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Identification
NameParamethadione
Accession NumberDB00617  (APRD00236)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionParamethadione is an anticonvulsant in the oxazolidinedione class. It is associated with fetal trimethadione syndrome, which is also known as paramethadione syndrome.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Paradione
Parametadiona
Parametadione
Paramethadione
Paramethadionum
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIZ615FRW64N
CAS number115-67-3
WeightAverage: 157.1671
Monoisotopic: 157.073893223
Chemical FormulaC7H11NO3
InChI KeyInChIKey=VQASKUSHBVDKGU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C7H11NO3/c1-4-7(2)5(9)8(3)6(10)11-7/h4H2,1-3H3
IUPAC Name
5-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2,4-dione
SMILES
CCC1(C)OC(=O)N(C)C1=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as oxazolidinediones. These are compounds containing an oxazolidine ring which bears two ketones.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassAzolidines
Sub ClassOxazolidines
Direct ParentOxazolidinediones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Oxazolidinedione
  • Tertiary amine
  • Carboxamide group
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed for the control of absence (petit mal) seizures that are refractory to treatment with other medications.
PharmacodynamicsParamethadione is an oxazolidinedione anticonvulsant similar to trimethadione that acts on the central nervous system (CNS) to reduce the number of absence seizures (often seen in epileptics). Absence seizures involve an interruption to consciousness where the person experiencing the seizure seems to become vacant and unresponsive for a short period of time (usually up to 30 seconds). Paramethadione acts on thalamic neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus (which studies have shown to be associated with absence seizures, von Krosigk et al., 1993).
Mechanism of actionDione anticonvulsants such as paramethadione reduce T-type calcium currents in thalamic neurons (including thalamic relay neurons). This inhibits corticothalamic transmission and raises the threshold for repetitive activity in the thalamus. This results in a dampening of the abnormal thalamocortical rhythmicity proposed to underlie the 3-Hz spike-and-wave discharge seen on electroencephalogram (EEG) during absence seizures.
Related Articles
AbsorptionRapid via the digestive tract.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot significant
Metabolism

Primarily hepatic (mainly via cytochrome P450 isozyme 2C9), paramethadione is completely demethylated to 5-ethyl-5-methyl-2,4-oxazolidinedione, the active metabolite.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Paramethadione
5-ethyl-5-methyl-2,4-oxazolidinedioneDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life12 to 24 hours (however the half-life for the active metabolite is not known)
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySymptoms of overdose include clumsiness or unsteadiness, coma, severe dizziness, severe drowsiness, severe nausea, and problems with vision.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9955
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9804
Caco-2 permeable+0.5334
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8117
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5232
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.5937
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9572
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8651
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8869
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5517
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8174
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.812
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.914
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7845
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8711
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8976
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7081
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8298
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.8515
Rat acute toxicity2.2682 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9921
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9752
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Abbott laboratories pharmaceutical products div
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
boiling point101.5 °CNot Available
water solubility8.4 mg/mLNot Available
logP0.3Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility135.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.9ALOGPS
logP1.03ChemAxon
logS-0.07ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area46.61 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity37.72 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability15.39 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (7.42 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9300000000-5b8273da08cb63d81fcfView in MoNA
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Hoffman DJ, Chun AH: Paramethadione and metabolite serum levels in humans after a single oral paramethadione dose. J Pharm Sci. 1975 Oct;64(10):1702-3. [PubMed:1185541 ]
  2. Feldman GL, Weaver DD, Lovrien EW: The fetal trimethadione syndrome: report of an additional family and further delineation of this syndrome. Am J Dis Child. 1977 Dec;131(12):1389-92. [PubMed:412416 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN03AC01
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Atazanavir.
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.
BoceprevirThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Boceprevir.
BortezomibThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.
BosentanThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.
CapecitabineThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Capecitabine.
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.
CelecoxibThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Celecoxib.
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.
ClemastineThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.
ClopidogrelThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Clopidogrel.
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.
CobicistatThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Cobicistat.
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DarunavirThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Darunavir.
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be decreased when it is combined with Dexamethasone.
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.
DisulfiramThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Disulfiram.
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be decreased when it is combined with Efavirenz.
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be decreased when it is combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be decreased when it is combined with Etravirine.
FelodipineThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Felodipine.
FloxuridineThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Floxuridine.
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.
FluorouracilThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Fluorouracil.
FluvastatinThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Fluvastatin.
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.
FosphenytoinThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be increased when combined with Fosphenytoin.
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.
GemfibrozilThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.
ImatinibThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.
IndinavirThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.
IrbesartanThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Irbesartan.
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.
IsradipineThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.
ItraconazoleThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Itraconazole.
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.
LapatinibThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Lapatinib.
LeflunomideThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Leflunomide.
LopinavirThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.
LosartanThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Losartan.
LovastatinThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.
MefloquineThe therapeutic efficacy of Paramethadione can be decreased when used in combination with Mefloquine.
MianserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Paramethadione can be decreased when used in combination with Mianserin.
MifepristoneThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Mifepristone.
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.
ModafinilThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be decreased when it is combined with Modafinil.
NafcillinThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be decreased when it is combined with Nafcillin.
NefazodoneThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Nefazodone.
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.
NevirapineThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Nevirapine.
NicardipineThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Nicardipine.
NicotineThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Nicotine.
NilotinibThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.
OlaparibThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.
OmeprazoleThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Omeprazole.
OrlistatThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
PioglitazoneThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Pioglitazone.
PosaconazoleThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Posaconazole.
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be increased when combined with Primidone.
PyrimethamineThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Pyrimethamine.
QuinineThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Quinine.
RabeprazoleThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Rabeprazole.
RanolazineThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Ranolazine.
RifabutinThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.
RifampicinThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.
RifapentineThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.
RitonavirThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
RosiglitazoneThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Rosiglitazone.
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.
SecobarbitalThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
SildenafilThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.
SorafenibThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Sorafenib.
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.
SulfadiazineThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Sulfadiazine.
SulfamethoxazoleThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Sulfamethoxazole.
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.
TamoxifenThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Tamoxifen.
TelaprevirThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Telaprevir.
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.
TeriflunomideThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Teriflunomide.
TicagrelorThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Ticagrelor.
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Paramethadione can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.
TolbutamideThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Tolbutamide.
TrimethoprimThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Trimethoprim.
Valproic AcidThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
ValsartanThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Valsartan.
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.
VerapamilThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.
ZafirlukastThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Zafirlukast.
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
suppressor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. Isoform alpha-1I gives rise to T-type calcium currents. T-type calcium channels belong to the "low-volta...
Gene Name:
CACNA1I
Uniprot ID:
Q9P0X4
Molecular Weight:
245100.8 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular Weight:
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Kurata N, Nishimura Y, Iwase M, Fischer NE, Tang BK, Inaba T, Yasuhara H: Trimethadione metabolism by human liver cytochrome P450: evidence for the involvement of CYP2E1. Xenobiotica. 1998 Nov;28(11):1041-7. [PubMed:9879636 ]
  2. Tanaka E, Terada M, Misawa S: Cytochrome P450 2E1: its clinical and toxicological role. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2000 Jun;25(3):165-75. [PubMed:10886461 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Tanaka E, Kurata N, Yasuhara H: Involvement of cytochrome P450 2C9, 2E1 and 3A4 in trimethadione N-demethylation in human microsomes. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2003 Dec;28(6):493-6. [PubMed:14651673 ]
  2. Kurata N, Nishimura Y, Iwase M, Fischer NE, Tang BK, Inaba T, Yasuhara H: Trimethadione metabolism by human liver cytochrome P450: evidence for the involvement of CYP2E1. Xenobiotica. 1998 Nov;28(11):1041-7. [PubMed:9879636 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Tanaka E, Kurata N, Yasuhara H: Involvement of cytochrome P450 2C9, 2E1 and 3A4 in trimethadione N-demethylation in human microsomes. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2003 Dec;28(6):493-6. [PubMed:14651673 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Kurata N, Nishimura Y, Iwase M, Fischer NE, Tang BK, Inaba T, Yasuhara H: Trimethadione metabolism by human liver cytochrome P450: evidence for the involvement of CYP2E1. Xenobiotica. 1998 Nov;28(11):1041-7. [PubMed:9879636 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23