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Identification
NameEpinephrine
Accession NumberDB00668  (APRD00450, EXPT00496)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved
Description

The active sympathomimetic hormone from the adrenal medulla in most species. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic vasoconstriction and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the heart, and dilates bronchi and cerebral vessels. It is used in asthma and cardiac failure and to delay absorption of local anesthetics. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
(−)-adrenalineNot AvailableNot Available
(R)-(-)-AdnephrineNot AvailableNot Available
(R)-(-)-AdrenalineNot AvailableNot Available
(R)-(-)-EpinephrineNot AvailableNot Available
(R)-(-)-EpirenamineNot AvailableNot Available
(R)-(−)-adrenalineNot AvailableNot Available
AdrenalinNot AvailableNot Available
AdrenalineNot AvailableNot Available
EpinefrinCzechNot Available
EpinefrinaSpanishINN
EpinephrinDutchNot Available
EpinephrinumLatinINN
L-AdrenalineNot AvailableNot Available
levoepinephrineNot AvailableNot Available
Salts
Name/CAS Structure Properties
Epinephrine bitartrate
Thumb
  • InChI Key: YLXIPWWIOISBDD-NDAAPVSOSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 333.105981211
  • Average Mass: 333.2913
DBSALT000788
Epinephrine chloride
Thumb
  • InChI Key: QMTJCDRNQYQRHF-WWPIYYJJSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 255.042898765
  • Average Mass: 256.126
DBSALT000384
Brand names
NameCompany
AdrenaclickNot Available
AdrenalinNot Available
AnapenNot Available
Auvi-qNot Available
Epi EZ Pen JRNot Available
EpiPenNot Available
Medihaler-EpiNot Available
PrimateneNot Available
TwinjectNot Available
Brand mixtures
Brand NameIngredients
1% Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine 1:100000 Inj UspEpinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
2% Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine 1:100000 Inj UspEpinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
2% Xylocaine Dental with Epinephrine 1:100,000Epinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
2% Xylocaine Dental with Epinephrine 1:50,000Epinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
4% Citanest Forte Dental with Epinephrine 1:200,000Epinephrine (Epinephrine Bitartrate) + Prilocaine Hydrochloride
Ad PlexCelandine + Echinacea Angustifolia + Epinephrine + Lycopodium Clavatum + Milk Thistle + Phosphoric Acid + Propolis + Sodium Chloride
Ad TonicCharcoal Activated + Epinephrine + Glycyrrhiza Glabra + Iodine + Lycopodium Clavatum + Oats + Phosphoric Acid + Potassium Phosphate Dibasic + Sarsaparilla + Sodium Chloride
AdaptagenCapsicum + Charcoal Activated + Conium Maculatum + Copper + Elaeis Guineensis + Epinephrine + Ginkgo Biloba + Ginseng + Glycyrrhiza Glabra + Iodine + Ledum Palustre + Oats + Phosphoric Acid + Picric Acid + Pituitary Posterior + Selenium + Sepia Officinalis L + Silicon Dioxide + Sodium Carbonate (Anhydrous) + Thuja Occidentalis + Vitamin B1 + Vitamin B2
All- ICharcoal Activated + Epinephrine + Histamine + Liverwort + Lycopodium Clavatum + Phosphorus + Potassium Phosphate Dibasic + Pulsatilla + Silicon Dioxide + Sodium Phosphate Dibasic
All-IiEpinephrine + Euphrasia Officinalis + Goldenrod + Histamine + Liverwort + Modified Ragweed Tyrosine Adsorbate + Phosphorus + Potassium Iodide + Pulsatilla + Sulfur
AllforceAralia Racemosa + Cantharides + Charcoal Activated + Epinephrine + Ginger + Glycyrrhiza Glabra + Iodine + Onion + Oyster Shells + Phosphorus + Poison Ivy + Sarsaparilla + Sodium Carbonate (Anhydrous)
AloptBaptisia Tinctoria + Echinacea Angustifolia + Epinephrine + Euphrasia Officinalis + Garlic + Goldenrod + Histamine + Modified Ragweed Tyrosine Adsorbate + Onion + Phosphorus + Potassium Dichromate + Pulsatilla + Sulfur
Alphacaine Hcl 2% W Epineph 1:100000Epinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Alphacaine Hcl 2% W Epineph 1:50000Epinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Ana-Kit2mg/Tab Orl, 1mg/Ml Liq Sc Im) (Chlorpheniramine Maleate + Epinephrine
Ana-KitChlorpheniramine Maleate + Epinephrine Hcl
Anakit Insect Sting Treatment KitChlorpheniramine Maleate + Epinephrine
AndroptAstragalus Menziesii + Echinacea Angustifolia + Epinephrine + Juniper Berries + Oats + Phosphoric Acid + Picric Acid + Pulsatilla + Saw Palmetto + Selenium + Sodium Hexafluorosilicate + Thuja Occidentalis + Vitex Agnus Castus
BacAstragalus Menziesii + Baptisia Tinctoria + Belladonna + Charcoal Activated + Echinacea Angustifolia + Epinephrine + Ferrum Phosphoricum + Hydrastis Canadensis + Hypericum Perforatum + Iodine + Myrrh + Phosphorus + Phytolacca Decandra + Propolis + Silicon Dioxide + Water Cress
CandoptAstragalus Menziesii + Echinacea Angustifolia + Epinephrine + Fucus Vesiculosus + Hydrastis Canadensis + Lycopodium Clavatum + Phosphoric Acid + Platanus Occidentalis + Pulsatilla + Sepia Officinalis L + Sodium Chloride
ChemtoxBarberry Root + Belladonna + Burdock + Cascarilla + Charcoal Activated + Couch Grass + Epinephrine + Glycerine + Glycyrrhiza Glabra + Iodine + Liverwort + Lycopodium Clavatum + Nitric Acid + Phosphoric Acid + Phosphorus + Phytolacca Decandra + Pulsatilla + Stillingia + Trifolium Pratense + Xanthoxylum
Crc-PlexArnica Montana + Barium Chloride + Calcium Lactate + Charcoal Activated + Cholesterol + Convallaria Majalis + Epinephrine + Iodine + Magnesium Carbonate + Nitroglycerin + Phosphorus + Picric Acid + Potassium Iodide + Strophanthus Hispidus
Cv ToxAstragalus Menziesii + Barberry Root + Diadem Spider + Echinacea Angustifolia + Epinephrine + Gelsemium Sempervirens + Hydrastis Canadensis + Hydrochloric Acid + Ipecac + Lycopodium Clavatum + Nitric Acid + Phosphoric Acid + Poison Ivy + Scurvy Grass + Silicon Dioxide
E-Pilo 1 Ophthalmic SolutionEpinephrine Bitartrate + Pilocarpine Hydrochloride
E-Pilo 2 Ophthalmic SolutionEpinephrine Bitartrate + Pilocarpine Hydrochloride
E-Pilo 4 Ophthalmic SolutionEpinephrine Bitartrate + Pilocarpine Hydrochloride
E-Pilo 6 Ophthalmic SolutionEpinephrine Bitartrate + Pilocarpine Hydrochloride
E-Pilo-1 Oph SolnEpinephrine Bitartrate + Pilocarpine Hydrochloride
E-Pilo-2 Oph SolnEpinephrine Bitartrate + Pilocarpine Hydrochloride
E-Pilo-4 Oph SolnEpinephrine Bitartrate + Pilocarpine Hydrochloride
E-Pilo-6 Oph SolnEpinephrine Bitartrate + Pilocarpine Hydrochloride
EndangitinAesculus Hippocastanum + Cupric Acetate + Epinephrine + Ergot + Potentilla Anserina + Tobacco + White Hellebore Root
Endoplex FBovine Ovaries, Dried + Charcoal Activated + Cimicifuga Racemosa + Epinephrine + Fucus Vesiculosus + Glycyrrhiza Glabra + Iodine + Murex Purpurea + Pituitary Posterior + Pulsatilla + Sabina + Sepia Officinalis L + Xanthoxylum
Endoplex MClematis Erecta + Conium Maculatum + Epinephrine + Ginseng + Juniper Berries + Lycopodium Clavatum + Parsley + Picric Acid + Pituitary Posterior + Pulsatilla + Saw Palmetto + Thuja Occidentalis + Uva Ursi + Vitex Agnus Castus + Xanthoxylum
Ev ToxAstragalus Menziesii + Belladonna + Charcoal Activated + Diadem Spider + Echinacea Angustifolia + Epinephrine + Hydrastis Canadensis + Hydrochloric Acid + Ipecac + Lycopodium Clavatum + Nitric Acid + Poison Ivy + Propolis + Scurvy Grass + Silicon Dioxide
F AlleroptAethusa Cynapium + Belladonna + Capsicum + Charcoal Activated + Comfrey + Echinacea Angustifolia + Epinephrine + Gentiana Cruciata + Histamine + Lycopodium Clavatum + Phosphorus + Potassium Dichromate + Pulsatilla
Fml-ToxAngelicae Sinensis Radix + Beechwood Creosote + Boric Acid + Cimicifuga Racemosa + Epinephrine + Iodine + Oophorinum + Oyster Shells + Placenta + Pulsatilla + Sepia Officinalis L + Sodium Chloride + Sulfur + Zinc
Fng IAstragalus Menziesii + Condurango + Echinacea Angustifolia + Epinephrine + Ginkgo Biloba + Hydrastis Canadensis + Lycopodium Clavatum + Phosphoric Acid + Phosphorus + Phytolacca Decandra + Propolis + Sepia Officinalis L + Sodium Chloride + Water Cress
Fng IiAstragalus Menziesii + Candida Parapsilosis + Charcoal Activated + Echinacea Angustifolia + Epinephrine + Hydrastis Canadensis + Iodine + Lycopodium Clavatum + Phosphoric Acid + Pulsatilla + Sepia Officinalis L + Silver + Sodium Chloride + Water Cress
Gingibraid W Alum Pot Sulf and Epin 0eAluminum Potassium Sulfate + Racemic Epinephrine Hydrochloride
Gingibraid W Epineph and Alum 1eAluminum Potassium Sulfate + Racemic Epinephrine Hydrochloride
Gingibraid W Epineph and Alum 2eAluminum Potassium Sulfate + Racemic Epinephrine Hydrochloride
Gingibraid W Epineph and Alum 3eAluminum Potassium Sulfate + Racemic Epinephrine Hydrochloride
Gingicord W Epineph and Alum Size No 1Aluminum Potassium Sulfate + Racemic Epinephrine Hydrochloride
Gingicord W Epineph and Alum Size No 3Aluminum Potassium Sulfate + Racemic Epinephrine Hydrochloride
Gingicord W/Epineph and Alum Size 2Aluminum Potassium Sulfate + Racemic Epinephrine Hydrochloride
GynoptAngelica + Beechwood Creosote + Boric Acid + Bovine Ovaries, Dried + Charcoal Activated + Cimicifuga Racemosa + Epinephrine + Iodine + Nitric Acid + Placenta + Potassium Acetate + Pulsatilla + Sepia Officinalis L + Sodium Chloride + Sulfur
ImmplexAstragalus Menziesii + Calcium Sulfide Crude + Echinacea Angustifolia + Epinephrine + Eupatorium Perfoliatum + Ferrum Phosphoricum + Hydrastis Canadensis + Myrrh + Phosphoric Acid + Propolis + Silicon Dioxide + Water Cress
Lido-2 LiqEpinephrine Hcl + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Lidocaine 2% Sterile Injectable SolutionEpinephrine Racemic + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Lidocaine 2% with Epinephrine 1:100000Epinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Lidocaine and Epinephrine Inj.Usp2% 1:100000Epinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Lidocaine Hcl 2%Epinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Lidocaine Hcl 2% Epinephrine InjEpinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Lidocaine Hcl 2% W Epineph 1:100000injEpinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Lidocaine Hcl 2% W EpinephrineEpinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Lidocaine Hcl 2% W Epinephrine 1:100000Epinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Lidocaine Hcl 2% W Epinephrine 1:50000Epinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Lidocaine Inj 2%Epinephrine Hcl + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Lignospan ForteEpinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Lignospan Speciale InjEpinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Lignospan StandardEpinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Marcaine E 0.25% Liq PrtBupivacaine Hydrochloride + Epinephrine Bitartrate
Marcaine E 2.5 Mg/MlBupivacaine Hydrochloride + Epinephrine Bitartrate
Marcaine E 5.0 Mg/MlBupivacaine Hydrochloride + Epinephrine Bitartrate
Marcaine E Liq Prt 0.50%Bupivacaine Hydrochloride + Epinephrine Bitartrate
Nasal SprayEchinacea Angustifolia + Epinephrine + Gelsemium Sempervirens + Modified Ragweed Tyrosine Adsorbate + Onion + Potassium Iodide + Sanguinaria Canadensis + Sticta Pulmonaria
NeuplexAgaricus Muscarius + Arnica Montana + Charcoal Activated + Diadem Spider + Epinephrine + Hypericum Perforatum + Iodine + Passion Flower + Plumbum Metallicum + Trifolium Pratense
Octocaine 100 Needleject InjEpinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Octocaine Hcl 2% Epinephrine 1:100000injEpinephrine Hcl + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Octocaine Hcl 2% Epinephrine 1:50000injEpinephrine Hcl + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
PanplexCelandine + Charcoal Activated + Common Bean Garden + Epinephrine + Eugenia Jambolana + Ginger + Glycyrrhiza Glabra + Hydrastis Canadensis + Iodine + Liverwort + Nux Moschata + Pancreas + Phosphoric Acid + Phosphorus + Pituitary Posterior + Rhubarb + Taraxacum Officinale Weber
Prilocaine Hcl 4% Epineph 1:200000injEpinephrine + Prilocaine Hydrochloride
R63Aesculus Hippocastanum + Cupric Acetate + Epinephrine + Potentilla Anserina + Tobacco
Racord Two 7Racemic Epinephrine Hydrochloride + Zinc Phenolsulphonate
Racord Two No 10Racemic Epinephrine Hydrochloride + Zinc Phenolsulphonate
Racord Two No 8Racemic Epinephrine Hydrochloride + Zinc Phenolsulphonate
Racord Two No 9Racemic Epinephrine Hydrochloride + Zinc Phenolsulphonate
RadoptBrassica Napus + Cadmium Iodatum + Cadmium Sulphuricum + Capsicum + Charcoal Activated + Diadem Spider + Epinephrine + Fucus Vesiculosus + Goldenrod + Iodine + Ipecac + Iridium Metallicum + Phosphoric Acid + Phosphorus + Uranium Nitrate + X-Ray
Rdn-ToxCadmium Iodatum + Cadmium Sulphuricum + Capsicum + Cetraria Islandica + Charcoal Activated + Epinephrine + Fucus Vesiculosus + Hydrangea Arborescens + Iodine + Phosphoric Acid + Phosphorus + Pulsatilla + Strontium Carbonate + Uranium Nitrate + X-Ray
Scandonest 2% Special InjEpinephrine + Mepivacaine Hydrochloride
Sensorcaine 0.25% with EpinephrineBupivacaine Hydrochloride + Epinephrine (Epinephrine Bitartrate)
Sensorcaine 0.5% with EpinephrineBupivacaine Hydrochloride + Epinephrine (Epinephrine Bitartrate)
Sensorcaine ForteBupivacaine Hydrochloride + Epinephrine (Epinephrine Bitartrate)
Septanest NArticaine Hydrochloride + Epinephrine (Epinephrine Bitartrate)
Septanest SpArticaine Hydrochloride + Epinephrine (Epinephrine Bitartrate)
Sil Trax Plus No 10Racemic Epinephrine Hydrochloride + Zinc Phenolsulphonate
Sil Trax Plus No 8Racemic Epinephrine Hydrochloride + Zinc Phenolsulphonate
Sil Trax Plus No 9Racemic Epinephrine Hydrochloride + Zinc Phenolsulphonate
Siltrax Plus 7Racemic Epinephrine Hydrochloride + Zinc Phenolsulphonate
Spinal Anaesthesia TrayDextrose + Epinephrine + Iodine (Povidone-Iodine) + Lidocaine Hydrochloride + Tetracaine Hydrochloride
Spinal Anaesthesia TrayDextrose + Epinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride + Povidone-Iodine + Tetracaine Hydrochloride
Spinal Anesthesia TrayDextrose + Ephedrine Sulfate + Epinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride + Tetracaine Hydrochloride
Spinal Anesthesia TrayDextrose + Epinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride + Tetracaine Hydrochloride
Super Sulpak R 44Aluminum Potassium Sulfate + Racemic Epinephrine Hydrochloride
Super Sulpak R 45Aluminum Potassium Sulfate + Racemic Epinephrine Hydrochloride
Super Sulpak R 46Aluminum Potassium Sulfate + Racemic Epinephrine Hydrochloride
SystoptBarberry Root + Burdock + Calcium Sulfide Crude + Celandine + Charcoal Activated + Conium Maculatum + Diadem Spider + Epinephrine + Glycyrrhiza Glabra + Goldenrod + Hydrastis Canadensis + Lycopodium Clavatum + Tarentula Cubensis + Thuja Occidentalis + Trifolium Pratense
SystoxBarberry Root + Boldo + Burdock + Calcium Sulfide Crude + Celandine + Charcoal Activated + Conium Maculatum + Diadem Spider + Epinephrine + Hydrastis Canadensis + Lycopodium Clavatum + Sarsaparilla + Taraxacum Officinale Weber + Tarentula Cubensis + Thuja Occidentalis + Trifolium Pratense
Tyd-PlexCharcoal Activated + Epinephrine + Ferrous Iodide + Fucus Vesiculosus + Iodine + Oyster Shells + Phosphoric Acid + Pituitary Posterior + Potassium Iodide + Spongia Tosta
Ultracaine D-S Forte InjectionArticaine Hydrochloride + Epinephrine
Ultracaine D-S InjectionArticaine Hydrochloride + Epinephrine
Ultracaine Ds Forte InjArticaine Hydrochloride + Epinephrine
Ultracaine Ds InjArticaine Hydrochloride + Epinephrine
UniversaltoxAlfalfa + Buckthorn + Charcoal Activated + Coffea Tosta + Comfrey + Epinephrine + Fucus Vesiculosus + Iodine + Liverwort + Lycopodium Clavatum + Manganese + Oats + Oyster Shells + Poison Ivy + Pulsatilla + Sepia Officinalis L + Sodium Chloride + Spigelia Anthelmia + Water Cress
VactoxArnica Montana + Astragalus Menziesii + Baptisia Tinctoria + Belladonna + Calendula + Celandine + Echinacea Angustifolia + Epinephrine + Gelsemium Sempervirens + German Chamomile + Hydrastis Canadensis + Lycopodium Clavatum + Phytolacca Decandra + Poison Ivy + Propolis + Silicon Dioxide + Taraxacum Officinale Weber + Thuja Occidentalis + Trifolium Pratense + Urtica Urens + Water Cress
VirotoxAstragalus Menziesii + Belladonna + Echinacea Angustifolia + Epinephrine + Eupatorium Perfoliatum + Gelsemium Sempervirens + Hydrastis Canadensis + Lycopodium Clavatum + Myrrh + Phytolacca Decandra + Water Cress
Xylocaine 0.5% W Epinephrine 1:100000Epinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Xylocaine 0.5% W Epinephrine 1:200000Epinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Xylocaine 1.5% W Epinephrine 1:200000Epinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Xylocaine 1.5% W Epinephrine 1:200000 Test DoseEpinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Xylocaine 1% W Epinephrine 1:100000Epinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Xylocaine 1% W Epinephrine 1:200000Epinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Xylocaine 2% W Epinephrine 1:100000Epinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Xylocaine 2% W Epinephrine 1:200000Epinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Xylocaine Mpf 1.5% with EpinephrineEpinephrine + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
ZorcaineArticaine Hydrochloride + Epinephrine (Epinephrine Bitartrate)
Categories
CAS number51-43-4
WeightAverage: 183.2044
Monoisotopic: 183.089543287
Chemical FormulaC9H13NO3
InChI KeyUCTWMZQNUQWSLP-VIFPVBQESA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C9H13NO3/c1-10-5-9(13)6-2-3-7(11)8(12)4-6/h2-4,9-13H,5H2,1H3/t9-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
4-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]benzene-1,2-diol
SMILES
CNC[C@H](O)C1=CC(O)=C(O)C=C1
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and Substituted Derivatives
SubclassPhenols and Derivatives
Direct parentCatecholamines and Derivatives
Alternative parentsSecondary Alcohols; Polyols; 1,2-Aminoalcohols; Enols; Dialkylamines; Polyamines
Substituents1,2-aminoalcohol; polyol; secondary alcohol; secondary aliphatic amine; polyamine; enol; secondary amine; amine; alcohol; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the catecholamines and derivatives. These are compounds containing 4-(2-Aminoethyl)pyrocatechol [4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol] or a derivative thereof formed by substitution.
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed to treat anaphylaxis and sepsis. Also one of the body's main adrenergic neurotransmitters.
PharmacodynamicsEpinephrine is indicated for intravenous injection in treatment of acute hypersensitivity, treatment of acute asthmatic attacks to relieve bronchospasm, and treatment and prophylaxis of cardiac arrest and attacks of transitory atrioventricular heart block with syncopal seizures (Stokes-Adams Syndrome). The actions of epinephrine resemble the effects of stimulation of adrenergic nerves. To a variable degree it acts on both alpha and beta receptor sites of sympathetic effector cells. Its most prominent actions are on the beta receptors of the heart, vascular and other smooth muscle. When given by rapid intravenous injection, it produces a rapid rise in blood pressure, mainly systolic, by (1) direct stimulation of cardiac muscle which increases the strength of ventricular contraction, (2) increasing the heart rate and (3) constriction of the arterioles in the skin, mucosa and splanchnic areas of the circulation. When given by slow intravenous injection, epinephrine usually produces only a moderate rise in systolic and a fall in diastolic pressure. Although some increase in pulse pressure occurs, there is usually no great elevation in mean blood pressure. Accordingly, the compensatory reflex mechanisms that come into play with a pronounced increase in blood pressure do not antagonize the direct cardiac actions of epinephrine as much as with catecholamines that have a predominant action on alpha receptors.
Mechanism of actionEpinephrine works via the stimulation of alpha and beta-1 adrenergic receptors, and a moderate activity at beta-2 adrenergic receptors.
AbsorptionUsually this vasodilator effect of the drug on the circulation predominates so that the modest rise in systolic pressure which follows slow injection or absorption is mainly the result of direct cardiac stimulation and increase in cardiac output.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Epinephrine is rapidly inactivated in the body and is degraded by enzymes in the liver and other tissues. The larger portion of injected doses is excreted in the urine as inactivated compounds and the remainder either partly unchanged or conjugated. The drug becomes fixed in the tissues and is inactivated chiefly by enzymatic transformation to metanephrine or normetanephrine either of which is subsequently conjugated and excreted in the urine in the form of sulfates and glucuronides. Either sequence results in the formation of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-mandelic acid which also is detectable in the urine. Main metabolic enzymes include MAO and COMT

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Epinephrine
Not Available
Epinephrine sulfateDetails
Epinephrine
Not Available
Epinephrine glucuronideDetails
Route of eliminationRenal
Half life2 minutes
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySkin, LD50 = 62 mg/kg (rat)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9934
Blood Brain Barrier - 0.966
Caco-2 permeable - 0.8958
P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.5953
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.9036
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.8465
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.8903
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.7897
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.6928
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.7862
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9563
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9638
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9451
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9121
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.9516
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.9132
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9322
Biodegradation Ready biodegradable 0.6459
Rat acute toxicity 2.3715 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.7514
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.7961
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Sterling health div sterling winthrop inc
  • Armstrong pharmaceuticals inc
  • Wyeth consumer healthcare
  • Shionogi pharma inc
  • Meridian medical technologies inc
  • Forest laboratories inc
  • 3m pharmaceuticals inc
  • Astrazeneca lp
  • Pharmaton ltd
  • Dentsply pharmaceutical
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidIntramuscular
LiquidOral
SolutionIntramuscular
SolutionIntravenous
SolutionNasal
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
Solution / dropsOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Twinject 2 0.3 mg/dose Device One Box Contains 2 Syringes200.43USDbox
Epinephrine hcl powder189.0USDg
EpiPen 2-Pak (1 Package = 2 Syringes) Package155.13USDpackage
EpiPen Jr 2-Pak (1 Package = 2 Syringes) Package155.13USDpackage
Twinject 0.15 mg/dose Device Syringe104.14USDsyringe
Epipen 0.3 mg/syr Syringe93.04USDsyringe
Epipen Jr 0.15 mg/syr Syringe93.04USDsyringe
Twinject 0.15 mg auto-injector86.63USDeach
Twinject Auto Injector 0.15 mg/syr Syringe84.85USDsyringe
Twinject Auto Injector 0.3 mg/syr Syringe84.85USDsyringe
EpiPen (single Syringe) Syringe77.56USDsyringe
EpiPen Jr (single Syringe) Syringe77.56USDsyringe
Epipen jr 0.15 mg auto-inject74.58USDeach
Epinephrine 0.3 mg auto-inject67.05USDeach
Nephron FA 100 tablet Box49.99USDbox
Epipen 0.3 mg auto-injector41.78USDeach
Epinephrine powder4.68USDg
Epinephrine bitartrate crys4.2USDg
Adrenalin 1 mg/ml ampul2.93USDml
Epinephrine 1 mg/ml ampul2.9USDml
Adrenalin cl 1 mg/ml vial1.42USDml
Epinephrine 0.1 mg/ml syringe1.32USDml
Primatene mist inhaler1.0USDml
Adrenalin 1:1000 nasal soln0.83USDml
Bronchial mist inhaler0.8USDml
Primatene mist inh refill0.68USDml
Adrenalin 1 mg/ml0.62USDml
Adrenalin 1 mg/ml Solution0.61USDml
Nephron fa tablet0.44USDeach
Epinephrine 1 mg/ml vial0.18USDml
Bronkaid dual action caplet0.14USDcaplet
Epinephrine-d5w 2 mg/250 ml0.07USDml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
United States74490122005-09-112025-09-11
United States56650711993-05-272013-05-27
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point211.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility180 mg/L (at 20 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-1.37HANSCH,C & LEO,AJ (1985)
Caco2 permeability-6.02ADME Research, USCD
pKa8.59 (at 25 °C)HANSCH,C & LEO,AJ (1985)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility1.86e+01 g/lALOGPS
logP-0.82ALOGPS
logP-0.43ChemAxon
logS-0.99ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)9.69ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)8.91ChemAxon
physiological charge1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count4ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count4ChemAxon
polar surface area72.72ChemAxon
rotatable bond count3ChemAxon
refractivity49.23ChemAxon
polarizability19.04ChemAxon
number of rings1ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveYesChemAxon
Ghose filterNoChemAxon
Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
References
Synthesis Reference

Pamela Albaugh, “Pharmaceutical epinephrine-pilocarpine compounds and process of preparation thereof.” U.S. Patent US5198545, issued October, 1988.

US5198545
General Reference
  1. Yamashima T: Jokichi Takamine (1854-1922), the samurai chemist, and his work on adrenalin. J Med Biogr. 2003 May;11(2):95-102. Pubmed
  2. Bennett MR: One hundred years of adrenaline: the discovery of autoreceptors. Clin Auton Res. 1999 Jun;9(3):145-59. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD00095
KEGG CompoundC00788
PubChem Compound5816
PubChem Substance46509097
ChemSpider5611
ChEBI28918
ChEMBLCHEMBL679
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000066
PharmGKBPA449470
IUPHAR479
Guide to Pharmacology479
HETALE
Drug Product Database710814
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/epi.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/mtm/epinephrine-ophthalmic.html
WikipediaEpinephrine
ATC CodesA01AD01B02BC09C01CA24R01AA14R03AA01S01EA01
AHFS Codes
  • 52:24.00
  • 12:12.12
  • 52:32.00
  • 92:02.00*
PDB Entries
FDA labelshow(369 KB)
MSDSshow(73.4 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcebutololHypertension, then bradycardia
AlseroxylonIncreased arterial pressure
AmitriptylineThe tricyclic antidepressant, amitriptyline, may increase the sympathomimetic effect of epinephrine.
AmoxapineThe tricyclic antidepressant, amoxapine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of epinephrine.
AtenololHypertension, then bradycardia
BetaxololBeta-Blockers such as betaxolol may enhance the vasopressor effect of epinephrine. Monitor for increases in pressor effects of alpha-/beta-agonists if used in patients receiving beta-blocker therapy (including ophthalmic products). Beta1-selective (i.e., “cardioselective”) agents may confer a more limited risk if used in low enough doses to allow them to retain their selectivity. The amount of epinephrine used in dental procedures as part of local anesthetic administration is not likely to be of clinical concern. Infiltrating larger volumes of local anesthetics for other surgical procedures (e.g., more than 0.06mg epinephrine) may cause clinically-relevant problems. Patients with allergies that require carrying and periodically using subcutaneous epinephrine (e.g., bee sting kits) should probably avoid the use of beta blockers.
BevantololHypertension, then bradycardia
BisoprololHypertension, then bradycardia
CarteololHypertension, then bradycardia
CarvedilolHypertension, then bradycardia
ClomipramineThe tricyclic antidepressant, clomipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of epinephrine.
DeserpidineIncreased arterial pressure
DesipramineTrimipramine may increase the vasopressor effect of the direct-acting alpha-/beta-agonist, Epinephrine. Avoid combination if possible. Monitor sympathetic response to therapy if used concomitantly.
DesvenlafaxineDesvenlafaxine may increase the tachycardic and vasopressor effects of epinephrine. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for increased sympathomimetic effects, such as increased blood pressure, chest pain and headache.
DoxepinThe tricyclic antidepressant, doxepin, increases the sympathomimetic effect of epinephrine.
EntacaponeEntacapone may increase the effect and toxicity of the sympathomimetic, epinephrine.
ErgonovinePossible marked increase of arterial pressure
EsmololHypertension, then bradycardia
GuanethidineEpinephrine may decrease the effect of guanethidine.
ImipramineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of epinephrine.
Insulin LisproConcomitant therapy with sympathomimetic agents may reduce the blood-glucose-lowering effect of insulin lispro.
IsocarboxazidIncreased arterial pressure
LabetalolHypertension, then bradycardia
LinezolidPossible increase of arterial pressure
LurasidoneEpinephrine increases toxicity (enhance hypotensive effects) of lurasidone by pharmacodynamic synergism.
MethyldopaIncreased arterial pressure
MethylergometrinePossible marked increase of arterial pressure
MetoprololHypertension, then bradycardia
MidodrineIncreased arterial pressure
MoclobemideMoclobemide increases the sympathomimetic effect of epinephrine.
NadololHypertension, then bradycardia
NortriptylineThe tricyclic antidepressant, nortriptyline, increases the sympathomimetic effect of epinephrine.
OxprenololHypertension, then bradycardia
OxytocinPossible marked increase of arterial pressure
PargylineIncreased arterial pressure
PenbutololHypertension, then bradycardia
PhenelzineIncreased arterial pressure
PindololHypertension, then bradycardia
PractololHypertension, then bradycardia
PropranololHypertension, then bradycardia
ProtriptylineThe tricyclic antidepressant, protriptyline, increases the sympathomimetic effect of epinephrine.
RasagilineIncreased arterial pressure
ReserpineIncreased arterial pressure
SotalolHypertension, then bradycardia
TimololHypertension, then bradycardia
TranylcypromineIncreased arterial pressure
TrimipramineTrimipramine may increase the vasopressor effect of the direct-acting alpha-/beta-agonist, Epinephrine. Avoid combination if possible. Monitor sympathetic response to therapy if used concomitantly.
VenlafaxineVenlafaxine may increase the tachycardic and vasopressor effects of epinephrine. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for increased sympathomimetic effects, such as increased blood pressure, chest pain and headache.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor P35348 Details

References:

  1. Sanbe A, Tanaka Y, Fujiwara Y, Tsumura H, Yamauchi J, Cotecchia S, Koike K, Tsujimoto G, Tanoue A: alpha(1)-Adrenoceptors are required for normal male sexual function. Br J Pharmacol. 2007 Oct;152(3):332-40. Epub 2007 Jul 2. Pubmed
  2. Tomiyama Y, Kobayashi K, Tadachi M, Kobayashi S, Inada Y, Kobayashi M, Yamazaki Y: Expressions and mechanical functions of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subtypes in hamster ureter. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Nov 14;573(1-3):201-5. Epub 2007 Jul 6. Pubmed
  3. Du L, Li M: Modeling the interactions between alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors and their antagonists. Curr Comput Aided Drug Des. 2010 Sep;6(3):165-78. Pubmed
  4. Jensen BC, Swigart PM, Montgomery MD, Simpson PC: Functional alpha-1B adrenergic receptors on human epicardial coronary artery endothelial cells. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2010 Dec;382(5-6):475-82. Epub 2010 Sep 22. Pubmed

2. Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor P35368 Details

References:

  1. Cotecchia S: The alpha1-adrenergic receptors: diversity of signaling networks and regulation. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2010 Dec;30(6):410-9. Epub 2010 Oct 18. Pubmed
  2. Shieh JP, Chu CC, Wang JJ, Lin MT: Epinephrine, phenylephrine, and methoxamine induce infiltrative anesthesia via alpha1-adrenoceptors in rats. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009 Sep;30(9):1227-36. Pubmed
  3. Du L, Li M: Modeling the interactions between alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors and their antagonists. Curr Comput Aided Drug Des. 2010 Sep;6(3):165-78. Pubmed
  4. Jensen BC, Swigart PM, Montgomery MD, Simpson PC: Functional alpha-1B adrenergic receptors on human epicardial coronary artery endothelial cells. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2010 Dec;382(5-6):475-82. Epub 2010 Sep 22. Pubmed

3. Beta-1 adrenergic receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Beta-1 adrenergic receptor P08588 Details

References:

  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  2. Ozakca I, Arioglu E, Guner S, Altan VM, Ozcelikay AT: Role of Beta-3-Adrenoceptor in Catecholamine-Induced Relaxations in Gastric Fundus from Control and Diabetic Rats. Pharmacology. 2007 Jul 6;80(4):227-238. Pubmed
  3. Leineweber K, Bogedain P, Wolf C, Wagner S, Weber M, Jakob HG, Heusch G, Philipp T, Brodde OE: In patients chronically treated with metoprolol, the demand of inotropic catecholamine support after coronary artery bypass grafting is determined by the Arg389Gly-beta 1-adrenoceptor polymorphism. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2007 Jul;375(5):303-9. Epub 2007 Jun 1. Pubmed

4. Beta-2 adrenergic receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Beta-2 adrenergic receptor P07550 Details

References:

  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  2. Ozakca I, Arioglu E, Guner S, Altan VM, Ozcelikay AT: Role of Beta-3-Adrenoceptor in Catecholamine-Induced Relaxations in Gastric Fundus from Control and Diabetic Rats. Pharmacology. 2007 Jul 6;80(4):227-238. Pubmed
  3. Prenner L, Sieben A, Zeller K, Weiser D, Haberlein H: Reduction of high-affinity beta2-adrenergic receptor binding by hyperforin and hyperoside on rat C6 glioblastoma cells measured by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 2007 May 1;46(17):5106-13. Epub 2007 Apr 7. Pubmed
  4. Lucin KM, Sanders VM, Jones TB, Malarkey WB, Popovich PG: Impaired antibody synthesis after spinal cord injury is level dependent and is due to sympathetic nervous system dysregulation. Exp Neurol. 2007 Sep;207(1):75-84. Epub 2007 Jun 2. Pubmed

5. Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor P08913 Details

References:

  1. Nyronen T, Pihlavisto M, Peltonen JM, Hoffren AM, Varis M, Salminen T, Wurster S, Marjamaki A, Kanerva L, Katainen E, Laaksonen L, Savola JM, Scheinin M, Johnson MS: Molecular mechanism for agonist-promoted alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor activation by norepinephrine and epinephrine. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1343-54. Pubmed
  2. MacLennan SJ, Reynen PH, Martin RS, Eglen RM, Martin GR: Characterization of human recombinant alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors expressed in Chinese hamster lung cells using extracellular acidification rate changes. Br J Pharmacol. 2000 Apr;129(7):1333-8. Pubmed
  3. Hieble JP, Hehr A, Li YO, Ruffolo RR Jr: Molecular basis for the stereoselective interactions of catecholamines with alpha-adrenoceptors. Proc West Pharmacol Soc. 1998;41:225-8. Pubmed
  4. Nash DT: Alpha-adrenergic blockers: mechanism of action, blood pressure control, and effects of lipoprotein metabolism. Clin Cardiol. 1990 Nov;13(11):764-72. Pubmed
  5. Giovannoni MP, Ghelardini C, Vergelli C, Dal Piaz V: Alpha2-agonists as analgesic agents. Med Res Rev. 2009 Mar;29(2):339-68. Pubmed
  6. Gilsbach R, Hein L: Presynaptic metabotropic receptors for acetylcholine and adrenaline/noradrenaline. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2008;(184):261-88. Pubmed

6. Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor P18089 Details

References:

  1. Gobbi M, Frittoli E, Mennini T: The modulation of [3H]noradrenaline and [3H]serotonin release from rat brain synaptosomes is not mediated by the alpha 2B-adrenoceptor subtype. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1990 Oct;342(4):382-6. Pubmed
  2. Vizi ES, Katona I, Freund TF: Evidence for presynaptic cannabinoid CB receptor-mediated inhibition of noradrenaline release in the guinea pig lung. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001 Nov 16;431(2):237-44. Pubmed
  3. Rudling JE, Richardson J, Evans PD: A comparison of agonist-specific coupling of cloned human alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes. Br J Pharmacol. 2000 Nov;131(5):933-41. Pubmed
  4. Nash DT: Alpha-adrenergic blockers: mechanism of action, blood pressure control, and effects of lipoprotein metabolism. Clin Cardiol. 1990 Nov;13(11):764-72. Pubmed
  5. Gilsbach R, Hein L: Presynaptic metabotropic receptors for acetylcholine and adrenaline/noradrenaline. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2008;(184):261-88. Pubmed

7. Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor P25100 Details

References:

  1. Cotecchia S: The alpha1-adrenergic receptors: diversity of signaling networks and regulation. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2010 Dec;30(6):410-9. Epub 2010 Oct 18. Pubmed
  2. Shieh JP, Chu CC, Wang JJ, Lin MT: Epinephrine, phenylephrine, and methoxamine induce infiltrative anesthesia via alpha1-adrenoceptors in rats. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009 Sep;30(9):1227-36. Pubmed
  3. Du L, Li M: Modeling the interactions between alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors and their antagonists. Curr Comput Aided Drug Des. 2010 Sep;6(3):165-78. Pubmed
  4. Jensen BC, Swigart PM, Montgomery MD, Simpson PC: Functional alpha-1B adrenergic receptors on human epicardial coronary artery endothelial cells. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2010 Dec;382(5-6):475-82. Epub 2010 Sep 22. Pubmed

8. Phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: no

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase P00439 Details

References:

  1. Erlandsen H, Flatmark T, Stevens RC, Hough E: Crystallographic analysis of the human phenylalanine hydroxylase catalytic domain with bound catechol inhibitors at 2.0 A resolution. Biochemistry. 1998 Nov 10;37(45):15638-46. Pubmed

9. Alpha-2C adrenergic receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-2C adrenergic receptor P18825 Details

References:

  1. Bylund DB: Subtypes of alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors. FASEB J. 1992 Feb 1;6(3):832-9. Pubmed
  2. Shen, Howard (2008). Illustrated Pharmacology Memory Cards: PharMnemonics. Minireview. p. 4. ISBN 1-59541-101-1

10. Beta-3 adrenergic receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Beta-3 adrenergic receptor P13945 Details

References:

  1. Shen, Howard (2008). Illustrated Pharmacology Memory Cards: PharMnemonics. Minireview. p. 4. ISBN 1-59541-101-1

11. Tumor necrosis factor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Tumor necrosis factor P01375 Details

References:

  1. van der Poll T, Coyle SM, Barbosa K, Braxton CC, Lowry SF: Epinephrine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha and potentiates interleukin 10 production during human endotoxemia. J Clin Invest. 1996 Feb 1;97(3):713-9. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 2C9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

3. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Solute carrier family 22 member 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 2 O15244 Details

References:

  1. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. Pubmed
  2. Grundemann D, Koster S, Kiefer N, Breidert T, Engelhardt M, Spitzenberger F, Obermuller N, Schomig E: Transport of monoamine transmitters by the organic cation transporter type 2, OCT2. J Biol Chem. 1998 Nov 20;273(47):30915-20. Pubmed

2. Solute carrier family 22 member 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 1 O15245 Details

References:

  1. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. Pubmed
  2. Breidert T, Spitzenberger F, Grundemann D, Schomig E: Catecholamine transport by the organic cation transporter type 1 (OCT1). Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Sep;125(1):218-24. Pubmed

3. Solute carrier family 22 member 5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 5 O76082 Details

References:

  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Nezu Ji J, Nikaido H, Hashimoto N, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular and physiological evidence for multifunctionality of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN2. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;59(2):358-66. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:11