and contributes up to 10% to the total antimicrobial activity.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Rifabutin
27-O-demethylrifabutinDetails
Rifabutin
Not Available
25-O-desacetyl rifabutinDetails
Rifabutin
Not Available
31-hydroxy rifabutinDetails
Route of eliminationA mass-balance study in three healthy adult volunteers with 14C-labeled rifabutin showed that 53% of the oral dose was excreted in the urine, primarily as metabolites. About 30% of the dose is excreted in the feces.
Half life45 (± 17) hours
Clearance
  • 0.69 +/- 0.32 L/hr/kg
ToxicityLD50 = 4.8 g/kg (mouse, male)
Affected organisms
  • Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.5507
Blood Brain Barrier - 0.9921
Caco-2 permeable - 0.7072
P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.9612
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Inhibitor 0.5415
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Inhibitor 0.6516
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.8178
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.819
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.745
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9046
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9071
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9231
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9026
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8308
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.8909
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.6724
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9195
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.9687
Rat acute toxicity 2.5143 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.946
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Inhibitor 0.5416
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Pharmacia and upjohn co
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Mycobutin 150 mg capsule13.01USDcapsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilityMinimally soluble (0.19 mg/mL)Not Available
logP4.1Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.017ALOGPS
logP4.25ALOGPS
logP4.19ChemAxon
logS-4.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.93ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.62ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count13ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area205.55 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity232.64 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability90.72 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings6ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD00424
KEGG CompoundC07235
PubChem Compound6323490
PubChem Substance46506468
ChemSpider4883445
ChEBI8857
ChEMBLCHEMBL444633
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000656
PharmGKBPA451249
HETRBT
Drug Product Database2063786
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic2/rifabutin.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cdi/rifabutin.html
WikipediaRifabutin
ATC CodesJ04AB04
AHFS Codes
  • 08:16.04
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelshow(69.5 KB)
MSDSshow(58.4 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbirateroneStrong CYP3A4 inducers may decrease levels of abiraterone. Monitor concomitant therapy closely.
AcenocoumarolRifabutin may decrease the anticoagulant effect of acenocoumarol by increasing its metabolism.
AmitriptylineThe rifamycin, rifabutin, may decrease the effect of the tricyclic antidepressant, amitriptyline, by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of amitriptyline if rifabutin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
AmoxapineThe rifamycin, rifabutin, may decrease the effect of the tricyclic antidepressant, amoxapine, by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of amoxapine if rifabutin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
AmprenavirAmprenavir may increase the effect and toxicity of rifabutin.
AnisindioneRifabutin, may decrease the anticoagulant effect of anisindione.
AtazanavirAtazanavir may increase levels/toxicity of rifabutin.
AtorvastatinRifabutin may decrease the effect of atorvastatin by increasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of atorvastatin if rifabutin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
AtovaquoneRifabutin decreases the effect of atovaquone
BromazepamRifabutin may decrease the serum concentration of bromazepam by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of bromazepam if rifabutin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
BupropionRifampin reduces bupropion levels
BuspironeRifabutin decreases the effect of buspirone
CabazitaxelConcomitant therapy with a strong CYP3A inducer may decrease concentrations of cabazitaxel. Avoid concomitant therapy.
CerivastatinRifabutin may decrease the effect of cerivastatin by increasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of cerivastatin if rifabutin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
ClarithromycinThe rifamycin, rifabutin, may decrease the effect of the macrolide, clarithromycin.
ClomipramineThe rifamycin, rifabutin, may decrease the effect of the tricyclic antidepressant, clomipramine, by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of clomipramine if rifabutin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
ClozapineRifabutin decreases the effect of clozapine
CyclosporineThe rifamycin decreases the effect of cyclosporine
DapsoneDecreased levels of dapsone
DelavirdineRifabutin decreases the effect of delavirdine
DesipramineThe rifamycin, rifabutin, may decrease the effect of the tricyclic antidepressant, desipramine, by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of desipramine if rifabutin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
DicoumarolRifabutin may decrease the anticoagulant effect of dicumarol.
DoxepinThe rifamycin, rifabutin, may decrease the effect of the tricyclic antidepressant, doxepin, by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of doxepin if rifabutin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
DoxycyclineThe rifamycin decreases the effect of doxycycline
ErlotinibDecreased levels/effect of erlotinib
ErythromycinThe rifamycin, rifabutin, may decrease the effect of the macrolide, erythromycin.
Estradiol valerate/DienogestAffects CYP3A4 metabolism, decreases or effects levels of Estradiol valerate/Dienogest.
Ethinyl EstradiolRifabutin may decrease the contraceptive effect of ethinyl estradiol. Hormonal contraception should not be solely relied on alone during concomitant therapy with rifabutin.
EtravirineEtravirine may experience a decrease in serum concentration. It is recommended to monitor etravirine therapy for efficacy. The combination of rifabutin and etravirine therapy is contraindicated if a protease inhibitor which is ritonavir boosted is also being used.
FluconazoleFluconazole may increase levels/toxicity of rifabutin.
FluvastatinRifabutin may decrease the effect of fluvastatin by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of fluvastatin if rifabutin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
FosamprenavirAmprenavir increases the effect and toxicity of rifabutin
HaloperidolThe rifamycin decreases the effect of haloperidol
ImipramineThe rifamycin, rifabutin, may decrease the effect of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if rifabutin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
IndinavirRifabutin decreases the effect of indinavir
ItraconazoleRifabutin decreases the effect of itraconazole
IvacaftorStrong CYP3A4 inducers may decrease levels of ivacaftor. Monitor concomitant therapy closely.
JosamycinThe rifamycin, rifabutin, may decrease the effect of the macrolide, josamycin.
LovastatinRifabutin may decrease the effect of lovastatin by increasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of lovastatin if rifabutin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
MestranolThis product may cause a slight decrease of the contraceptive effect
MethadoneThe rifamycin decreases the effect of methadone
NorethindroneRifabutin may decrease the contraceptive effect of norethindrone. Hormonal contraception should not be solely relied on alone during concomitant therapy with rifabutin.
NortriptylineThe rifamycin, rifabutin, may decrease the effect of the tricyclic antidepressant, nortriptyline, by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of nortriptyline if rifabutin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
PazopanibAffects CYP3A4 metabolism therefore will decrease levels or effect of pazopanib. Consider alternate therapy.
PosaconazoleModification of drug levels for both agents
PropafenoneRifampin decreases the effect of propafenone
ProtriptylineThe rifamycin, rifabutin, may decrease the effect of the tricyclic antidepressant, protriptyline, by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of protriptyline if rifabutin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
RilpivirineStrong inducers of CYP3A4 decrease the exposure of rilpivirine thus decreasing efficacy.
RitonavirRifabutin decreases the effect of ritonavir
RoflumilastAffects CYP3A4 metabolism, decreases level or effect of roflumilast.
SaquinavirRifabutin decreases the effect of saquinavir
SimvastatinRifabutin may decrease the effect of simvastatin by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic effect of simvastatin if rifabutin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
SirolimusThe rifamycin decreases the effect of sirolimus
SunitinibPossible decrease in sunitinib levels
TacrolimusCarbamazepine may decrease the blood concentration of Tacrolimus. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/toxic effects of Tacrolimus if Carbamazepine therapy is initiated, discontinued or altered.
TamoxifenThe rifamycin decreases the effect of anti-estrogen
TelithromycinRifabutin may decrease the plasma concentration of Telithromycin. Consider alternate therapy.
TemsirolimusRifabutin may increase the metabolism of Temsirolimus decreasing its efficacy. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
TerbinafineRifabutin may increase the metabolism and clearance of Terbinafine. To avoid Terbinafine treatment failure, co-administration should be avoided.
TipranavirTipranavir increases the concentration of Rifabutin. Adjust Rifabutin dose and monitor for adverse/toxic effects.
TolvaptanRifabutin is a CYP3A4 inducer and will decrease serum concentrations of tolvaptan and ultimately, its clinical effects.
ToremifeneThe rifamycin decreases the effect of anti-estrogen
TramadolRifabutin may decrease the effect of Tramadol by increasing Tramadol metabolism and clearance.
TrazodoneThe CYP3A4 inducer, Rifabutin, may decrease Trazodone efficacy by increasing Trazodone metabolism and clearance. Monitor for changes in Trazodone efficacy/toxicity if Rifabutin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TrimipramineThe rifamycin, rifabutin, may decrease the effect of the tricyclic antidepressant, trimipramine, by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of trimipramine if rifabutin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
VandetanibDecreases levels of vandetanib by affecting CYP3A4 metabolism. Contraindicated.
VemurafenibStrong CYP3A4 inducers may decrease levels of vemurafenib. Monitor concomitant therapy closely.
VerapamilRifabutin, a CYP3A4 inducer, may decrease the serum concentration of Verapamil by increasing its metabolism (particularly in the intestinal mucosa) and decreasing its absorption. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Rifabutin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
VoriconazoleRifabutin may decrease the serum concentration of voriconazole likely by increasing its metabolism via CYP3A enzymes. Voriconazole may increase the serum concentration of rifabutin likely by inhibiting its metabolism via CYP3A. Concomitant therapy is contraindicated.
WarfarinRifabutin may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by increasing its metabolism.
ZidovudineThe rifamycin decreases levels of zidovudine
Food Interactions
  • High-fat meals slow the rate of absorption.
  • Take with food to reduce irritation.

Targets

1. DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit alpha

Kind: protein

Organism: Escherichia coli (strain K12)

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit alpha P0A7Z4 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Maddix DS, Tallian KB, Mead PS: Rifabutin: a review with emphasis on its role in the prevention of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection. Ann Pharmacother. 1994 Nov;28(11):1250-4. Pubmed

2. DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta

Kind: protein

Organism: Escherichia coli (strain K12)

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta P0A8V2 Details

References:

  1. Maddix DS, Tallian KB, Mead PS: Rifabutin: a review with emphasis on its role in the prevention of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection. Ann Pharmacother. 1994 Nov;28(11):1250-4. Pubmed

3. DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta'

Kind: protein

Organism: Escherichia coli (strain K12)

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta' P0A8T7 Details

References:

  1. Maddix DS, Tallian KB, Mead PS: Rifabutin: a review with emphasis on its role in the prevention of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection. Ann Pharmacother. 1994 Nov;28(11):1250-4. Pubmed

4. Heat shock protein HSP 90-alpha

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: no

Actions: other/unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Heat shock protein HSP 90-alpha P07900 Details

References:

  1. Schnaider T, Somogyi J, Csermely P, Szamel M: The Hsp90-specific inhibitor geldanamycin selectively disrupts kinase-mediated signaling events of T-lymphocyte activation. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2000 Jan;5(1):52-61. Pubmed
  2. Neckers L, Schulte TW, Mimnaugh E: Geldanamycin as a potential anti-cancer agent: its molecular target and biochemical activity. Invest New Drugs. 1999;17(4):361-73. Pubmed
  3. Srethapakdi M, Liu F, Tavorath R, Rosen N: Inhibition of Hsp90 function by ansamycins causes retinoblastoma gene product-dependent G1 arrest. Cancer Res. 2000 Jul 15;60(14):3940-6. Pubmed
  4. Munster PN, Srethapakdi M, Moasser MM, Rosen N: Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 function by ansamycins causes the morphological and functional differentiation of breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2001 Apr 1;61(7):2945-52. Pubmed
  5. Yang J, Yang JM, Iannone M, Shih WJ, Lin Y, Hait WN: Disruption of the EF-2 kinase/Hsp90 protein complex: a possible mechanism to inhibit glioblastoma by geldanamycin. Cancer Res. 2001 May 15;61(10):4010-6. Pubmed

5. Endoplasmin

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: no

Actions: other/unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Endoplasmin P14625 Details

References:

  1. Barzilay E, Ben-Califa N, Supino-Rosin L, Kashman Y, Hirschberg K, Elazar Z, Neumann D: Geldanamycin-associated inhibition of intracellular trafficking is attributed to a co-purified activity. J Biol Chem. 2004 Feb 20;279(8):6847-52. Epub 2003 Dec 1. Pubmed
  2. Chavany C, Mimnaugh E, Miller P, Bitton R, Nguyen P, Trepel J, Whitesell L, Schnur R, Moyer J, Neckers L: p185erbB2 binds to GRP94 in vivo. Dissociation of the p185erbB2/GRP94 heterocomplex by benzoquinone ansamycins precedes depletion of p185erbB2. J Biol Chem. 1996 Mar 1;271(9):4974-7. Pubmed
  3. Lawson B, Brewer JW, Hendershot LM: Geldanamycin, an hsp90/GRP94-binding drug, induces increased transcription of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones via the ER stress pathway. J Cell Physiol. 1998 Feb;174(2):170-8. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  2. Ekins S, Bravi G, Wikel JH, Wrighton SA: Three-dimensional-quantitative structure activity relationship analysis of cytochrome P-450 3A4 substrates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):424-33. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on January 20, 2014 11:32