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Identification
NameOxacillin
Accession NumberDB00713  (APRD01149)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionAn antibiotic similar to flucloxacillin used in resistant staphylococci infections. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(2S,5R,6R)-3,3-Dimethyl-6-{[(5-methyl-3-phenylisoxazol-4-yl)carbonyl]amino}-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid
(5-Methyl-3-phenyl-4-isoxazolyl)penicillin
5-Methyl-3-phenyl-4-isoxazolyl-penicillin
6beta-(5-Methyl-3-phenylisoxazol-4-yl)penicillanic acid
Oxacilina
Oxacillin
Oxacilline
Oxacillinum
Oxazocillin
Oxazocilline
External Identifiers
  • AB 1400
  • BRL 1400
  • P 12
  • SQ 16423
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Oxacillininjection, solution1 g/50mLintravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation1989-10-26Not applicableUs
Oxacillininjection, solution2 g/50mLintravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation1989-10-26Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Oxacillininjection, powder, for solution2 g/1intramuscular; intravenousSandoz Inc1976-01-06Not applicableUs
Oxacillinpowder, for solution1 g/1intramuscular; intravenousHospira, Inc.2015-12-11Not applicableUs
Oxacillininjection, powder, for solution2 g/1intramuscular; intravenousSagent Pharmaceuticals2012-06-01Not applicableUs
Oxacillininjection, powder, for solution2 g/1intramuscular; intravenousSandoz Inc1976-01-06Not applicableUs
Oxacillininjection, powder, for solution1 g/1intravenousSandoz Inc1986-12-23Not applicableUs
Oxacillinpowder, for solution10 g/100mLintravenousAuro Medics Pharma Llc2013-01-18Not applicableUs
Oxacillininjection, powder, for solution10 g/100mLintravenousSandoz Inc1991-05-09Not applicableUs
Oxacillininjection, powder, for solution10 g/100mLintravenousSagent Pharmaceuticals2012-06-01Not applicableUs
Oxacillinpowder, for solution2 g/1intramuscular; intravenousHospira, Inc.2015-12-11Not applicableUs
Oxacillininjection, powder, for solution2 g/1intravenousSandoz Inc1986-12-23Not applicableUs
Oxacillininjection, powder, for solution2 g/1intravenousSandoz Inc1986-12-23Not applicableUs
Oxacillininjection, powder, for solution1 g/1intramuscular; intravenousAGILA SPECIALTIES PRIVATE LIMITED2014-08-26Not applicableUs
Oxacillininjection, powder, for solution1 g/1intramuscular; intravenousSandoz Inc1976-01-06Not applicableUs
Oxacillininjection, powder, for solution1 g/1intramuscular; intravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2014-08-26Not applicableUs
Oxacillininjection, powder, for solution1 g/1intramuscular; intravenousAuro Medics Pharma Llc2013-01-18Not applicableUs
Oxacillininjection, powder, for solution10 g/100mLintravenousSandoz Inc1991-05-09Not applicableUs
Oxacillininjection, powder, for solution1 g/1intramuscular; intravenousSandoz Inc1976-01-06Not applicableUs
Oxacillininjection, powder, for solution2 g/1intramuscular; intravenousAGILA SPECIALTIES PRIVATE LIMITED2014-08-26Not applicableUs
Oxacillininjection, powder, for solution1 g/1intravenousSandoz Inc1986-12-23Not applicableUs
Oxacillininjection, powder, for solution2 g/1intramuscular; intravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2014-08-26Not applicableUs
Oxacillininjection, powder, for solution2 g/1intramuscular; intravenousAuro Medics Pharma Llc2013-01-18Not applicableUs
Oxacillininjection, powder, for solution1 g/1intramuscular; intravenousSagent Pharmaceuticals2012-06-01Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
BactocillBaxter Healthcare
BiocilinaBiogalenic
BristopenBristol-Myers Squibb
Dicloxal OxMagma
InfectoStaphInfectopharm
OcillinaCCPC
OxacilUnimed
OxacilinaBilli Farmacêutica
OxacilinãAntibiotice
OxagramMedicef
OxalEndure Medical
OxamicinRonava
OxapenBiolab
OxipenBehrens
PanadoxShijiazhuang
PenstaphoBristol-Myers Squibb
ProstafilinaBristol-Myers Squibb
ProstaphlinBristol-Myers Squibb
StafcilAurobindo
Staficilin-NBristol-Myers Squibb
WydoxYSS
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Oxacillin Sodium
1173-88-2
Thumb
  • InChI Key: VDUVBBMAXXHEQP-SLINCCQESA-M
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 423.086486066
  • Average Mass: 423.418
DBSALT000248
Oxacillin Sodium Monohydrate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT000974
Categories
UNIIUH95VD7V76
CAS number66-79-5
WeightAverage: 401.436
Monoisotopic: 401.104541423
Chemical FormulaC19H19N3O5S
InChI KeyInChIKey=UWYHMGVUTGAWSP-JKIFEVAISA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H19N3O5S/c1-9-11(12(21-27-9)10-7-5-4-6-8-10)15(23)20-13-16(24)22-14(18(25)26)19(2,3)28-17(13)22/h4-8,13-14,17H,1-3H3,(H,20,23)(H,25,26)/t13-,14+,17-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S,5R,6R)-3,3-dimethyl-6-(5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-amido)-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid
SMILES
[H][C@]12SC(C)(C)[C@@H](N1C(=O)[[email protected]]2NC(=O)C1=C(C)ON=C1C1=CC=CC=C1)C(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as penicillins. These are organic compounds containing the penicillin core structure, which is structurally characterized by a penam ring bearing two methyl groups at position 2, and an amide group at position 6 [starting from the sulfur atom at position 1].
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassLactams
Sub ClassBeta lactams
Direct ParentPenicillins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Penicillin
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Thiazolidine
  • Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
  • Oxazole
  • Isoxazole
  • Azole
  • Tertiary amine
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azetidine
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Dialkylthioether
  • Hemithioaminal
  • Thioether
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed in the treatment of resistant staphylococci infections.
PharmacodynamicsOxacillin is a penicillin beta-lactam antibiotic used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually gram-positive, organisms. The name "penicillin" can either refer to several variants of penicillin available, or to the group of antibiotics derived from the penicillins. Oxacillin has in vitro activity against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The bactericidal activity of Oxacillin results from the inhibition of cell wall synthesis and is mediated through Oxacillin binding to penicillin binding proteins (PBPs). Oxacillin is stable against hydrolysis by a variety of beta-lactamases, including penicillinases, and cephalosporinases and extended spectrum beta-lactamases.
Mechanism of actionBy binding to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, Oxacillin inhibits the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that Oxacillin interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding94.2 +/- 2.1% (binds to serum protein, mainly albumin)
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationOxacillin Sodium is rapidly excreted as unchanged drug in the urine by glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion.
Half life20 to 30 minutes
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
  • Staphylococcus aureus
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8002
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9923
Caco-2 permeable+0.7059
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6161
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.867
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.922
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9669
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8181
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8807
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5347
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.5746
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8725
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9111
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8665
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.665
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9564
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7304
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.5273
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9759
Rat acute toxicity1.6583 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9997
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8773
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Glaxosmithkline
  • Apothecon inc div bristol myers squibb
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Baxter healthcare corp
  • Apothecon sub bristol myers squibb co
  • Elkins sinn div ah robins co inc
  • Istituto biochimico italiano spa
  • Marsam pharmaceuticals llc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, powder, for solutionintramuscular; intravenous1 g/1
Injection, powder, for solutionintramuscular; intravenous2 g/1
Injection, powder, for solutionintravenous1 g/1
Injection, powder, for solutionintravenous10 g/100mL
Injection, powder, for solutionintravenous2 g/1
Injection, solutionintravenous1 g/50mL
Injection, solutionintravenous2 g/50mL
Powder, for solutionintramuscular; intravenous1 g/1
Powder, for solutionintramuscular; intravenous2 g/1
Powder, for solutionintravenous10 g/100mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Oxacillin 10 gm vial118.01USD each
Oxacillin 2 gm vial24.08USD each
Oxacillin 1 gm vial12.41USD each
Oxacillin 2 gm/ 50 ml inj0.62USD ml
Oxacillin 1 gm/ 50 ml inj0.43USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point188 °CPhysProp
water solubility13.9 mg/LNot Available
logP2.38HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa2.72SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0862 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.05ALOGPS
logP1.7ChemAxon
logS-3.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.75ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.12ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area112.74 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity101.83 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability39.61 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesJ01CF04
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (38 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcenocoumarolOxacillin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
AmikacinThe serum concentration of Amikacin can be decreased when it is combined with Oxacillin.
DaunorubicinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Oxacillin.
DicoumarolOxacillin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.
DihydrostreptomycinThe serum concentration of Dihydrostreptomycin can be decreased when it is combined with Oxacillin.
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Oxacillin.
EpirubicinThe serum concentration of Epirubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Oxacillin.
Ethyl biscoumacetateOxacillin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.
FramycetinThe serum concentration of Framycetin can be decreased when it is combined with Oxacillin.
GentamicinThe serum concentration of Gentamicin can be decreased when it is combined with Oxacillin.
Hygromycin BThe serum concentration of Hygromycin B can be decreased when it is combined with Oxacillin.
IdarubicinThe serum concentration of Idarubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Oxacillin.
KanamycinThe serum concentration of Kanamycin can be decreased when it is combined with Oxacillin.
MethotrexateThe serum concentration of Methotrexate can be increased when it is combined with Oxacillin.
MetrizamideThe serum concentration of Metrizamide can be decreased when it is combined with Oxacillin.
Mycophenolic acidThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Mycophenolic acid can be reduced when Mycophenolic acid is used in combination with Oxacillin resulting in a loss in efficacy.
NeomycinThe serum concentration of Neomycin can be decreased when it is combined with Oxacillin.
NetilmicinThe serum concentration of Netilmicin can be decreased when it is combined with Oxacillin.
ParomomycinThe serum concentration of Paromomycin can be decreased when it is combined with Oxacillin.
PhenindioneOxacillin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.
PhenprocoumonOxacillin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.
Picosulfuric acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Picosulfuric acid can be decreased when used in combination with Oxacillin.
PlicamycinThe serum concentration of Plicamycin can be decreased when it is combined with Oxacillin.
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Oxacillin can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.
PuromycinThe serum concentration of Puromycin can be decreased when it is combined with Oxacillin.
RibostamycinThe serum concentration of Ribostamycin can be decreased when it is combined with Oxacillin.
SpectinomycinThe serum concentration of Spectinomycin can be decreased when it is combined with Oxacillin.
StreptomycinThe serum concentration of Streptomycin can be decreased when it is combined with Oxacillin.
StreptozocinThe serum concentration of Streptozocin can be decreased when it is combined with Oxacillin.
TobramycinThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Oxacillin.
WarfarinOxacillin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Serine-type d-ala-d-ala carboxypeptidase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
pbp3
Uniprot ID:
Q75Y35
Molecular Weight:
45209.84 Da
References
  1. Williamson R, Hakenbeck R, Tomasz A: In vivo interaction of beta-lactam antibiotics with the penicillin-binding proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1980 Oct;18(4):629-37. [PubMed:7447421 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus pneumoniae (strain ATCC BAA-255 / R6)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transferase activity, transferring acyl groups
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
pbp2a
Uniprot ID:
Q8DNB6
Molecular Weight:
80797.94 Da
References
  1. Williamson R, Hakenbeck R, Tomasz A: In vivo interaction of beta-lactam antibiotics with the penicillin-binding proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1980 Oct;18(4):629-37. [PubMed:7447421 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus pneumoniae (strain ATCC BAA-255 / R6)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Penicillin binding
Specific Function:
Cell wall formation.
Gene Name:
pbpA
Uniprot ID:
Q8DR59
Molecular Weight:
79700.9 Da
References
  1. Williamson R, Hakenbeck R, Tomasz A: In vivo interaction of beta-lactam antibiotics with the penicillin-binding proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1980 Oct;18(4):629-37. [PubMed:7447421 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus pneumoniae (strain ATCC BAA-255 / R6)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Penicillin binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
penA
Uniprot ID:
P0A3M6
Molecular Weight:
73872.305 Da
References
  1. Williamson R, Hakenbeck R, Tomasz A: In vivo interaction of beta-lactam antibiotics with the penicillin-binding proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1980 Oct;18(4):629-37. [PubMed:7447421 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus pneumoniae (strain ATCC BAA-255 / R6)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transferase activity, transferring acyl groups
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
pbp1b
Uniprot ID:
Q7CRA4
Molecular Weight:
89479.92 Da
References
  1. Williamson R, Hakenbeck R, Tomasz A: In vivo interaction of beta-lactam antibiotics with the penicillin-binding proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1980 Oct;18(4):629-37. [PubMed:7447421 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Clostridium perfringens (strain 13 / Type A)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups
Specific Function:
Cell wall formation. Synthesis of cross-linked peptidoglycan from the lipid intermediates. The enzyme has a penicillin-insensitive transglycosylase N-terminal domain (formation of linear glycan strands) and a penicillin-sensitive transpeptidase C-terminal domain (cross-linking of the peptide subunits) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
pbpA
Uniprot ID:
Q8XJ01
Molecular Weight:
75176.35 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Proton-dependent oligopeptide secondary active transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides. May constitute a major route for the absorption of protein digestion end-products.
Gene Name:
SLC15A1
Uniprot ID:
P46059
Molecular Weight:
78805.265 Da
References
  1. Luckner P, Brandsch M: Interaction of 31 beta-lactam antibiotics with the H+/peptide symporter PEPT2: analysis of affinity constants and comparison with PEPT1. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2005 Jan;59(1):17-24. [PubMed:15567297 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Staphylococcus aureus
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Penicillin binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
mecA
Uniprot ID:
D6R448
Molecular Weight:
10694.04 Da
References
  1. Chung M, Antignac A, Kim C, Tomasz A: Comparative study of the susceptibilities of major epidemic clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to oxacillin and to the new broad-spectrum cephalosporin ceftobiprole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Aug;52(8):2709-17. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00266-08. Epub 2008 May 27. [PubMed:18505853 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Peptide:proton symporter activity
Specific Function:
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides.
Gene Name:
SLC15A2
Uniprot ID:
Q16348
Molecular Weight:
81782.77 Da
References
  1. Pedretti A, De Luca L, Marconi C, Regazzoni L, Aldini G, Vistoli G: Fragmental modeling of hPepT2 and analysis of its binding features by docking studies and pharmacophore mapping. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011 Aug 1;19(15):4544-51. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2011.06.027. Epub 2011 Jun 16. [PubMed:21741846 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Proton-dependent oligopeptide secondary active transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides. May constitute a major route for the absorption of protein digestion end-products.
Gene Name:
SLC15A1
Uniprot ID:
P46059
Molecular Weight:
78805.265 Da
References
  1. Luckner P, Brandsch M: Interaction of 31 beta-lactam antibiotics with the H+/peptide symporter PEPT2: analysis of affinity constants and comparison with PEPT1. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2005 Jan;59(1):17-24. [PubMed:15567297 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Peptide:proton symporter activity
Specific Function:
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides.
Gene Name:
SLC15A2
Uniprot ID:
Q16348
Molecular Weight:
81782.77 Da
References
  1. Luckner P, Brandsch M: Interaction of 31 beta-lactam antibiotics with the H+/peptide symporter PEPT2: analysis of affinity constants and comparison with PEPT1. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2005 Jan;59(1):17-24. [PubMed:15567297 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23