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Identification
NameAlprostadil
Accession NumberDB00770  (APRD00785)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

Alprostadil is produced endogenously and causes vasodilation by means of a direct effect on vascular and ductus arteriosus (DA) smooth muscle, preventing or reversing the functional closure of the DA that occurs shortly after birth. This results in increased pulmonary or systemic blood flow in infants. In infants, it is used for palliative, not definitive, therapy to temporarily maintain the patency of the ductus arteriosus until corrective or palliative surgery can be performed in neonates who have congenital heart defects and who depend upon the patent ductus for survival. In adults, it is used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction due to neurogenic, vasculogenic, psychogenic, or mixed etiology.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(11alpha,13e,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid
(13e)-(15S)-11alpha,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-enoate
11alpha,15alpha-Dihydroxy-9-oxo-13-trans-prostenoic acid
Alprostadil
Alprostadil
Alprostadil
Alprostadil Alfadex
Alprostadilum
Befar
Caverject
Edex
Muse
PGE-1
PGE₁
PGE1 α-CD
Prostaglandin e1
Prostin vr
External Identifiers
  • U 10136
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Alprostadil Injection USPsolution500 mcgintravascularValeo Pharma Inc2009-01-06Not applicableCanada
Alprostadil Injection, USPliquid500 mcgintra-arterial; intravenousNovopharm Limited2000-10-26Not applicableCanada
Caverjectinjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution5.4 ug/mLintracavernousPharmacia And Upjohn Company Llc1995-07-06Not applicableUs
Caverjectinjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution10.5 ug/mLintracavernousPharmacia And Upjohn Company Llc1995-07-06Not applicableUs
Caverjectinjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution20.5 ug/mLintracavernousPharmacia And Upjohn Company Llc1995-07-06Not applicableUs
Caverjectinjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution41.1 ug/mLintracavernousPharmacia And Upjohn Company Llc1995-07-06Not applicableUs
Caverject Impulseinjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution20 ug/.5mLintracavernousU.S. Pharmaceuticals2014-05-04Not applicableUs
Caverject Impulseinjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution10 ug/.5mLintracavernousU.S. Pharmaceuticals2014-05-04Not applicableUs
Caverject Impulseinjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution20 ug/.5mLintracavernousPharmacia and Upjohn Company2002-06-11Not applicableUs
Caverject Impulseinjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution10 ug/.5mLintracavernousPharmacia and Upjohn Company2002-06-11Not applicableUs
Caverject Sterile Powder - Pws 11.9mcg/vialpowder for solution11.9 mcgintracavernosalPfizer Canada Inc1996-07-302006-08-02Canada
Caverject Sterile Powder - Pws 23.2mcg/vialpowder for solution23.2 mcgintracavernosalPfizer Canada Inc1997-09-24Not applicableCanada
Edexinjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution20 ug/mLintracavernousActient Pharmaceuticals, LLC2012-01-15Not applicableUs
Edexinjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution10 ug/mLintracavernousActient Pharmaceuticals, LLC2012-04-15Not applicableUs
Edexinjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution40 ug/mLintracavernousActient Pharmaceuticals, LLC2012-03-15Not applicableUs
Musesuppository1000 mcgurethralPaladin Labs Inc1998-09-24Not applicableCanada
Musesuppository500 mcgurethralPaladin Labs Inc1998-09-24Not applicableCanada
Musesuppository1000 ug/1urethralMeda Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-07-22Not applicableUs
Musesuppository250 mcgurethralPaladin Labs Inc1998-09-24Not applicableCanada
Musesuppository500 ug/1urethralMeda Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-07-22Not applicableUs
Musesuppository250 ug/1urethralMeda Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-07-22Not applicableUs
Musesuppository125 ug/1urethralMeda Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-07-22Not applicableUs
Musesuppository125 mcgurethralPaladin Labs IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Prostin Vr Pediatricinjection, solution500 ug/mLintravascular; intravenousPharmacia and Upjohn Company1981-10-16Not applicableUs
Prostin Vr Sterile Solutionsolution500 mcgintra-arterial; intravenousPfizer Canada Inc1982-12-31Not applicableCanada
Vitaroscream330 mcgtopicalBgp Pharma UlcNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Vitaroscream220 mcgtopicalBgp Pharma UlcNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Alprostadilinjection, solution, concentrate500 ug/mLintravascularTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.1999-04-30Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AlistaNot Available
AlprostanZentiva
AlprostapintCloster
AlprostarRecordati
AlprostinPfizer
Alprox-TDNot Available
AltesilTaiyo Pharmaceutical
AlyprostFuji Yakuhin
ApistandinFuji Yakuhin
AplicavLibbs
BefarNexmed
BolesiYaoyou Pharmaceutical
BondilMeda
CardiobronFada
Caverject DCPfizer
Caverject DualPfizer
EglandinWelfide
FemproxNot Available
Kai TongJilin Yuhua Pharmaceutical Co.
KaishiTide Pharmaceutical
KaronZentiva
LipleTanabe Mitsubishi Pharma
MinprogPfizer
PaluxTaisho Yakuhin
PridaxGebro
PrinkTaiyo Pharmaceutical
Prolisina VRPfizer
ProstandinOno Yakuhin
ProstavasinSchwarz
Prostin VRPfizer
ProstivasPfizer
SugiranEsteve
TandetronTakata Seiyaku
TopiglanNot Available
VasaprostanBayer
VasoprostUCB
VasostenoonKevelt
ViridalUCB
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Caverject Sterile Powder - Kit 11.9mcg /vialPfizer Canada Inc
Caverject Sterile Powder - Kit 23.2mcg/vialPfizer Canada Inc
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIF5TD010360
CAS number745-65-3
WeightAverage: 354.481
Monoisotopic: 354.240624198
Chemical FormulaC20H34O5
InChI KeyInChIKey=GMVPRGQOIOIIMI-DWKJAMRDSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H34O5/c1-2-3-6-9-15(21)12-13-17-16(18(22)14-19(17)23)10-7-4-5-8-11-20(24)25/h12-13,15-17,19,21,23H,2-11,14H2,1H3,(H,24,25)/b13-12+/t15-,16+,17+,19+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
7-[(1R,2R,3R)-3-hydroxy-2-[(3S)-3-hydroxyoct-1-en-1-yl]-5-oxocyclopentyl]heptanoic acid
SMILES
CCCCC[[email protected]](O)C=C[[email protected]]1[[email protected]](O)CC(=O)[C@@H]1CCCCCCC(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as prostaglandins and related compounds. These are unsaturated carboxylic acids consisting of a 20 carbon skeleton that also contains a five member ring, and are based upon the fatty acid arachidonic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassEicosanoids
Direct ParentProstaglandins and related compounds
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Prostaglandin skeleton
  • Long-chain fatty acid
  • Hydroxy fatty acid
  • Fatty alcohol
  • Carbocyclic fatty acid
  • Cyclopentanol
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Cyclic ketone
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Ketone
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor palliative, not definitive, therapy to temporarily maintain the patency of the ductus arteriosus until corrective or palliative surgery can be performed in neonates who have congenital heart defects and who depend upon the patent ductus for survival. Also for the treatment of erectile dysfunction due to neurogenic, vasculogenic, psychogenic, or mixed etiology.
PharmacodynamicsAlprostadil (prostaglandin E1) is produced endogenously to relax vascular smooth muscle and cause vasodilation. In adult males, the vasodilatory effects of alprostadil on the cavernosal arteries and the trabecular smooth muscle of the corpora cavernosa result in rapid arteriolar inflow and expansion of the lacunar spaces within the corpora. As the expanded corporal sinusoids are compressed against the tunica albuginea, venous outflow through the subtunical vessels is impeded and penile rigidity develops. This is referred to as the corporal veno-occlusive mechanism. In infants, the vasodilatory effects of alprostadil increase pulmonary or systemic blood flow.
Mechanism of actionAlprostadil causes vasodilation by means of a direct effect on vascular and ductus arteriosus (DA) smooth muscle, preventing or reversing the functional closure of the DA that occurs shortly after birth. This is because, as a form of prostaglandinE1 (PGE1) it has multiple effects on blood flow. This results in increased pulmonary or systemic blood flow in infants. In cyanotic congenital heart disease, alprostadil's actions result in an increased oxygen supply to the tissues. In infants with interrupted aortic arch or very severe aortic coarctation, alprostadil maintains distal aortic perfusion by permitting blood flow through the DA from the pulmonary artery to the aorta. In infants with aortic coarctation, alprostadil reduces aortic obstruction either by relaxing ductus tissue in the aortic wall or by increasing effective aortic diameter by dilating the DA. In infants with these aortic arch anomalies, systemic blood flow to the lower body is increased, improving tissue oxygen supply and renal perfusion. When administered by intracavernosal injection or as an intraurethral suppository, alprostadil acts locally to relax the trabecular smooth muscle of the corpora cavernosa and the cavernosal arteries. Swelling, elongation, and rigidity of the penis result when arterial blood rapidly flows into the corpus cavernosum to expand the lacunar spaces. The entrapped blood reduces the venous blood outflow as sinusoids compress against the tunica albuginea.
Related Articles
AbsorptionThe absolute bioavailability of alprostadil has not been determined.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingBound in plasma primarily to albumin (81% bound) and to a lesser extent alpha-globulin IV-4 fraction (55% bound).
Metabolism

Alprostadil must be infused continuously because it is very rapidly metabolized. As much as 80% of the circulating alprostadil may be metabolized in one pass through the lungs, primarily by beta- and omega-oxidation.

Route of eliminationAlprostadil must be infused continuously because it is very rapidly metabolized. As much as 80% of the circulating alprostadil may be metabolized in one pass through the lungs, primarily by β- and ω-oxidation. The metabolites are excreted primarily by the kidney, and excretion is essentially complete within 24 hours after administration.
Half life5 to 10 minutes (after a single dose), in healthy adults and neonates.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityOral, mouse: LD50 = 186 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 228 mg/kg. Apnea, bradycardia, pyrexia, hypotension, and flushing may be signs of drug overdosage.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9815
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8704
Caco-2 permeable+0.5245
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5554
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9202
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8983
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9064
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8211
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8834
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5292
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9502
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9725
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9387
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9201
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.6056
Rat acute toxicity2.9631 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9087
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9138
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
  • Pfizer inc
  • Pharmacia and upjohn co
  • Schwarz pharma ag
  • Vivus inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solution, concentrateintravascular500 ug/mL
Solutionintravascular500 mcg
Liquidintra-arterial; intravenous500 mcg
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionintracavernous10.5 ug/mL
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionintracavernous20.5 ug/mL
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionintracavernous41.1 ug/mL
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionintracavernous5.4 ug/mL
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionintracavernous10 ug/.5mL
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionintracavernous20 ug/.5mL
Kit; liquid; powder for solutionintracavernosal
Powder for solutionintracavernosal11.9 mcg
Powder for solutionintracavernosal23.2 mcg
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionintracavernous10 ug/mL
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionintracavernous20 ug/mL
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionintracavernous40 ug/mL
Suppositoryurethral1000 mcg
Suppositoryurethral1000 ug/1
Suppositoryurethral125 ug/1
Suppositoryurethral125 mcg
Suppositoryurethral250 mcg
Suppositoryurethral250 ug/1
Suppositoryurethral500 mcg
Suppositoryurethral500 ug/1
Injection, solutionintravascular; intravenous500 ug/mL
Solutionintra-arterial; intravenous500 mcg
Creamtopical220 mcg
Creamtopical330 mcg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Alprostadil powder5049.0USD g
Edex Cartridge 6 Pack 40 mcg Kit Box412.4USD box
Caverject 6 40 mcg Solution Box341.78USD box
Edex 6 Pack 20 mcg Kit Box301.0USD box
Caverject 6 20 mcg Solution, 1 Box Contains 6 Vials Box272.05USD box
Prostin Vr 500 mcg/ml266.72USD ml
Edex Cartridge 6 Pack 10 mcg Kit Box233.65USD box
Edex Cartridge 2 Pack 40 mcg Kit Box135.23USD box
Edex 40 mcg cartridge kit132.18USD kit
Prostin vr 500 mcg/ml ampul108.0USD ml
Edex 2 Pack 20 mcg Kit Box97.47USD box
Edex 20 mcg cartridge kit96.47USD kit
Edex Cartridge 2 Pack 10 mcg Kit Box77.22USD box
Edex 10 mcg cartridge kit74.88USD kit
Alprostadil 500 mcg/ml vial66.0USD ml
Caverject Impulse 1 Box = 2 Blister Trays, 20 mcg47.77USD box
Caverject impulse 20 mcg kit46.66USD each
Caverject Impulse 1 Box = 2 Blister Trays, 10 mcg37.51USD box
Muse 1000 mcg Pellets36.97USD pellet
Caverject impulse 10 mcg kit36.23USD each
Muse 1000 mcg urethral suppository35.54USD suppository
Muse 500 mcg Pellets34.23USD pellet
Muse 500 mcg urethral suppository32.92USD suppository
Muse 250 mcg Pellets31.99USD pellet
Muse 250 mcg urethral suppository30.76USD suppository
Muse 125 mcg Pellets30.56USD pellet
Muse 125 mcg urethral suppository29.39USD suppository
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA1335346 No1995-04-252012-04-25Canada
US5773020 No1993-04-252010-04-25Us
US5886039 No1996-03-232016-03-23Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point115-116 °CNot Available
water solubility26.7 mg/LNot Available
logP3.20AVDEEF,A ET AL. (1995)
pKa4.85 (at 25 °C)AVDEEF,A ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0788 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.04ALOGPS
logP3.59ChemAxon
logS-3.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.35ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area94.83 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count13ChemAxon
Refractivity98.32 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability41.88 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesC01EA01G04BE01
AHFS Codes
  • 24:12.92
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (283 KB)
MSDSDownload (74.3 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AvanafilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Avanafil is combined with Alprostadil.
SildenafilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sildenafil is combined with Alprostadil.
TadalafilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tadalafil is combined with Alprostadil.
VardenafilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vardenafil is combined with Alprostadil.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Prostaglandin e receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The activity of this receptor is mediated by G(s) proteins that stimulate adenylate cyclase. The subsequent raise in intracellular cAMP is responsible for the relaxing effect of this receptor on smooth muscle.
Gene Name:
PTGER2
Uniprot ID:
P43116
Molecular Weight:
39759.945 Da
References
  1. Dijkstra BG, Schneemann A, Hoyng PF: Flow after prostaglandin E1 is mediated by receptor-coupled adenylyl cyclase in human anterior segments. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999 Oct;40(11):2622-6. [PubMed:10509658 ]
  2. Takahashi HK, Iwagaki H, Tamura R, Katsuno G, Xue D, Sugita S, Mori S, Yoshino T, Tanaka N, Nishibori M: Differential effect of prostaglandins E1 and E2 on lipopolysaccharide-induced adhesion molecule expression on human monocytes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005 Apr 11;512(2-3):223-30. [PubMed:15840408 ]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Prostaglandin e receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The activity of this receptor is mediated by G(q) proteins which activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. May play a role as an important modulator of renal function. Implicated the smooth muscle contractile response to PGE2 in various tissues.
Gene Name:
PTGER1
Uniprot ID:
P34995
Molecular Weight:
41800.655 Da
References
  1. Norel X, de Montpreville V, Brink C: Vasoconstriction induced by activation of EP1 and EP3 receptors in human lung: effects of ONO-AE-248, ONO-DI-004, ONO-8711 or ONO-8713. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2004 Oct;74(1-4):101-12. [PubMed:15560119 ]
  2. Takahashi HK, Iwagaki H, Tamura R, Xue D, Sano M, Mori S, Yoshino T, Tanaka N, Nishibori M: Unique regulation profile of prostaglandin e1 on adhesion molecule expression and cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Dec;307(3):1188-95. Epub 2003 Oct 15. [PubMed:14561849 ]
  3. Ito Y, Murai Y, Ishibashi H, Onoue H, Akaike N: The prostaglandin E series modulates high-voltage-activated calcium channels probably through the EP3 receptor in rat paratracheal ganglia. Neuropharmacology. 2000 Jan 4;39(2):181-90. [PubMed:10670413 ]
  4. Matlhagela K, Taub M: Involvement of EP1 and EP2 receptors in the regulation of the Na,K-ATPase by prostaglandins in MDCK cells. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2006 Mar;79(1-2):101-13. Epub 2006 Jan 27. [PubMed:16516814 ]
  5. Tokuda H, Kozawa O, Miwa M, Uematsu T: p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase but not p44/p42 MAP kinase is involved in prostaglandin E1-induced vascular endothelial growth factor synthesis in osteoblasts. J Endocrinol. 2001 Sep;170(3):629-38. [PubMed:11524243 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Acts as a multispecific organic anion pump which can transport nucleotide analogs.
Gene Name:
ABCC5
Uniprot ID:
O15440
Molecular Weight:
160658.8 Da
References
  1. Reid G, Wielinga P, Zelcer N, van der Heijden I, Kuil A, de Haas M, Wijnholds J, Borst P: The human multidrug resistance protein MRP4 functions as a prostaglandin efflux transporter and is inhibited by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 5;100(16):9244-9. Epub 2003 Jun 30. [PubMed:12835412 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as taurocholate, the prostaglandins PGD2, PGE1, PGE2, leukotriene C4, thromboxane B2 and iloprost.
Gene Name:
SLCO2B1
Uniprot ID:
O94956
Molecular Weight:
76709.98 Da
References
  1. Nishio T, Adachi H, Nakagomi R, Tokui T, Sato E, Tanemoto M, Fujiwara K, Okabe M, Onogawa T, Suzuki T, Nakai D, Shiiba K, Suzuki M, Ohtani H, Kondo Y, Unno M, Ito S, Iinuma K, Nunoki K, Matsuno S, Abe T: Molecular identification of a rat novel organic anion transporter moat1, which transports prostaglandin D(2), leukotriene C(4), and taurocholate. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Sep 7;275(3):831-8. [PubMed:10973807 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as estrone-3-sulfate (PubMed:10873595). Mediates transport of prostaglandins (PG) E1 and E2, thyroxine (T4), deltorphin II, BQ-123 and vasopressin, but not DPDPE (a derivative of enkephalin lacking an N-terminal tyrosine residue), estrone-3-sulfate, taurocholate, digoxin nor DHEAS (PubMed:16971491).
Gene Name:
SLCO3A1
Uniprot ID:
Q9UIG8
Molecular Weight:
76552.135 Da
References
  1. Adachi H, Suzuki T, Abe M, Asano N, Mizutamari H, Tanemoto M, Nishio T, Onogawa T, Toyohara T, Kasai S, Satoh F, Suzuki M, Tokui T, Unno M, Shimosegawa T, Matsuno S, Ito S, Abe T: Molecular characterization of human and rat organic anion transporter OATP-D. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003 Dec;285(6):F1188-97. [PubMed:14631946 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function:
May be an organic anion pump relevant to cellular detoxification.
Gene Name:
ABCC4
Uniprot ID:
O15439
Molecular Weight:
149525.33 Da
References
  1. Reid G, Wielinga P, Zelcer N, van der Heijden I, Kuil A, de Haas M, Wijnholds J, Borst P: The human multidrug resistance protein MRP4 functions as a prostaglandin efflux transporter and is inhibited by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 5;100(16):9244-9. Epub 2003 Jun 30. [PubMed:12835412 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
May mediate the release of newly synthesized prostaglandins from cells, the transepithelial transport of prostaglandins, and the clearance of prostaglandins from the circulation. Transports PGD2, as well as PGE1, PGE2 and PGF2A.
Gene Name:
SLCO2A1
Uniprot ID:
Q92959
Molecular Weight:
70043.33 Da
References
  1. Lu R, Kanai N, Bao Y, Schuster VL: Cloning, in vitro expression, and tissue distribution of a human prostaglandin transporter cDNA(hPGT). J Clin Invest. 1996 Sep 1;98(5):1142-9. [PubMed:8787677 ]
  2. Kanai N, Lu R, Satriano JA, Bao Y, Wolkoff AW, Schuster VL: Identification and characterization of a prostaglandin transporter. Science. 1995 May 12;268(5212):866-9. [PubMed:7754369 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on May 28, 2016 02:11