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Identification
NameTestosterone
Accession NumberDB00624  (APRD00433, DB05275)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

Testosterone is a steroid sex hormone found in both men and women. In men, testosterone is produced primarily by the Leydig (interstitial) cells of the testes when stimulated by luteinizing hormone (LH). It functions to stimulate spermatogenesis, promote physical and functional maturation of spermatozoa, maintain accessory organs of the male reproductive tract, support development of secondary sexual characteristics, stimulate growth and metabolism throughout the body and influence brain development by stimulating sexual behaviors and sexual drive. In women, testosterone is produced by the ovaries (25%), adrenals (25%) and via peripheral conversion from androstenedione (50%). Testerone in women functions to maintain libido and general wellbeing. Testosterone exerts a negative feedback mechanism on pituitary release of LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Testosterone may be further converted to dihydrotestosterone or estradiol depending on the tissue.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
17beta-hydroxy-4-androsten-3-one
17beta-Hydroxy-4-androsten-3-one
4-Androsten-17beta-ol-3-one
4-androsten-17β-ol-3-one
Androderm
Depo-Testadiol
Mertestate
Synandrol F
Testosteron
Testosterona
Testostérone
Testosteronum
Testoxyl
Testryl
Virosterone
External Identifiers
  • 4-08-00-00979
  • BRN 3170544
  • CCRIS 7082
  • EINECS 206-253-5
  • EINECS 227-712-6
  • NSC-17591
  • Org 538
  • UNII-7Z6522T8N9
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Andriolcapsule40 mgoralMerck Canada Inc1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
Androdermpatch12.2 mgtransdermalActavis Specialty Pharmaceuticals Co2000-12-19Not applicableCanada
Androdermpatch4 mg/dtransdermalActavis Pharma, Inc.1995-09-29Not applicableUs
Androdermpatch2 mg/dtransdermalActavis Pharma, Inc.1995-09-29Not applicableUs
Androdermpatch24.3 mgtransdermalActavis Specialty Pharmaceuticals Co2002-09-24Not applicableCanada
Androgelgel16.2 mg/gtransdermalA S Medication Solutions Llc2011-04-29Not applicableUs
Androgelgel16.2 mg/gtransdermalA S Medication Solutions Llc2011-04-29Not applicableUs
Androgelgel10 mg/gtransdermalRebel Distributors Corp.2003-06-05Not applicableUs
Androgelgel10 mg/gtransdermalA S Medication Solutions Llc2011-03-14Not applicableUs
Androgelgel1 %topicalBgp Pharma Ulc2004-09-20Not applicableCanada
Androgelgel10 mg/gtransdermalAbb Vie Inc.2011-03-142016-02-18Us
Androgelgel10 mg/gtransdermalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2007-08-29Not applicableUs
Androgelgel1 %topicalBgp Pharma Ulc2002-05-06Not applicableCanada
Androgelgel16.2 mg/gtransdermalAbb Vie Inc.2011-04-29Not applicableUs
Androgelgel1 %topicalBgp Pharma Ulc2002-05-06Not applicableCanada
Androgelgel10 mg/gtransdermalAbb Vie Inc.2011-03-14Not applicableUs
Androgelgel10 mg/gtransdermalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-06-05Not applicableUs
Androgelgel10 mg/gtransdermalAbb Vie Inc.2011-03-14Not applicableUs
Androgelgel10 mg/gtransdermalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-05-15Not applicableUs
Aveedinjection250 mg/mLintramuscularEndo Pharmaceuticals Solutions Inc.2014-03-05Not applicableUs
Axironsolution30 mg/1.5mLtopicalEli Lilly and Company2010-12-01Not applicableUs
Axironsolution30 mg/1.5mLtopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2013-09-06Not applicableUs
Axironsolution2 %topicalEli Lilly Canada Inc2013-05-08Not applicableCanada
Delatestrylsolution200 mgintramuscularValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1955-12-31Not applicableCanada
Delatestrylinjection, solution200 mg/mLintramuscularEndo Pharmaceuticals Solutions Inc.1953-12-24Not applicableUs
Depo-testosterone Inj 100mg/mlsolution100 mgintramuscularPfizer Canada Inc1953-12-31Not applicableCanada
Fortestagel, metered10 mg/.5gtopicalEndo Pharmaceuticals Inc.2010-12-29Not applicableUs
Malogen Aqueous 100 Sus 100mg/mlsuspension100 mgintramuscularGermiphene Corporation1994-12-311998-08-13Canada
Malogex La200 Liq 200mg/mlliquid200 mgintramuscularGermiphene Corporation1995-12-311998-08-13Canada
Natestogel5.5 mg/1nasalEndo Pharmaceuticals2015-03-12Not applicableUs
Natestogel4.5 %nasalAcerus Pharmaceuticals Srl2016-05-06Not applicableCanada
PMS-testosteronecapsule40 mgoralPharmascience Inc2009-10-08Not applicableCanada
PMS-testosterone Enanthate Inj 200mg/ml USPliquid200 mgintramuscularPharmascience Inc1991-12-31Not applicableCanada
Scheinpharm Testone-cyp Inject.- Im 100mg/mlliquid100 mgintramuscularSchein Pharmaceutical Canada Inc.1996-12-122004-07-26Canada
Strianttablet30 mg/1buccalColumbia Laboratories, Inc.2003-06-19Not applicableUs
Strianttablet30 mg/1buccalActient Pharmaceuticals, LLC2003-06-19Not applicableUs
Taro-testosteronecapsule40 mgoralTaro Pharmaceuticals Inc2014-09-02Not applicableCanada
Testimgel50 mg/5gtransdermalAuxilium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2002-10-31Not applicableUs
Testimgel50 mg/5gtransdermalLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2002-10-31Not applicableUs
Testimgel50 mg/5gtransdermalA S Medication Solutions Llc2002-10-31Not applicableUs
Testimgel50 mg/5gtopicalStat Rx USA2002-10-31Not applicableUs
Testimgel50 mg/5gtransdermalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2004-01-29Not applicableUs
Testimgel50 mg/5gtransdermalA S Medication Solutions Llc2002-10-31Not applicableUs
Testim 1%gel1 %topicalAuxilium Pharmaceuticals Inc2007-04-17Not applicableCanada
Testosteronegel12.5 mg/1.25gtopicalPerrigo New York Inc2014-12-27Not applicableUs
Testosteronegel, metered12.5 mg/1topicalUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.2014-06-16Not applicableUs
Testosteronegel50 mg/5gtopicalUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.2014-06-16Not applicableUs
Testosteronegel50 mg/5gtransdermalPrasco Laboratories2014-06-09Not applicableUs
Testosteronegel, metered10 mg/.5gtopicalQualitest Pharmaceuticals2014-08-25Not applicableUs
Testosterone Cypionate Injection USPliquid100 mgintramuscularSandoz Canada Incorporated2002-08-01Not applicableCanada
Testosterone Cypionate Injection, USPliquid100 mgintramuscularSterimax Inc1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
Testosterone Enanthate Inj 200mg/mlliquid200 mgintramuscularTaro Pharmaceuticals Inc1988-12-312001-08-21Canada
Vogelxogel, metered12.5 mg/1topicalUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.2014-06-09Not applicableUs
Vogelxogel50 mg/5gtopicalUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.2014-06-09Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Androgelgel50 mg/5gtransdermalPar Pharmaceutical Inc.2015-08-10Not applicableUs
Androgelgel25 mg/2.5gtransdermalPar Pharmaceutical Inc.2015-08-10Not applicableUs
Depo-testosteroneinjection, solution100 mg/mLintramuscularPharmacia and Upjohn Company2014-07-01Not applicableUs
Depo-testosteroneinjection, solution200 mg/mLintramuscularA S Medication Solutions Llc1979-07-25Not applicableUs
Depo-testosteroneinjection, solution100 mg/mLintramuscularA S Medication Solutions Llc1979-07-25Not applicableUs
Depo-testosteroneinjection, solution200 mg/mLintramuscularPharmacia and Upjohn Company2014-03-31Not applicableUs
Depo-testosteroneinjection, solution200 mg/mLintramuscularPharmacia and Upjohn Company1979-07-25Not applicableUs
Depo-testosteroneinjection, solution200 mg/mLintramuscularPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1994-07-12Not applicableUs
Depo-testosteroneinjection, solution100 mg/mLintramuscularPharmacia and Upjohn Company1979-07-25Not applicableUs
Depo-testosteroneinjection, solution100 mg/mLintramuscularA S Medication Solutions Llc1979-07-25Not applicableUs
Depo-testosteroneinjection, solution200 mg/mLintramuscularPharmacia and Upjohn Company2014-07-01Not applicableUs
Testopelpellet75 mg/1subcutaneousSlate Pharma2009-07-21Not applicableUs
Testopelpellet75 mg/1subcutaneousAuxilium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-10-31Not applicableUs
Testosteronegel10 mg/gtransdermalActavis Pharma, Inc.2015-11-09Not applicableUs
Testosteronegel10 mg/gtransdermalActavis Pharma, Inc.2015-11-09Not applicableUs
Testosteronegel10 mg/gtransdermalActavis Pharma, Inc.2015-11-09Not applicableUs
Testosteronegel10 mg/gtransdermalActavis Pharma, Inc.2015-11-092016-01-07Us
Testosterone Cypionateinjection200 mg/mLintramuscularActavis Pharma, Inc.2015-03-05Not applicableUs
Testosterone Cypionateinjection, solution200 mg/mLintramuscularSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2013-06-17Not applicableUs
Testosterone Cypionateinjection, solution100 mg/mLintramuscularSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2013-06-17Not applicableUs
Testosterone Cypionateinjection, solution200 mg/mLintramuscularActavis Pharma, Inc.2011-05-04Not applicableUs
Testosterone Cypionateinjection, solution200 mg/mLintramuscularDispensing Solutions, Inc.2011-05-04Not applicableUs
Testosterone Cypionateinjection200 mg/mLintramuscularWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp2012-05-01Not applicableUs
Testosterone Cypionateinjection, solution100 mg/mLintramuscularPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-08-10Not applicableUs
Testosterone Cypionateinjection, solution200 mg/mLintramuscularA S Medication Solutions Llc2011-05-04Not applicableUs
Testosterone Cypionateinjection, solution200 mg/mLintramuscularPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2007-08-10Not applicableUs
Testosterone Cypionateinjection200 mg/mLintramuscularProficient Rx LP2012-05-01Not applicableUs
Testosterone Cypionateinjection200 mg/mLintramuscularA S Medication Solutions Llc2012-05-01Not applicableUs
Testosterone Cypionateinjection, solution200 mg/mLintramuscularPaddock Laboratories, LLC2014-05-01Not applicableUs
Testosterone Cypionateinjection, solution200 mg/mLintramuscularSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2013-06-17Not applicableUs
Testosterone Cypionateinjection, solution200 mg/mLintramuscularPaddock Laboratories, LLC2007-12-21Not applicableUs
Testosterone Cypionateinjection, solution200 mg/mLintramuscularA S Medication Solutions Llc2011-05-04Not applicableUs
Testosterone Enanthateinjection, solution200 mg/mLintramuscularWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp2012-09-18Not applicableUs
Testosterone Enanthateinjection, solution200 mg/mLintramuscularWatson Laboratories, Inc.2011-05-04Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Testosteronepellet100 mg/1oralQualgen Llc2015-09-01Not applicableUs
Testosteronepellet87.5 mg/1oralQualgen Llc2015-09-01Not applicableUs
Testosteronepellet50 mg/1oralQualgen Llc2015-09-01Not applicableUs
Testosteronepellet37.5 mg/1oralQualgen Llc2015-09-01Not applicableUs
Testosteronepellet25 mg/1oralQualgen Llc2015-09-01Not applicableUs
Testosteronepellet200 mg/1oralQualgen Llc2015-09-01Not applicableUs
International Brands
NameCompany
Andronate 100Not Available
Andronate 200Not Available
AndropatchGlaxoSmithKline
Andropository 200Not Available
Andryl 200Not Available
Bio-T-GelBioSante Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.
FortigelNot Available
IntrinsaProcter & Gamble
LivensaProcter & Gamble
NebidoBayer
SustanonOrganon
Testamone 100Not Available
Testaqua IMNot Available
TestodermNot Available
Testoderm TTSNot Available
TestogelBayer
TestolinNot Available
TestopatchPierre Fabre
Testopel PelletsNot Available
Testrin-P.ANot Available
Testro AQNot Available
TostrelleNot Available
TostrexNot Available
VirormoneNordic Pharma
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Neo Pause InjectionNeolab Inc
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Testosterone Cypionate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001298
Testosterone Enanthate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001030
Testosterone Heptanoate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001031
Testosterone Propionate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001032
Testosterone Undecanoate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001033
Categories
UNII3XMK78S47O
CAS number58-22-0
WeightAverage: 288.4244
Monoisotopic: 288.20893014
Chemical FormulaC19H28O2
InChI KeyInChIKey=MUMGGOZAMZWBJJ-DYKIIFRCSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H28O2/c1-18-9-7-13(20)11-12(18)3-4-14-15-5-6-17(21)19(15,2)10-8-16(14)18/h11,14-17,21H,3-10H2,1-2H3/t14-,15-,16-,17-,18-,19-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,2R,10R,11S,14S,15S)-14-hydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadec-6-en-5-one
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC[[email protected]](O)[C@@]1(C)CC[C@@]1([H])[C@@]2([H])CCC2=CC(=O)CC[C@]12C
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as androgens and derivatives. These are 3-hydroxylated C19 steroid hormones. They are known to favor the development of masculine characteristics. They also show profound effects on scalp and body hair in humans.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassAndrostane steroids
Direct ParentAndrogens and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Androgen-skeleton
  • 17-hydroxysteroid
  • Oxosteroid
  • Hydroxysteroid
  • 3-oxosteroid
  • 3-oxo-delta-4-steroid
  • Delta-4-steroid
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Cyclic ketone
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Ketone
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationTo be used as hormone replacement or substitution of diminished or absent endogenous testosterone. Use in males: For management of congenital or acquired hypogonadism, hypogonadism associated with HIV infection, and male climacteric (andopause). Use in females: For palliative treatment of androgen-responsive, advanced, inoperable, metastatis (skeletal) carcinoma of the breast in women who are 1-5 years postmenopausal; testosterone esters may be used in combination with estrogens in the management of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause in women who do not respond to adequately to estrogen therapy alone.
PharmacodynamicsTestosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. Testosterone is primarily secreted from the testes of males. In females, it is produced in the ovaries, adrenal glands and by conversion of adrostenedione in the periphery. It is the principal male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid. In both males and females, it plays key roles in health and well-being. Examples include enhanced libido, energy, immune function, and protection against osteoporosis. On average, the adult male body produces about twenty times the amount of testosterone than an adult female's body does.
Mechanism of actionThe effects of testosterone in humans and other vertebrates occur by way of two main mechanisms: by activation of the androgen receptor (directly or as DHT), and by conversion to estradiol and activation of certain estrogen receptors. Free testosterone (T) is transported into the cytoplasm of target tissue cells, where it can bind to the androgen receptor, or can be reduced to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by the cytoplasmic enzyme 5α-reductase. DHT binds to the same androgen receptor even more strongly than T, so that its androgenic potency is about 2.5 times that of T. The T-receptor or DHT-receptor complex undergoes a structural change that allows it to move into the cell nucleus and bind directly to specific nucleotide sequences of the chromosomal DNA. The areas of binding are called hormone response elements (HREs), and influence transcriptional activity of certain genes, producing the androgen effects.
Related Articles
AbsorptionApproximately 10% of the testosterone dose applied on the skin surface is absorbed into systemic circulation
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding40% of testosterone in plasma is bound to sex hormone-binding globulin and 2% remains unbound and the rest is bound to albumin and other proteins.
Metabolism

Testosterone is metabolized to 17-keto steroids through two different pathways. The major active metabolites are estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Testosterone
6-beta-hydroxytestosteroneDetails
Testosterone
EstradiolDetails
Testosterone
Not Available
Testosterone sulfateDetails
Testosterone
DihydrotestosteroneDetails
Testosterone
Not Available
Testosterone glucuronideDetails
Testosterone
Not Available
5-alpha-Dihydrotestosterone glucuronideDetails
Testosterone
Not Available
5a-Dihydrotestosterone sulfateDetails
Testosterone
Not Available
17-Hydroxyandrostane-3-glucuronideDetails
Route of eliminationAbout 90% of a dose of testosterone given intramuscularly is excreted in the urine as glucuronic and sulfuric acid conjugates of testosterone and its metabolites; about 6% of a dose is excreted in the feces, mostly in the unconjugated form.
Half life10-100 minutes
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySide effects include amnesia, anxiety, discolored hair, dizziness, dry skin, hirsutism, hostility, impaired urination, paresthesia, penis disorder, peripheral edema, sweating, and vasodilation.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Aromatase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00565
17-Beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase III DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00356
Androgen and Estrogen MetabolismMetabolicSMP00068
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.973
Caco-2 permeable+0.8984
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6498
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.5489
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8923
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7324
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8167
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7739
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9005
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.95
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9452
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6668
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8812
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8683
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9382
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9483
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9174
Rat acute toxicity1.6259 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8938
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7163
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Heather drug co inc
  • Valeant pharmaceuticals international
  • Schering corp sub schering plough corp
  • Novartis pharmaceuticals corp
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Purepac pharmaceutical co
  • Private formulations inc
  • Tablicaps inc
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Inwood laboratories inc sub forest laboratories inc
  • Kv pharmaceutical co
  • Lannett co inc
  • Parke davis div warner lambert co
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • West ward pharmaceutical corp
  • Alza corp
  • Unimed pharmaceuticals inc
  • Auxilium pharmaceuticals
  • Par pharmaceutical
  • Watson laboratories
  • Slate pharmaceuticals inc
  • Columbia laboratories inc
  • Pharmacia and upjohn co
  • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
  • Paddock laboratories inc
  • Sandoz canada inc
  • Synerx pharma llc
  • Endo pharmaceutical solutions inc
  • Solvay Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsuleoral40 mg
Patchtransdermal12.2 mg
Patchtransdermal2 mg/d
Patchtransdermal24.3 mg
Patchtransdermal4 mg/d
Geltransdermal10 mg/g
Geltransdermal16.2 mg/g
Geltransdermal25 mg/2.5g
Injectionintramuscular250 mg/mL
Solutiontopical2 %
Solutiontopical30 mg/1.5mL
Solutionintramuscular200 mg
Injection, solutionintramuscular100 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular200 mg/mL
Solutionintramuscular100 mg
Suspensionintramuscular100 mg
Gelnasal4.5 %
Gelnasal5.5 mg/1
Solutionintramuscular
Liquidintramuscular200 mg
Tabletbuccal30 mg/1
Geltransdermal50 mg/5g
Geltopical1 %
Pelletsubcutaneous75 mg/1
Geltopical12.5 mg/1.25g
Gel, meteredtopical10 mg/.5g
Pelletoral100 mg/1
Pelletoral200 mg/1
Pelletoral25 mg/1
Pelletoral37.5 mg/1
Pelletoral50 mg/1
Pelletoral87.5 mg/1
Injectionintramuscular200 mg/mL
Liquidintramuscular100 mg
Geltopical50 mg/5g
Gel, meteredtopical12.5 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
AndroGel Pump 1% Gel (1 Box Contains Two 75 gm Bottles)290.63USD box
Androderm 60 2.5 mg/24hr Patches 1 Box = 60 Patches278.56USD box
Androderm 30 5 mg/24hr Patches 1 Box = 30 Patches277.53USD box
AndroGel (each Box Contains Thirty - 50 mg/5 gm Packets) 150 gm Box274.58USD box
AndroGel (each Box Contains Thirty - 25 mg/2.5 gm Packets) 75 gm Box270.61USD box
Delatestryl 200 mg/ml Oil 5ml Vial93.98USD vial
Testosterone Cypionate 200 mg/ml Oil 10ml Vial88.99USD vial
Testosterone Cypionate 100 mg/ml Oil 10ml Vial57.99USD vial
Depo-Testosterone 200 mg/ml Oil 1ml Vial34.99USD vial
Testosterone cypionate powd32.74USD g
Testosterone Cypionate 200 mg/ml Oil 1ml Vial28.99USD vial
Depo-testosterone 200 mg/ml28.63USD ml
Testopel 75 mg pellets27.5USD pellet
Testosterone cyp 200 mg/ml23.18USD ml
Delatestryl 200 mg/ml vial19.86USD ml
Testred 10 mg capsule17.6USD capsule
Testosterone enan 200 mg/ml16.99USD ml
Testosterone Enanthate 200 mg/ml Oil16.66USD ml
Depo-Testosterone 200 mg/ml Oil13.23USD ml
Android 10 mg capsule11.91USD capsule
Delatestryl 200 mg/ml10.75USD ml
Testim 1% Gel 5 gm Tube10.08USD tube
Androderm 5 mg/24hr patch10.06USD patch
Methyltestosterone powder8.54USD g
Depo-Testosterone 100 mg/ml Oil7.87USD ml
Depo-testosterone 100 mg/ml vial7.67USD ml
Testosterone powder6.25USD g
Testosterone propionate powder6.25USD g
Testosterone cyp 100 mg/ml5.91USD ml
Androderm 2.5 mg/24hr patch5.03USD patch
Methitest 10 mg tablet4.84USD tablet
Striant 30 mg Miscellaneous4.32USD ea
Striant 30 mg mucoadhesive4.31USD each
Depo-Testosterone Cypionate 100 mg/ml2.98USD ml
Testim 1%(50 mg) gel2.47USD g
Testosterone Cypionate 100 mg/ml2.23USD ml
Androgel 1% gel pump1.92USD g
First-testosterone mc 2% cr0.91USD g
First 2% testosterone oint0.88USD g
First-Testosterone 2% Ointment0.86USD gm
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA1332570 No1994-10-182011-10-18Canada
CA2366856 No2006-05-162020-03-27Canada
US5152997 No1993-12-112010-12-11Us
US5840327 No1996-08-152016-08-15Us
US6248358 No1999-08-232019-08-23Us
US6299900 No1997-02-192017-02-19Us
US6319913 No1998-11-092018-11-09Us
US6348210 No1999-11-102019-11-10Us
US6503894 Yes2001-03-012021-03-01Us
US6579865 No1998-11-092018-11-09Us
US6818226 No1997-02-192017-02-19Us
US6923983 No1997-02-192017-02-19Us
US7320968 No2005-01-182025-01-18Us
US7608605 No2003-04-212023-04-21Us
US7608606 No2003-04-212023-04-21Us
US7608607 No2003-04-212023-04-21Us
US7608608 No2003-04-212023-04-21Us
US7608609 No2003-04-212023-04-21Us
US7608610 No2003-04-212023-04-21Us
US7718640 No2007-03-142027-03-14Us
US7935690 No2003-04-212023-04-21Us
US8063029 No2003-04-212023-04-21Us
US8071075 No1997-02-192017-02-19Us
US8178518 No2003-04-212023-04-21Us
US8338395 No2006-02-272026-02-27Us
US8419307 No2007-02-262027-02-26Us
US8435944 No2007-09-272027-09-27Us
US8466136 No2006-10-122026-10-12Us
US8466137 No2006-10-122026-10-12Us
US8466138 No2006-10-122026-10-12Us
US8486925 No2006-10-122026-10-12Us
US8574622 No2004-02-042024-02-04Us
US8729057 No2006-10-122026-10-12Us
US8741881 No2006-10-122026-10-12Us
US8754070 No2006-10-122026-10-12Us
US8759329 No2006-10-122026-10-12Us
US8784869 No2004-02-042024-02-04Us
US8784878 No2003-07-132023-07-13Us
US8784882 No2004-02-042024-02-04Us
US8785426 No2014-02-112034-02-11Us
US8807861 No2007-02-262027-02-26Us
US8877230 No2004-02-042024-02-04Us
US8993520 No2006-06-022026-06-02Us
US9125816 Yes2001-03-022021-03-02Us
US9132089 Yes2001-03-022021-03-02Us
US9180194 No2006-06-022026-06-02Us
US9289586 No2007-02-262027-02-26Us
US9295675 No2014-02-112034-02-11Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point155 °CPhysProp
water solubility23.4 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & HE,Y (2003)
logP3.32HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Caco2 permeability-4.34ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0333 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.99ALOGPS
logP3.37ChemAxon
logS-3.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)19.09ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.88ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity84.43 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability34.02 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (13.5 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-004i-3910000000-d6ace9b7f8aff4dd46d0View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-053u-1920200000-db3504f562c54e6e1bbbView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 1 TMS)splash10-004l-3910000000-b43cd1ee268a855c8aa0View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 1 TMS)splash10-004l-3910000000-356ddfa8ddf8e551278dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-0090000000-914b212f1dbb7fb7b1acView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-052b-9800000000-d2e38d44d2f16d0a4203View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-052b-9300000000-6830823fa12b40e784a2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (JEOL JMS-01-SG-2) , Positivesplash10-0597-7920000000-dde7fba02fcbcec2d665View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6E) , Positivesplash10-05fs-4920000000-ccd839134de79f179f9eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , Positivesplash10-00ds-0950000000-48c1f79091d708072f30View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00dv-5940000000-5e22fba0c369374c75dfView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Merle G. Wovcha, Frederick J. Antosz, John M. Beaton, Alfred B. Garcia, Leo A. Kominek, “Process for preparing 9.alpha.-OH testosterone.” U.S. Patent US4221868, issued November, 1977.

US4221868
General References
  1. Freeman ER, Bloom DA, McGuire EJ: A brief history of testosterone. J Urol. 2001 Feb;165(2):371-3. [PubMed:11176375 ]
  2. Hoberman JM, Yesalis CE: The history of synthetic testosterone. Sci Am. 1995 Feb;272(2):76-81. [PubMed:7817189 ]
  3. Authors unspecified: Contraceptive efficacy of testosterone-induced azoospermia in normal men. World Health Organization Task Force on methods for the regulation of male fertility. Lancet. 1990 Oct 20;336(8721):955-9. [PubMed:1977002 ]
  4. Dean JD, Carnegie C, Rodzvilla J, Smith T: Long-term effects of testim(r) 1% testosterone gel in hypogonadal men. Rev Urol. 2004;6 Suppl 6:S22-9. [PubMed:16985908 ]
External Links
ATC CodesG03EA02G03BA03
AHFS Codes
  • 68:08.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (738 KB)
MSDSDownload (49.6 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcarboseTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.
AcenocoumarolTestosterone may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
AlbiglutideTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Albiglutide.
AlogliptinTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Alogliptin.
BetamethasoneBetamethasone may increase the fluid retaining activities of Testosterone.
BromocriptineTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Bromocriptine.
C1 Esterase Inhibitor (Human)Testosterone may increase the thrombogenic activities of C1 Esterase Inhibitor (Human).
CanagliflozinTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Canagliflozin.
ChlorpropamideTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Chlorpropamide.
CorticotropinCorticotropin may increase the fluid retaining activities of Testosterone.
Cortisone acetateCortisone acetate may increase the fluid retaining activities of Testosterone.
CyclosporineTestosterone may increase the hepatotoxic activities of Cyclosporine.
DapagliflozinTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Dapagliflozin.
DehydroepiandrosteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dehydroepiandrosterone is combined with Testosterone.
DexamethasoneDexamethasone may increase the fluid retaining activities of Testosterone.
DicoumarolTestosterone may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.
DisopyramideTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Disopyramide.
DulaglutideTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Dulaglutide.
EmpagliflozinTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Empagliflozin.
ErythromycinTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Erythromycin.
ExenatideTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Exenatide.
FludrocortisoneFludrocortisone may increase the fluid retaining activities of Testosterone.
GliclazideTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Gliclazide.
GlimepirideTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glimepiride.
GlipizideTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glipizide.
GlyburideTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glyburide.
HydrocortisoneHydrocortisone may increase the fluid retaining activities of Testosterone.
Insulin AspartTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
Insulin DegludecTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin degludec.
Insulin DetemirTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
Insulin GlargineTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glargine.
Insulin GlulisineTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
Insulin HumanTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Insulin LisproTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Lispro.
LanreotideTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Lanreotide.
LiraglutideTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Liraglutide.
MecaserminTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Mecasermin.
MetforminTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Metformin.
MethylprednisoloneMethylprednisolone may increase the fluid retaining activities of Testosterone.
MifepristoneTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Mifepristone.
MiglitolTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Miglitol.
NateglinideTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Nateglinide.
OctreotideTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Octreotide.
PasireotideTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pasireotide.
PentamidineTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pentamidine.
PioglitazoneTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pioglitazone.
PramlintideTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pramlintide.
PrednisolonePrednisolone may increase the fluid retaining activities of Testosterone.
PrednisonePrednisone may increase the fluid retaining activities of Testosterone.
QuinineTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
RepaglinideTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Repaglinide.
Repository corticotropinRepository corticotropin may increase the fluid retaining activities of Testosterone.
RosiglitazoneTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Rosiglitazone.
SaxagliptinTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Saxagliptin.
SitagliptinTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sitagliptin.
SulfadiazineTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfadiazine.
SulfamethoxazoleTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
SulfisoxazoleTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfisoxazole.
SunitinibTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sunitinib.
TolazamideTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolazamide.
TolbutamideTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolbutamide.
TriamcinoloneTriamcinolone may increase the fluid retaining activities of Testosterone.
TrimethoprimTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Trimethoprim.
WarfarinTestosterone may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3.
Gene Name:
AR
Uniprot ID:
P10275
Molecular Weight:
98987.9 Da
References
  1. Small EJ, Ryan CJ: The case for secondary hormonal therapies in the chemotherapy age. J Urol. 2006 Dec;176(6 Pt 2):S66-71. [PubMed:17084172 ]
  2. Omwancha J, Brown TR: Selective androgen receptor modulators: in pursuit of tissue-selective androgens. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2006 Oct;7(10):873-81. [PubMed:17086931 ]
  3. Petraki CD, Sfikas CP: Histopathological changes induced by therapies in the benign prostate and prostate adenocarcinoma. Histol Histopathol. 2007 Jan;22(1):107-18. [PubMed:17128417 ]
  4. Maudsley S, Davidson L, Pawson AJ, Freestone SH, Lopez de Maturana R, Thomson AA, Millar RP: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone functionally antagonizes testosterone activation of the human androgen receptor in prostate cells through focal adhesion complexes involving Hic-5. Neuroendocrinology. 2006;84(5):285-300. Epub 2007 Jan 4. [PubMed:17202804 ]
  5. Lapauw B, Goemaere S, Crabbe P, Kaufman JM, Ruige JB: Is the effect of testosterone on body composition modulated by the androgen receptor gene CAG repeat polymorphism in elderly men? Eur J Endocrinol. 2007 Mar;156(3):395-401. [PubMed:17322500 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitorinducer
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Zhang T, Zhu Y, Gunaratna C: Rapid and quantitative determination of metabolites from multiple cytochrome P450 probe substrates by gradient liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 Nov 25;780(2):371-9. [PubMed:12401364 ]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
  4. Source [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name:
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID:
P11511
Molecular Weight:
57882.48 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Serotonin binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Gene Name:
MAOA
Uniprot ID:
P21397
Molecular Weight:
59681.27 Da
References
  1. Sjoberg RL, Ducci F, Barr CS, Newman TK, Dell'osso L, Virkkunen M, Goldman D: A non-additive interaction of a functional MAO-A VNTR and testosterone predicts antisocial behavior. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008 Jan;33(2):425-30. Epub 2007 Apr 11. [PubMed:17429405 ]
  2. Hoff KM: Interaction of testosterone with monoamineoxidase in mouse brain maturation. Gen Pharmacol. 1977;8(1):55-7. [PubMed:590724 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, nad(p)h as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the side-chain cleavage reaction of cholesterol to pregnenolone.
Gene Name:
CYP11A1
Uniprot ID:
P05108
Molecular Weight:
60101.87 Da
References
  1. Kostic TS, Stojkov NJ, Bjelic MM, Mihajlovic AI, Janjic MM, Andric SA: Pharmacological doses of testosterone upregulated androgen receptor and 3-Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta-5-delta-4 isomerase and impaired leydig cells steroidogenesis in adult rats. Toxicol Sci. 2011 Jun;121(2):397-407. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfr063. Epub 2011 Apr 6. [PubMed:21427060 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular Weight:
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular Weight:
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular Weight:
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, retinoid and xenobiotics. Preferentially oxidizes 17beta-estradiol to the carcinogenic 4-hydroxy derivative, and a variety of procarcinogenic compou...
Gene Name:
CYP1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q16678
Molecular Weight:
60845.33 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits a coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Active in the metabolic activation of hexamethylphosphoramide, N,N-dimethylaniline, 2'-methoxyacetophenone, N-nitrosomethylphenylamine, and the tobacco-specific carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. Possesses phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A13
Uniprot ID:
Q16696
Molecular Weight:
56687.095 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinducer
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Monooxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits low testosterone 6-beta-hydroxylase activity.
Gene Name:
CYP3A43
Uniprot ID:
Q9HB55
Molecular Weight:
57669.21 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
no
Actions
other/unknown
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Molecular Weight:
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Pardridge WM: Serum bioavailability of sex steroid hormones. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 May;15(2):259-78. [PubMed:3521955 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
no
Actions
other/unknown
General Function:
Androgen binding
Specific Function:
Functions as an androgen transport protein, but may also be involved in receptor mediated processes. Each dimer binds one molecule of steroid. Specific for 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, and 17-beta-estradiol. Regulates the plasma metabolic clearance rate of steroid hormones by controlling their plasma concentration.
Gene Name:
SHBG
Uniprot ID:
P04278
Molecular Weight:
43778.755 Da
References
  1. Pardridge WM: Serum bioavailability of sex steroid hormones. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 May;15(2):259-78. [PubMed:3521955 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitorinducer
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibited by the grapefruit juice component naringin.
Gene Name:
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID:
P46721
Molecular Weight:
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Lu R, Kanai N, Bao Y, Wolkoff AW, Schuster VL: Regulation of renal oatp mRNA expression by testosterone. Am J Physiol. 1996 Feb;270(2 Pt 2):F332-7. [PubMed:8779895 ]
  2. Kanai N, Lu R, Bao Y, Wolkoff AW, Vore M, Schuster VL: Estradiol 17 beta-D-glucuronide is a high-affinity substrate for oatp organic anion transporter. Am J Physiol. 1996 Feb;270(2 Pt 2):F326-31. [PubMed:8779894 ]
  3. Bossuyt X, Muller M, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ: Polyspecific drug and steroid clearance by an organic anion transporter of mammalian liver. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Mar;276(3):891-6. [PubMed:8786566 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenadine. Transports benzylpenicillin (PCG), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), p-amino-hippurate (PAH), acyclovir (ACV) and ochratoxin (OTA).
Gene Name:
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCC7
Molecular Weight:
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Kobayashi Y, Hirokawa N, Ohshiro N, Sekine T, Sasaki T, Tokuyama S, Endou H, Yamamoto T: Differential gene expression of organic anion transporters in male and female rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Jan 11;290(1):482-7. [PubMed:11779196 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates sodium-independent multispecific organic anion transport. Transport of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2, tetracycline, bumetanide, estrone sulfate, glutarate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, allopurinol, 5-fluorouracil, paclitaxel, L-ascorbic acid, salicylate, ethotrexate, and alpha-ketoglutarate.
Gene Name:
SLC22A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y694
Molecular Weight:
60025.025 Da
References
  1. Kobayashi Y, Hirokawa N, Ohshiro N, Sekine T, Sasaki T, Tokuyama S, Endou H, Yamamoto T: Differential gene expression of organic anion transporters in male and female rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Jan 11;290(1):482-7. [PubMed:11779196 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine...
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular Weight:
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. [PubMed:9830022 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Katoh M, Nakajima M, Yamazaki H, Yokoi T: Inhibitory effects of CYP3A4 substrates and their metabolites on P-glycoprotein-mediated transport. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2001 Feb;12(4):505-13. [PubMed:11231118 ]
  2. Polli JW, Wring SA, Humphreys JE, Huang L, Morgan JB, Webster LO, Serabjit-Singh CS: Rational use of in vitro P-glycoprotein assays in drug discovery. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Nov;299(2):620-8. [PubMed:11602674 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
The hepatic sodium/bile acid uptake system exhibits broad substrate specificity and transports various non-bile acid organic compounds as well. It is strictly dependent on the extracellular presence of sodium.(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for hepatitis B virus.
Gene Name:
SLC10A1
Uniprot ID:
Q14973
Molecular Weight:
38118.64 Da
References
  1. Schroeder A, Eckhardt U, Stieger B, Tynes R, Schteingart CD, Hofmann AF, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Substrate specificity of the rat liver Na(+)-bile salt cotransporter in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in CHO cells. Am J Physiol. 1998 Feb;274(2 Pt 1):G370-5. [PubMed:9486191 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations. May play a significant role in the disposition of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters in the brain.
Gene Name:
SLC22A3
Uniprot ID:
O75751
Molecular Weight:
61279.485 Da
References
  1. Tzvetkov MV, Vormfelde SV, Balen D, Meineke I, Schmidt T, Sehrt D, Sabolic I, Koepsell H, Brockmoller J: The effects of genetic polymorphisms in the organic cation transporters OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3 on the renal clearance of metformin. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Sep;86(3):299-306. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2009.92. Epub 2009 Jun 17. [PubMed:19536068 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 1.78. A key substrate of this transporter seems to be ergothioneine (ET).
Gene Name:
SLC22A4
Uniprot ID:
Q9H015
Molecular Weight:
62154.48 Da
References
  1. Tzvetkov MV, Vormfelde SV, Balen D, Meineke I, Schmidt T, Sehrt D, Sabolic I, Koepsell H, Brockmoller J: The effects of genetic polymorphisms in the organic cation transporters OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3 on the renal clearance of metformin. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Sep;86(3):299-306. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2009.92. Epub 2009 Jun 17. [PubMed:19536068 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both from mitochondria to cytosol and from cytosol to extracellular space, and cellular export of hemin, and heme. Xenobiotic transporter that may play an important role in the exclusion of xenobiotics from t...
Gene Name:
ABCG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNQ0
Molecular Weight:
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Janvilisri T, Venter H, Shahi S, Reuter G, Balakrishnan L, van Veen HW: Sterol transport by the human breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) expressed in Lactococcus lactis. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 6;278(23):20645-51. Epub 2003 Mar 28. [PubMed:12668685 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 24, 2016 03:05