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Identification
NameAdenosine
Accession NumberDB00640  (APRD00132)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

A nucleoside that is composed of adenine and d-ribose. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
(2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-(6-Aminopurin-9-yl)-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolane-3,4-diolNot AvailableNot Available
6-Amino-9-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-9H-purineNot AvailableNot Available
9-beta-D-RibofuranosidoadenineNot AvailableNot Available
9-beta-D-Ribofuranosyl-9H-purin-6-amineNot AvailableNot Available
Ade-ribNot AvailableNot Available
Adenin ribosideNot AvailableIS
Adenine deoxyribonucleosideNot AvailableNot Available
AdenocardNot AvailableNot Available
AdenocorNot AvailableNot Available
AdenoscanNot AvailableNot Available
AdenosinGermanINN
AdenosinaSpanishINN
AdénosineFrenchINN
AdenosinumLatinINN
AdenyldeoxyribosideNot AvailableNot Available
AdoNot AvailableIS
beta-D-AdenosineNot AvailableNot Available
DeoxyadenosineNot AvailableNot Available
DesoxyadenosineNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
AdenocardAstellas
AdenocorSanofi-Aventis
AdenojectSun
AdénoscanSanofi-Aventis
AdenoscanAstellas
AdenozCelon
AdenozerPurzer
AdesinDae Han New Pharm
AdrekarSanofi-Aventis
AtépadèneMayoly-Spindler
CardimaxAC Farma
CardiovertSanofi-Aventis
KrenosinSanofi-Aventis
OsidenSquare
PisdenoPisa
TricorSanofi-Aventis
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number58-61-7
WeightAverage: 267.2413
Monoisotopic: 267.096753929
Chemical FormulaC10H13N5O4
InChI KeyOIRDTQYFTABQOQ-KQYNXXCUSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C10H13N5O4/c11-8-5-9(13-2-12-8)15(3-14-5)10-7(18)6(17)4(1-16)19-10/h2-4,6-7,10,16-18H,1H2,(H2,11,12,13)/t4-,6-,7-,10-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolane-3,4-diol
SMILES
NC1=C2N=CN([C@@H]3O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H]3O)C2=NC=N1
Mass Specshow(9.12 KB)
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassOrganooxygen Compounds
ClassCarbohydrates and Carbohydrate Conjugates
SubclassGlycosyl Compounds
Direct parentPurine Nucleosides and Analogues
Alternative parentsPentoses; Purines and Purine Derivatives; Aminopyrimidines and Derivatives; N-substituted Imidazoles; Primary Aromatic Amines; Tetrahydrofurans; Oxolanes; Secondary Alcohols; 1,2-Diols; Ethers; Primary Alcohols; Polyamines
Substituentspentose monosaccharide; imidazopyrimidine; purine; aminopyrimidine; primary aromatic amine; pyrimidine; monosaccharide; n-substituted imidazole; tetrahydrofuran; imidazole; azole; oxolane; secondary alcohol; 1,2-diol; polyamine; primary alcohol; ether; organonitrogen compound; primary amine; alcohol; amine
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the purine nucleosides and analogues. These are compounds comprising a purine base attached to a sugar.
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed as an initial treatment for the termination of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PVST), including that associated with accessory bypass tracts, and is a drug of choice for terminating stable, narrow-complex supraventricular tachycardias (SVT). Also used as an adjunct to thallous chloride TI 201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (thallium stress test) in patients who are unable to exercise adequately, as well as an adjunct to vagal maneuvers and clinical assessment to establish a specific diagnosis of undefined, stable, narrow-complex SVT.
PharmacodynamicsAdenosine is an endogenous nucleoside occurring in all cells of the body and is not chemically related to other antiarrhythmic drugs. Adenosine may exert its pharmacologic effects by activation of purine (cell surface A1 and A2 adenosine) receptors, as well as relax vascular smooth muscles through the reduction in calcium uptake by inhibition of slow inward calcium current and activation of adenylate cyclase in smooth muscle cells. Adenosine may reduce vascular tone by modulation of sympathetic neurotransmission. The drug also has negative chronotropic, dromotropic, and inotropic effects on the heart by slowing conduction time throught he AV node and interrupting AV nodal reentry pathways. Adenosine is a potent vasodilator in most vascular beds, but vasoconstriction is produced in renal afferent arterioles and hepatic veins. The drug produces a net mild to moderate reduction in systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure and a reflex increase in heart rate. Adenosine is antagonized competitively by methylxanthines such as caffeine and theophylline, and potentiated by blockers of nucleoside transport such as dipyridamole. Adenosine is not blocked by atropine.
Mechanism of actionAdenosine slows conduction time through the AV node and can interrupt the reentry pathways through the AV node, resulting in the restoration of normal sinus rhythm in patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT), including PSVT associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome. This effect may be mediated through the drug's activation of cell-surface A1 and A2 adenosine receptors. Adenosine also inhibits the slow inward calcium current and activation of adenylate cyclase in smooth muscle cells, thereby causing relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. By increasing blood flow in normal coronary arteries with little or no increase in stenotic arteries (with little to no increase in stenotic arteries), adenosine produces a relative difference in thallous (thallium) chloride TI 201 uptake in myocardium supplied by normal verus stenotic coronary arteries.
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Intracellular adenosine is rapidly metabolized either via phosphorylation to adenosine monophosphate by adenosine kinase, or via deamination to inosine by adenosine deaminase in the cytosol.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Adenosine
Not Available
Adenosine monophosphateDetails
Adenosine
Not Available
InosineDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeLess than 10 secs
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Intracellular Signalling Through Adenosine Receptor A2a and AdenosineSignalingSMP00320
Intracellular Signalling Through Adenosine Receptor A2b and AdenosineSignalingSMP00321
Selenoamino Acid MetabolismMetabolicSMP00029
Betaine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00123
HypermethioninemiaDiseaseSMP00341
Glycine N-methyltransferase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00222
Methionine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00033
S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) Hydrolase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00214
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency (MTHFRD)DiseaseSMP00340
Homocystinuria-megaloblastic anemia due to defect in cobalamin metabolism, cblG complementation typeDiseaseSMP00570
Cystathionine Beta-Synthase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00177
Methionine Adenosyltransferase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00221
Molybdenium Cofactor DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00203
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00210
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeDiseaseSMP00536
Purine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00050
Adenylosuccinate Lyase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00167
Adenosine Deaminase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00144
AICA-RibosiduriaDiseaseSMP00168
Myoadenylate deaminase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00537
Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller SyndromeDiseaseSMP00365
Xanthinuria type IDiseaseSMP00512
Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS)DiseaseSMP00364
Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)DiseaseSMP00220
Xanthinuria type IIDiseaseSMP00513
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)DiseaseSMP00535
Azathioprine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00427
Thioguanine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00430
Mercaptopurine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00428
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9227
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9383
Caco-2 permeable - 0.8957
P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.7026
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.966
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.9533
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.9444
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8639
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.8349
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.5866
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9667
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9595
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.977
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9514
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.962
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.9701
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.9133
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9182
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.9738
Rat acute toxicity 1.9715 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.989
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.9102
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Astellas pharma us inc
  • Akorn inc
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Baxter healthcare corp
  • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
  • Gland pharma ltd
  • Luitpold pharmaceuticals inc
  • Strides arcolab ltd
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
  • Wockhardt ltd
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Adenosine-5 monophosphate19.74USDg
Adenosine powder15.86USDg
Adenoscan 3 mg/ml vial10.09USDml
Adenosine 12 mg/4 ml vial8.44USDml
Adenosine 6 mg/2 ml vial8.1USDml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
United States57312961995-03-242015-03-24
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point235.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility8230 mg/LNot Available
logP-1.05HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility14.0ALOGPS
logP-1.2ALOGPS
logP-2.1ChemAxon
logS-1.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.45ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.99ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count8ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area139.54 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity63.2 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability25.27 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
References
Synthesis Reference

Giorgio Stramentinoli, Federico Gennari, “Process for preparing adenosine derivatives of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity.” U.S. Patent US4373097, issued October, 1965.

US4373097
General ReferenceNot Available
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD00045
KEGG CompoundC00212
PubChem Compound60961
PubChem Substance46508728
ChemSpider54923
ChEBI16335
ChEMBLCHEMBL477
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000223
PharmGKBPA448049
HET101
Drug Product Database2243435
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic3/adenos.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cdi/adenosine.html
WikipediaAdenosine
ATC CodesC01EB10
AHFS Codes
  • 92:00.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelshow(154 KB)
MSDSshow(72.7 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AminophyllineThis xanthine decreases the effect of adenosine
CaffeineCaffeine may diminish the therapeutic effect of adenosine. Specific management recommendations vary slightly depending on specific adenosine product used (i.e., therapeutic vs. diagnostic use of adenosine). Significantly higher adenosine doses, or alternative agents, may be required. Monitor for decreased therapeutic effects of adenosine if the patient is already receiving caffeine. Discontinue caffeine in advance (5 half-lives, or approximately 24 hours, is specifically recommended) of scheduled diagnostic use of adenosine (e.g., for radionuclide imaging studies) whenever possible.
DipyridamoleDipyridamole may increase the effect/toxicity of adenosine.
DyphyllineThis xanthine decreases the effect of adenosine
OxtriphyllineThis xanthine decreases the effect of adenosine
TheophyllineTheophylline may decrease the effect of adenosine.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid caffeine containing foods and drinks.

Targets

1. Adenosine receptor A2a

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Adenosine receptor A2a P29274 Details

References:

  1. Trincavelli ML, Daniele S, Martini C: Adenosine receptors: what we know and what we are learning. Curr Top Med Chem. 2010;10(9):860-77. Pubmed
  2. Schenone S, Brullo C, Musumeci F, Bruno O, Botta M: A1 receptors ligands: past, present and future trends. Curr Top Med Chem. 2010;10(9):878-901. Pubmed
  3. Ezeamuzie CI, Khan I: The role of adenosine A(2) receptors in the regulation of TNF-alpha production and PGE release in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Int Immunopharmacol. 2007 Apr;7(4):483-90. Epub 2006 Dec 29. Pubmed
  4. Kreckler LM, Wan TC, Ge ZD, Auchampach JA: Adenosine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha release from mouse peritoneal macrophages via A2A and A2B but not the A3 adenosine receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Apr;317(1):172-80. Epub 2005 Dec 9. Pubmed
  5. Kreckler LM, Gizewski E, Wan TC, Auchampach JA: Adenosine suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by murine macrophages through a protein kinase A- and exchange protein activated by cAMP-independent signaling pathway. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009 Dec;331(3):1051-61. Epub 2009 Sep 11. Pubmed
  6. Buenestado A, Grassin Delyle S, Arnould I, Besnard F, Naline E, Blouquit-Laye S, Chapelier A, Bellamy JF, Devillier P: The role of adenosine receptors in regulating production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and chemokines by human lung macrophages. Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Mar;159(6):1304-11. Epub 2010 Feb 5. Pubmed
  7. Funakoshi H, Zacharia LC, Tang Z, Zhang J, Lee LL, Good JC, Herrmann DE, Higuchi Y, Koch WJ, Jackson EK, Chan TO, Feldman AM: A1 adenosine receptor upregulation accompanies decreasing myocardial adenosine levels in mice with left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation. 2007 May 1;115(17):2307-15. Epub 2007 Apr 16. Pubmed
  8. Haschemi A, Wagner O, Marculescu R, Wegiel B, Robson SC, Gagliani N, Gallo D, Chen JF, Bach FH, Otterbein LE: Cross-regulation of carbon monoxide and the adenosine A2a receptor in macrophages. J Immunol. 2007 May 1;178(9):5921-9. Pubmed

2. Adenosine receptor A2b

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Adenosine receptor A2b P29275 Details

References:

  1. Trincavelli ML, Daniele S, Martini C: Adenosine receptors: what we know and what we are learning. Curr Top Med Chem. 2010;10(9):860-77. Pubmed
  2. Schenone S, Brullo C, Musumeci F, Bruno O, Botta M: A1 receptors ligands: past, present and future trends. Curr Top Med Chem. 2010;10(9):878-901. Pubmed
  3. Ezeamuzie CI, Khan I: The role of adenosine A(2) receptors in the regulation of TNF-alpha production and PGE release in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Int Immunopharmacol. 2007 Apr;7(4):483-90. Epub 2006 Dec 29. Pubmed
  4. Kreckler LM, Wan TC, Ge ZD, Auchampach JA: Adenosine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha release from mouse peritoneal macrophages via A2A and A2B but not the A3 adenosine receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Apr;317(1):172-80. Epub 2005 Dec 9. Pubmed
  5. Buenestado A, Grassin Delyle S, Arnould I, Besnard F, Naline E, Blouquit-Laye S, Chapelier A, Bellamy JF, Devillier P: The role of adenosine receptors in regulating production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and chemokines by human lung macrophages. Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Mar;159(6):1304-11. Epub 2010 Feb 5. Pubmed
  6. Funakoshi H, Zacharia LC, Tang Z, Zhang J, Lee LL, Good JC, Herrmann DE, Higuchi Y, Koch WJ, Jackson EK, Chan TO, Feldman AM: A1 adenosine receptor upregulation accompanies decreasing myocardial adenosine levels in mice with left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation. 2007 May 1;115(17):2307-15. Epub 2007 Apr 16. Pubmed
  7. Haschemi A, Wagner O, Marculescu R, Wegiel B, Robson SC, Gagliani N, Gallo D, Chen JF, Bach FH, Otterbein LE: Cross-regulation of carbon monoxide and the adenosine A2a receptor in macrophages. J Immunol. 2007 May 1;178(9):5921-9. Pubmed

3. Adenosine receptor A3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Adenosine receptor A3 P33765 Details

References:

  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  2. Trincavelli ML, Daniele S, Martini C: Adenosine receptors: what we know and what we are learning. Curr Top Med Chem. 2010;10(9):860-77. Pubmed
  3. Schenone S, Brullo C, Musumeci F, Bruno O, Botta M: A1 receptors ligands: past, present and future trends. Curr Top Med Chem. 2010;10(9):878-901. Pubmed
  4. Ezeamuzie CI, Khan I: The role of adenosine A(2) receptors in the regulation of TNF-alpha production and PGE release in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Int Immunopharmacol. 2007 Apr;7(4):483-90. Epub 2006 Dec 29. Pubmed
  5. Kreckler LM, Wan TC, Ge ZD, Auchampach JA: Adenosine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha release from mouse peritoneal macrophages via A2A and A2B but not the A3 adenosine receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Apr;317(1):172-80. Epub 2005 Dec 9. Pubmed
  6. Buenestado A, Grassin Delyle S, Arnould I, Besnard F, Naline E, Blouquit-Laye S, Chapelier A, Bellamy JF, Devillier P: The role of adenosine receptors in regulating production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and chemokines by human lung macrophages. Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Mar;159(6):1304-11. Epub 2010 Feb 5. Pubmed
  7. Funakoshi H, Zacharia LC, Tang Z, Zhang J, Lee LL, Good JC, Herrmann DE, Higuchi Y, Koch WJ, Jackson EK, Chan TO, Feldman AM: A1 adenosine receptor upregulation accompanies decreasing myocardial adenosine levels in mice with left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation. 2007 May 1;115(17):2307-15. Epub 2007 Apr 16. Pubmed
  8. Haschemi A, Wagner O, Marculescu R, Wegiel B, Robson SC, Gagliani N, Gallo D, Chen JF, Bach FH, Otterbein LE: Cross-regulation of carbon monoxide and the adenosine A2a receptor in macrophages. J Immunol. 2007 May 1;178(9):5921-9. Pubmed

4. Adenosine receptor A1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Adenosine receptor A1 P30542 Details

References:

  1. Trincavelli ML, Daniele S, Martini C: Adenosine receptors: what we know and what we are learning. Curr Top Med Chem. 2010;10(9):860-77. Pubmed
  2. Schenone S, Brullo C, Musumeci F, Bruno O, Botta M: A1 receptors ligands: past, present and future trends. Curr Top Med Chem. 2010;10(9):878-901. Pubmed
  3. Ezeamuzie CI, Khan I: The role of adenosine A(2) receptors in the regulation of TNF-alpha production and PGE release in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Int Immunopharmacol. 2007 Apr;7(4):483-90. Epub 2006 Dec 29. Pubmed
  4. Buenestado A, Grassin Delyle S, Arnould I, Besnard F, Naline E, Blouquit-Laye S, Chapelier A, Bellamy JF, Devillier P: The role of adenosine receptors in regulating production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and chemokines by human lung macrophages. Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Mar;159(6):1304-11. Epub 2010 Feb 5. Pubmed
  5. Funakoshi H, Zacharia LC, Tang Z, Zhang J, Lee LL, Good JC, Herrmann DE, Higuchi Y, Koch WJ, Jackson EK, Chan TO, Feldman AM: A1 adenosine receptor upregulation accompanies decreasing myocardial adenosine levels in mice with left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation. 2007 May 1;115(17):2307-15. Epub 2007 Apr 16. Pubmed
  6. Haschemi A, Wagner O, Marculescu R, Wegiel B, Robson SC, Gagliani N, Gallo D, Chen JF, Bach FH, Otterbein LE: Cross-regulation of carbon monoxide and the adenosine A2a receptor in macrophages. J Immunol. 2007 May 1;178(9):5921-9. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Adenosine deaminase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Adenosine deaminase P00813 Details

References:

  1. Kopff M, Kopff A, Puczkowski S: [Adenosine deaminase: isoenzymes ADA1 and ADA2]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 1997 Dec;3(18):288-90. Pubmed

2. Adenosine kinase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Adenosine kinase P55263 Details

References:

  1. Boison D: Adenosine kinase, epilepsy and stroke: mechanisms and therapies. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2006 Dec;27(12):652-8. Epub 2006 Oct 23. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Solute carrier family 28 member 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 28 member 3 Q9HAS3 Details

References:

  1. Badagnani I, Chan W, Castro RA, Brett CM, Huang CC, Stryke D, Kawamoto M, Johns SJ, Ferrin TE, Carlson EJ, Burchard EG, Giacomini KM: Functional analysis of genetic variants in the human concentrative nucleoside transporter 3 (CNT3; SLC28A3). Pharmacogenomics J. 2005;5(3):157-65. Pubmed

Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:11