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Identification
NameEtoposide
Accession NumberDB00773  (APRD00239)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionA semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(-)-Etoposide
4-Demethylepipodophyllotoxin beta-D-ethylideneglucoside
4'-Demethylepipodophyllotoxin 9-(4,6-O-(R)-ethylidene-beta-D-glucopyranoside)
9-((4,6-O-Ethylidine-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy)-5,8,8a,9-tetrahydro-5-(4-hydroxy-3,4-dimethyloxyphenyl)furo(3',4'':6,7)naptho-(2,3-D)-1,3-dioxol-6(5ah)-one
EPE
EPEG
Epipodophyllotoxin
Eposin
Etopophos
Etoposid
Etoposide
Etoposido
Etoposidum
Lastet
Toposar
trans-Etoposide
Vepesid
VP-16
External Identifiers
  • BMY 40481
  • VP-16
  • VP-16-213
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Dom-etoposideliquid20 mgintravenousDominion PharmacalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Eposinliquid20 mgintravenousPharmachemie B.V.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Etopophosinjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution100 mg/1intravenousE.R. Squibb & Sons, L.L.C.2009-06-01Not applicableUs
Etoposideliquid20 mgintravenousPharmel IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Etoposide - Liq IV 20mg/mlliquid20 mgintravenousBdh Inc.1997-01-281998-07-01Canada
Etoposide Injectionliquid20 mgintravenousTeva Canada Limited1994-12-31Not applicableCanada
Etoposide Injectionliquid20 mgintravenousFresenius Kabi Canada Ltd2014-10-20Not applicableCanada
Etoposide Injection USPsolution20 mgintravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated2013-09-04Not applicableCanada
Etoposide Injection, USPliquid20 mgintravenousMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2014-07-10Not applicableCanada
Etoposide Injection, USPsolution20 mgintravenousHospira Healthcare Corporation1999-12-28Not applicableCanada
PMS-etoposideliquid20 mgintravenousPharmascience IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Vepesidcapsule50 mgoralBristol Myers Squibb Canada1984-12-31Not applicableCanada
Vepesid Inj 20mg/mlliquid20 mgintravenousBristol Labs Division Of Bristol Myers Squibb1981-12-312007-10-30Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Etoposideinjection20 mg/mLintravenousBlue Point Laboratories2013-11-14Not applicableUs
Etoposidecapsule50 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2001-10-22Not applicableUs
Etoposideinjection20 mg/mLintravenousAccord Healthcare Inc.2013-09-15Not applicableUs
Etoposideinjection20 mg/mLintravenousAccord Healthcare Inc.2013-08-01Not applicableUs
Etoposideinjection, solution20 mg/mLintravenousAPP Pharmaceuticals, LLC2001-07-18Not applicableUs
Toposarinjection, solution, concentrate20 mg/mLintravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.1996-08-01Not applicableUs
Toposarinjection, solution, concentrate20 mg/mLintravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.1996-08-01Not applicableUs
Toposarinjection, solution, concentrate20 mg/mLintravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.1997-05-01Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
EtopofosBristol-Myers Squibb
LastetCancernova
NexvepBristol-Myers Squibb
Vepesid KBristol-Myers Squibb
VépésideNovartis
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Etoposide Phosphate
Thumb
  • InChI Key: LIQODXNTTZAGID-OCBXBXKTSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 668.15062152
  • Average Mass: 668.5365
DBSALT000070
Categories
UNII6PLQ3CP4P3
CAS number33419-42-0
WeightAverage: 588.5566
Monoisotopic: 588.18429111
Chemical FormulaC29H32O13
InChI KeyInChIKey=VJJPUSNTGOMMGY-MRVIYFEKSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C29H32O13/c1-11-36-9-20-27(40-11)24(31)25(32)29(41-20)42-26-14-7-17-16(38-10-39-17)6-13(14)21(22-15(26)8-37-28(22)33)12-4-18(34-2)23(30)19(5-12)35-3/h4-7,11,15,20-22,24-27,29-32H,8-10H2,1-3H3/t11-,15+,20-,21-,22+,24-,25-,26-,27-,29+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(10R,11R,15R,16S)-16-{[(2R,4aR,6R,7R,8R,8aS)-7,8-dihydroxy-2-methyl-hexahydro-2H-pyrano[3,2-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl]oxy}-10-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-4,6,13-trioxatetracyclo[7.7.0.0³,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]hexadeca-1,3(7),8-trien-12-one
SMILES
[H][C@]12COC(=O)[C@]1([H])[[email protected]](C1=CC(OC)=C(O)C(OC)=C1)C1=CC3=C(OCO3)C=C1[[email protected]]2O[C@@H]1O[C@]2([H])CO[C@@H](C)O[C@@]2([H])[[email protected]](O)[[email protected]]1O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as podophyllotoxins. These are tetralin lignans in which the benzene moiety of the tetralin skeleton is fused to a 1,3-dioxolane and the cyclohexane is fused to a butyrolactone (pyrrolidin-2-one).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLignans, neolignans and related compounds
ClassLignan lactones
Sub ClassPodophyllotoxins
Direct ParentPodophyllotoxins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Podophyllotoxin
  • 1-aryltetralin lignan
  • M-dimethoxybenzene
  • Dimethoxybenzene
  • Tetralin
  • Pyranodioxin
  • Methoxyphenol
  • Benzodioxole
  • Methoxybenzene
  • Phenol ether
  • Anisole
  • Phenol
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Oxane
  • Monosaccharide
  • Gamma butyrolactone
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Meta-dioxane
  • Oxolane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Lactone
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • 1,2-diol
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Acetal
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor use in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of refractory testicular tumors and as first line treatment in patients with small cell lung cancer. Also used to treat other malignancies such as lymphoma, non-lymphocytic leukemia, and glioblastoma multiforme.
PharmacodynamicsEtoposide is an antineoplastic agent and an epipodophyllotoxin (a semisynthetic derivative of the podophyllotoxins). It inhibits DNA topoisomerase II, thereby ultimately inhibiting DNA synthesis. Etoposide is cell cycle dependent and phase specific, affecting mainly the S and G2 phases. Two different dose-dependent responses are seen. At high concentrations (10 µg/mL or more), lysis of cells entering mitosis is observed. At low concentrations (0.3 to 10 µg/mL), cells are inhibited from entering prophase. It does not interfere with microtubular assembly. The predominant macromolecular effect of etoposide appears to be the induction of DNA strand breaks by an interaction with DNA-topoisomerase II or the formation of free radicals.
Mechanism of actionEtoposide inhibits DNA topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA re-ligation. This causes critical errors in DNA synthesis at the premitotic stage of cell division and can lead to apoptosis of the cancer cell. Etoposide is cell cycle dependent and phase specific, affecting mainly the S and G2 phases of cell division. Inhibition of the topoisomerase II alpha isoform results in the anti-tumour activity of etoposide. The drug is also capable of inhibiting the beta isoform but inhibition of this target is not associated with the anti-tumour activity. It is instead associated with the carcinogenic effect.
Related Articles
AbsorptionAbsorbed well, time to peak plasma concentration is 1-1.5 hrs. Mean bioavailability is 50% (range of 25% - 75%). Cmax and AUC values for orally administered etoposide capsules display intra- and inter-subject variability. There is no evidence of first-pass effect for etoposide.
Volume of distribution

The disposition of etoposide is a biphasic process with a distribution half-life of 1.5 hours. It does not cross into cerebrospinal fluid well.
Volume of distribution, steady state = 18 – 29 L.

Protein binding97% protein bound.
Metabolism

Primarily hepatic (through O-demethylation via the CYP450 3A4 isoenzyme pathway) with 40% excreted unchanged in the urine. Etoposide also undergoes glutathione and glucuronide conjugation which are catalyzed by GSTT1/GSTP1 and UGT1A1, respectively. Prostaglandin synthases are also responsible for the conversion of etoposide to O-demethylated metabolites (quinone).

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Etoposide
3'-demethyletoposideDetails
Etoposide
Etoposide glucuronideDetails
Etoposide
Etoposide catecholDetails
Etoposide catechol
Etoposide ortho-quinoneDetails
Route of eliminationEtoposide is cleared by both renal and nonrenal processes, i.e., metabolism and biliary excretion. Glucuronide and/or sulfate conjugates of etoposide are also excreted in human urine. Biliary excretion of unchanged drug and/or metabolites is an important route of etoposide elimination as fecal recovery of radioactivity is 44% of the intravenous dose. 56% of the dose was in the urine, 45% of which was excreted as etoposide.
Half life4-11 hours
Clearance
  • Total body clearance = 33 – 48 mL/min [IV administration, adults]
  • Mean renal clearance = 7 – 10 mL/min/m^2
ToxicitySide effects include alopecia, constipation, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting and secondary malignancies (leukemia).
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Etoposide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00442
Etoposide Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00601
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.836
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9609
Caco-2 permeable-0.5234
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7019
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8005
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8381
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8412
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8228
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6134
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6884
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8392
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.529
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5576
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9325
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9467
Rat acute toxicity2.9588 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9847
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8734
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Bristol myers squibb co
  • Accord healthcare inc usa
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
  • Hospira inc
  • Marsam pharmaceuticals llc
  • Pharmachemie bv
  • Pierre fabre medicament
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionintravenous100 mg/1
Capsuleoral50 mg/1
Injectionintravenous20 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintravenous20 mg/mL
Liquidintravenous20 mg
Solutionintravenous20 mg
Injection, solution, concentrateintravenous20 mg/mL
Capsuleoral50 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
VePesid 20 50 mg capsule Box1273.41USD box
Etopophos 100 mg vial159.55USD vial
Etoposide 50 mg capsule47.64USD capsule
Etoposide 100 mg/5 ml vial28.89USD ml
Toposar 100 mg/5 ml vial2.25USD ml
Toposar 1000 mg/50 ml vial1.12USD ml
Toposar 500 mg/25 ml vial1.06USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point236-251 °CPhysProp
water solubilitySparingly soluble FDA label
logP0.60HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.978 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.73ALOGPS
logP1.16ChemAxon
logS-2.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.33ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count12ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area160.83 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity139.02 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability58.77 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings7ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

DrugSyn.org

US3524844
General References
  1. Zhou Z, Zwelling LA, Ganapathi R, Kleinerman ES: Enhanced etoposide sensitivity following adenovirus-mediated human topoisomerase IIalpha gene transfer is independent of topoisomerase IIbeta. Br J Cancer. 2001 Sep 1;85(5):747-51. [PubMed:11531262 ]
  2. Azarova AM, Lyu YL, Lin CP, Tsai YC, Lau JY, Wang JC, Liu LF: Roles of DNA topoisomerase II isozymes in chemotherapy and secondary malignancies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jun 26;104(26):11014-9. Epub 2007 Jun 19. [PubMed:17578914 ]
External Links
ATC CodesL01CB01
AHFS Codes
  • 10:00.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (206 KB)
MSDSDownload (24.1 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
AcebutololThe serum concentration of Acebutolol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
AcenocoumarolEtoposide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
AcetaminophenThe serum concentration of Acetaminophen can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
AcetyldigitoxinAcetyldigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Etoposide.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe serum concentration of Acetylsalicylic acid can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Afatinib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
AlbendazoleThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Albendazole.
AldosteroneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Aldosterone.
AldosteroneThe serum concentration of Aldosterone can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
AlectinibThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Alectinib.
AlfentanilThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Alfentanil.
AlitretinoinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
AmantadineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
AmbrisentanThe serum concentration of Ambrisentan can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
Aminohippuric acidThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Aminohippuric acid.
AmiodaroneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Amiodarone.
AmitriptylineThe serum concentration of Amitriptyline can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
AmlodipineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Amlodipine.
AmodiaquineThe serum concentration of Amodiaquine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
AmprenavirThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Amprenavir.
AmsacrineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Amsacrine.
ApixabanThe serum concentration of Apixaban can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.
AripiprazoleThe serum concentration of Aripiprazole can be decreased when it is combined with Etoposide.
Arsenic trioxideThe serum concentration of Arsenic trioxide can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
AstemizoleThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Astemizole.
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Atazanavir can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
AtenololThe serum concentration of Atenolol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.
AtorvastatinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Atorvastatin.
AtovaquoneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Atovaquone.
AxitinibThe serum concentration of Axitinib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
AzelastineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Azelastine.
AzithromycinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Azithromycin.
BenzocaineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Benzocaine.
BepridilThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Bepridil.
BetamethasoneThe serum concentration of Betamethasone can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
BevacizumabBevacizumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Etoposide.
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.
BiperidenThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Biperiden.
BoceprevirThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Boceprevir.
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Boceprevir can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
BortezomibThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.
BosentanThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Bosutinib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
Brentuximab vedotinThe serum concentration of Brentuximab vedotin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
BromocriptineThe serum concentration of Bromocriptine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
BuprenorphineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Buprenorphine.
BuspironeThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Buspirone.
CabazitaxelThe serum concentration of Cabazitaxel can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
CaffeineThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
CamptothecinThe serum concentration of Camptothecin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
CanagliflozinThe serum concentration of Canagliflozin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
CandesartanThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Candesartan.
CaptoprilThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Captopril.
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Carbamazepine.
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of Carbamazepine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
CarfilzomibThe serum concentration of Carfilzomib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
CarvedilolThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Carvedilol.
CaspofunginThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Caspofungin.
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.
CerivastatinThe serum concentration of Cerivastatin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
ChloroquineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Chloroquine.
ChlorpromazineThe serum concentration of Chlorpromazine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
ChlorpropamideThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Chlorpropamide.
ChlorprothixeneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Chlorprothixene.
CholesterolThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Cholesterol.
Cholic AcidThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Cholic Acid.
CilazaprilThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Cilazapril.
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Cimetidine.
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Cimetidine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
CiprofloxacinThe serum concentration of Ciprofloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
CisplatinThe serum concentration of Cisplatin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
CitalopramThe serum concentration of Citalopram can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
ClarithromycinThe serum concentration of Clarithromycin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
ClemastineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.
ClobazamThe serum concentration of Clobazam can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
ClofazimineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Clofazimine.
ClomifeneThe serum concentration of Clomifene can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
ClomipramineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Clomipramine.
ClonidineThe serum concentration of Clonidine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
ClopidogrelThe serum concentration of Clopidogrel can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etoposide is combined with Clozapine.
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.
CobimetinibThe serum concentration of Cobimetinib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Colchicine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
ColforsinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Colforsin.
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.
Conjugated Equine EstrogensThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.
CrizotinibThe serum concentration of Crizotinib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
CyclophosphamideCyclophosphamide may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Etoposide.
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.
CyclosporineThe serum concentration of Cyclosporine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of Dabigatran etexilate can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Dabrafenib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
DaclatasvirThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Daclatasvir.
DactinomycinThe serum concentration of Dactinomycin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
DapagliflozinThe serum concentration of Dapagliflozin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
DarunavirThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Darunavir.
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.
DaunorubicinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
DaunorubicinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
DebrisoquinThe serum concentration of Debrisoquin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.
DenosumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Denosumab is combined with Etoposide.
DesipramineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Desipramine.
DeslanosideDeslanoside may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Etoposide.
DesloratadineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Desloratadine.
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Dexamethasone.
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Dexamethasone can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
DextromethorphanThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Dextromethorphan.
DiazepamThe serum concentration of Diazepam can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
DiclofenacThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Diclofenac.
DicoumarolEtoposide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.
DiethylstilbestrolThe serum concentration of Diethylstilbestrol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
DigitoxinDigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Etoposide.
DigitoxinThe serum concentration of Digitoxin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
DigoxinDigoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Etoposide.
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Digoxin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.
DihydrotestosteroneThe serum concentration of Dihydrotestosterone can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.
DiltiazemThe serum concentration of Diltiazem can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
DipyridamoleThe serum concentration of Dipyridamole can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
DisulfiramThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Disulfiram.
DocetaxelThe serum concentration of Docetaxel can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
DocetaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Docetaxel is combined with Etoposide.
DomperidoneThe serum concentration of Domperidone can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
DoxazosinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Doxazosin.
DoxepinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Doxepin.
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.
DronabinolThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Dronabinol.
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.
EdoxabanThe serum concentration of Edoxaban can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Efavirenz.
ElbasvirThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Elbasvir.
EletriptanThe serum concentration of Eletriptan can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
EltrombopagThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Eltrombopag.
EnalaprilThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Enalapril.
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.
EpinastineThe serum concentration of Epinastine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
ErgonovineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Ergonovine.
ErgotamineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Ergotamine.
ErlotinibThe serum concentration of Erlotinib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.
ErythromycinThe serum concentration of Erythromycin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.
EstradiolThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
EstramustineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Estramustine.
EstriolThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Estriol.
EstriolThe serum concentration of Estriol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
EstroneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Estrone.
EstroneThe serum concentration of Estrone can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
Ethinyl EstradiolThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
Ethyl biscoumacetateEtoposide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Etravirine.
EverolimusThe serum concentration of Everolimus can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
EzetimibeThe serum concentration of Ezetimibe can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
FelodipineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Felodipine.
FentanylThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Fentanyl.
FesoterodineThe serum concentration of Fesoterodine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
FexofenadineThe serum concentration of Fexofenadine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
FidaxomicinThe serum concentration of Fidaxomicin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
FingolimodEtoposide may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Fingolimod.
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.
FluoxetineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Fluoxetine.
FlupentixolThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Flupentixol.
FluphenazineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Fluphenazine.
FlurazepamThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Flurazepam.
Fluticasone furoateThe serum concentration of Fluticasone furoate can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Fosphenytoin.
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.
GefitinibThe serum concentration of Gefitinib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
GemcitabineThe serum concentration of Gemcitabine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
GenisteinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Genistein.
GlyburideThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Glyburide.
GlycerolThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Glycerol.
Gramicidin DThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
GrazoprevirThe serum concentration of Grazoprevir can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
GrepafloxacinThe serum concentration of Grepafloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
HaloperidolThe serum concentration of Haloperidol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
HydrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Hydrocortisone can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
IbuprofenThe serum concentration of Ibuprofen can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.
ImatinibThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.
ImatinibThe serum concentration of Imatinib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
ImipramineThe serum concentration of Imipramine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
IndacaterolThe serum concentration of Indacaterol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
IndinavirThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Indinavir.
IndinavirThe serum concentration of Indinavir can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
IndomethacinThe serum concentration of Indomethacin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
IrinotecanThe serum concentration of Irinotecan can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.
IsradipineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.
ItraconazoleThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Itraconazole.
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.
IvermectinThe serum concentration of Ivermectin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
KetamineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.
KetazolamThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
KetoconazoleThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Ketoconazole.
LamivudineThe serum concentration of Lamivudine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
LamotrigineThe serum concentration of Lamotrigine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
LansoprazoleThe serum concentration of Lansoprazole can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
LapatinibThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Lapatinib.
LedipasvirThe serum concentration of Ledipasvir can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
LeflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etoposide is combined with Leflunomide.
LenalidomideThe serum concentration of Lenalidomide can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
LenvatinibThe serum concentration of Lenvatinib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
LevetiracetamThe serum concentration of Levetiracetam can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
LevofloxacinThe serum concentration of Levofloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
LevomilnacipranThe serum concentration of Levomilnacipran can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
LevothyroxineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Levothyroxine.
LidocaineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Lidocaine.
LinagliptinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
LiothyronineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Liothyronine.
LiotrixThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Liotrix.
LisinoprilThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Lisinopril.
LomitapideThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Lomitapide.
LoperamideThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
LopinavirThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Lopinavir.
LoratadineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Loratadine.
LosartanThe serum concentration of Losartan can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
LovastatinThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.
MannitolThe serum concentration of Mannitol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
MaprotilineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Maprotiline.
MebendazoleThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Mebendazole.
MefloquineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Mefloquine.
Megestrol acetateThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Megestrol acetate.
MeprobamateThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Meprobamate.
MetamizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metamizole is combined with Etoposide.
MethadoneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Methadone.
MethotrexateThe serum concentration of Methotrexate can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
MethylprednisoloneThe serum concentration of Methylprednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Metoprolol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
MexiletineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Mexiletine.
MibefradilThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Mibefradil.
MiconazoleThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Miconazole.
MidazolamThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Midazolam.
MidazolamThe serum concentration of Midazolam can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
MifepristoneThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Mifepristone.
MirabegronThe serum concentration of Mirabegron can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
MitomycinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Mitomycin.
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.
MitoxantroneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.
MitoxantroneThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
ModafinilThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Modafinil.
MorphineThe serum concentration of Morphine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
Mycophenolate mofetilThe serum concentration of Mycophenolate mofetil can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
NadololThe serum concentration of Nadolol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
NafcillinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Nafcillin.
NaloxegolThe serum concentration of Naloxegol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
NaloxoneThe serum concentration of Naloxone can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
NaltrexoneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Naltrexone.
NaringeninThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Naringenin.
NatalizumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etoposide is combined with Natalizumab.
NefazodoneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Nefazodone.
NelfinavirThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Nelfinavir.
NelfinavirThe serum concentration of Nelfinavir can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
NeostigmineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Neostigmine.
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.
NevirapineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Nevirapine.
NicardipineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Nicardipine.
NicotineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Nicotine.
NifedipineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Nifedipine.
NifedipineThe serum concentration of Nifedipine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
NilotinibThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.
NilotinibThe serum concentration of Nilotinib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
NintedanibThe serum concentration of Nintedanib can be decreased when it is combined with Etoposide.
NisoldipineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Nisoldipine.
NitrazepamThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Nitrazepam.
NitrendipineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Nitrendipine.
NizatidineThe serum concentration of Nizatidine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
NorethisteroneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Norethisterone.
OlanzapineThe serum concentration of Olanzapine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
OlaparibThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.
OmbitasvirThe serum concentration of Ombitasvir can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
OmeprazoleThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Omeprazole.
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.
OuabainOuabain may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Etoposide.
P-NitrophenolThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with P-Nitrophenol.
PaclitaxelThe serum concentration of Paclitaxel can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.
Palmitic AcidThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.
PanobinostatThe serum concentration of Panobinostat can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
PantoprazoleThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Pantoprazole.
ParoxetineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Paroxetine.
PazopanibThe serum concentration of Pazopanib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.
PentobarbitalThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Pentobarbital.
PerindoprilThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.
PhenindioneEtoposide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
PhenprocoumonEtoposide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
PimecrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimecrolimus is combined with Etoposide.
PimozideThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Pimozide.
PitavastatinThe serum concentration of Pitavastatin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
Platelet Activating FactorThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Platelet Activating Factor.
PomalidomideThe serum concentration of Pomalidomide can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
PonatinibThe serum concentration of Ponatinib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
PosaconazoleThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Posaconazole.
PravastatinThe serum concentration of Pravastatin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
PrazosinThe serum concentration of Prazosin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
PrednisoloneThe serum concentration of Prednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
PrednisoneThe serum concentration of Prednisone can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
PrimidoneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Primidone.
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.
ProgesteroneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Progesterone.
ProgesteroneThe serum concentration of Progesterone can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
PromethazineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Promethazine.
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Propafenone.
PropranololThe serum concentration of Propranolol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
ProtriptylineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Protriptyline.
PrucaloprideThe serum concentration of Prucalopride can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
QuercetinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Quercetin.
QuetiapineThe serum concentration of Quetiapine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
QuinacrineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Quinacrine.
QuinidineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
QuinineThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
Rabies vaccineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etoposide is combined with Rabies vaccine.
RanitidineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Ranitidine.
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Ranolazine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
ReboxetineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.
RegorafenibThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Regorafenib.
ReserpineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Reserpine.
ReserpineThe serum concentration of Reserpine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
RifabutinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Rifabutin.
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Rifampicin.
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Rifampicin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
RifapentineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Rifapentine.
RifaximinThe serum concentration of Rifaximin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
RilpivirineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Rilpivirine.
RisperidoneThe serum concentration of Risperidone can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
RivaroxabanThe serum concentration of Rivaroxaban can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
RoflumilastRoflumilast may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Etoposide.
RolapitantThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Rolapitant.
RomidepsinThe serum concentration of Romidepsin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
RopiniroleThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Ropinirole.
Salicylic acidThe serum concentration of Salicylic acid can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
SaquinavirThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
SaquinavirThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
SaxagliptinThe serum concentration of Saxagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Etoposide.
ScopolamineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Scopolamine.
SelegilineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Selegiline.
SelexipagThe serum concentration of Selexipag can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
SertralineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Sertraline.
SildenafilThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.
SilodosinThe serum concentration of Silodosin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.
SimvastatinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Simvastatin.
Sipuleucel-TThe therapeutic efficacy of Sipuleucel-T can be decreased when used in combination with Etoposide.
SirolimusThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Sirolimus.
SitagliptinThe serum concentration of Sitagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
SofosbuvirThe serum concentration of Sofosbuvir can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
SorafenibThe serum concentration of Sorafenib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
SparfloxacinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
SphingosineThe serum concentration of Sphingosine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
SpironolactoneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Spironolactone.
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.
StaurosporineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Staurosporine.
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.
StreptozocinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Streptozocin.
SulfinpyrazoneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Sulfinpyrazone.
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.
SumatriptanThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Sumatriptan.
SunitinibThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Sunitinib.
TacrineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Tacrine.
TacrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tacrolimus is combined with Etoposide.
TacrolimusThe serum concentration of Tacrolimus can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
TamoxifenThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Tamoxifen.
TamoxifenThe serum concentration of Tamoxifen can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
Taurocholic AcidThe serum concentration of Taurocholic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
Technetium Tc-99m sestamibiThe serum concentration of Technetium Tc-99m sestamibi can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
TelaprevirThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Telaprevir.
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Telaprevir can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.
TelmisartanThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Telmisartan.
TemsirolimusThe serum concentration of Temsirolimus can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
TenofovirThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir.
TerazosinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Terazosin.
TerfenadineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Terfenadine.
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.
TesmilifeneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Tesmilifene.
TestosteroneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Testosterone.
TheophyllineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Theophylline.
TicagrelorThe serum concentration of Ticagrelor can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.
TimololThe serum concentration of Timolol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.
TofacitinibEtoposide may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Tofacitinib.
TolvaptanThe serum concentration of Tolvaptan can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
TopotecanThe serum concentration of Topotecan can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
ToremifeneThe serum concentration of Toremifene can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
TrastuzumabTrastuzumab may increase the neutropenic activities of Etoposide.
Trastuzumab emtansineThe serum concentration of Trastuzumab emtansine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
TrazodoneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Trazodone.
TrifluoperazineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Trifluoperazine.
TriflupromazineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Triflupromazine.
TrimethoprimThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Trimethoprim.
TrimipramineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Trimipramine.
TroleandomycinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Troleandomycin.
UlipristalThe serum concentration of Ulipristal can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
UmeclidiniumThe serum concentration of Umeclidinium can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
VecuroniumThe serum concentration of Vecuronium can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Vemurafenib.
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.
VenlafaxineThe serum concentration of Venlafaxine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
VerapamilThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.
VerapamilThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
VinblastineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Vinblastine.
VinblastineThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
VincristineThe serum concentration of Vincristine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
VincristineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Vincristine.
VinorelbineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Vinorelbine.
VismodegibThe serum concentration of Vismodegib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.
WarfarinEtoposide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.
ZidovudineThe serum concentration of Zidovudine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
ZimelidineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Zimelidine.
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.
Food Interactions
  • Grapefruit and grapefruit juice should be avoided throughout treatment as grapefruit can decrease serum levels of this product.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Ubiquitin binding
Specific Function:
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks. Essential during mitosis and meiosis for proper segregation of daughter chromosomes. May play a role in regulating the period length of ARNTL/BMAL1 transcriptional oscillation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TOP2A
Uniprot ID:
P11388
Molecular Weight:
174383.88 Da
References
  1. de Lucio B, Manuel V, Barrera-Rodriguez R: Characterization of human NSCLC cell line with innate etoposide-resistance mediated by cytoplasmic localization of topoisomerase II alpha. Cancer Sci. 2005 Nov;96(11):774-83. [PubMed:16271071 ]
  2. Lopez-Lazaro M, Pastor N, Azrak SS, Ayuso MJ, Austin CA, Cortes F: Digitoxin inhibits the growth of cancer cell lines at concentrations commonly found in cardiac patients. J Nat Prod. 2005 Nov;68(11):1642-5. [PubMed:16309315 ]
  3. Moneypenny CG, Shao J, Song Y, Gallagher EP: MLL rearrangements are induced by low doses of etoposide in human fetal hematopoietic stem cells. Carcinogenesis. 2006 Apr;27(4):874-81. Epub 2005 Dec 24. [PubMed:16377807 ]
  4. Uesaka T, Shono T, Kuga D, Suzuki SO, Niiro H, Miyamoto K, Matsumoto K, Mizoguchi M, Ohta M, Iwaki T, Sasaki T: Enhanced expression of DNA topoisomerase II genes in human medulloblastoma and its possible association with etoposide sensitivity. J Neurooncol. 2007 Sep;84(2):119-29. Epub 2007 Mar 15. [PubMed:17361331 ]
  5. Winnicka K, Bielawski K, Bielawska A: Cardiac glycosides in cancer research and cancer therapy. Acta Pol Pharm. 2006 Mar-Apr;63(2):109-15. [PubMed:17514873 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
no
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Protein kinase c binding
Specific Function:
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks.
Gene Name:
TOP2B
Uniprot ID:
Q02880
Molecular Weight:
183265.825 Da
References
  1. Azarova AM, Lyu YL, Lin CP, Tsai YC, Lau JY, Wang JC, Liu LF: Roles of DNA topoisomerase II isozymes in chemotherapy and secondary malignancies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jun 26;104(26):11014-9. Epub 2007 Jun 19. [PubMed:17578914 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitorinducer
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Kawashiro T, Yamashita K, Zhao XJ, Koyama E, Tani M, Chiba K, Ishizaki T: A study on the metabolism of etoposide and possible interactions with antitumor or supporting agents by human liver microsomes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Sep;286(3):1294-300. [PubMed:9732391 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular Weight:
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinducer
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular Weight:
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid binding
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naph...
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular Weight:
59590.91 Da
References
  1. Wen Z, Tallman MN, Ali SY, Smith PC: UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 is the principal enzyme responsible for etoposide glucuronidation in human liver and intestinal microsomes: structural characterization of phenolic and alcoholic glucuronides of etoposide and estimation of enzyme kinetics. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Mar;35(3):371-80. Epub 2006 Dec 6. [PubMed:17151191 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Acts on 1,2-epoxy-3-(4-nitrophenoxy)propane, phenethylisothiocyanate 4-nitrobenzyl chloride and 4-nitrophenethyl bromide. Displays glutathione peroxidase activity with cumene hydroperoxide.
Gene Name:
GSTT1
Uniprot ID:
P30711
Molecular Weight:
27334.755 Da
References
  1. Mans DR, Lafleur MV, Westmijze EJ, Horn IR, Bets D, Schuurhuis GJ, Lankelma J, Retel J: Reactions of glutathione with the catechol, the ortho-quinone and the semi-quinone free radical of etoposide. Consequences for DNA inactivation. Biochem Pharmacol. 1992 Apr 15;43(8):1761-8. [PubMed:1315544 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
S-nitrosoglutathione binding
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Regulates negatively CDK5 activity via p25/p35 translocation to prevent neurodegeneration.
Gene Name:
GSTP1
Uniprot ID:
P09211
Molecular Weight:
23355.625 Da
References
  1. Mans DR, Lafleur MV, Westmijze EJ, Horn IR, Bets D, Schuurhuis GJ, Lankelma J, Retel J: Reactions of glutathione with the catechol, the ortho-quinone and the semi-quinone free radical of etoposide. Consequences for DNA inactivation. Biochem Pharmacol. 1992 Apr 15;43(8):1761-8. [PubMed:1315544 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and brain, and in pathological conditions, such as in cancer. PTGS2 is responsible for production of inflammatory prostaglandins. Up-regulation of PTGS2 is also associated with increased cell adhesion, p...
Gene Name:
PTGS2
Uniprot ID:
P35354
Molecular Weight:
68995.625 Da
References
  1. Haim N, Roman J, Nemec J, Sinha BK: Peroxidative free radical formation and O-demethylation of etoposide(VP-16) and teniposide(VM-26). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1986 Feb 26;135(1):215-20. [PubMed:3006680 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gastric epithelial cells, it is a key step in the generation of prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays an important role in cytoprotection. In platelets, it is involved in the gener...
Gene Name:
PTGS1
Uniprot ID:
P23219
Molecular Weight:
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Haim N, Roman J, Nemec J, Sinha BK: Peroxidative free radical formation and O-demethylation of etoposide(VP-16) and teniposide(VM-26). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1986 Feb 26;135(1):215-20. [PubMed:3006680 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
May act as an inducible transporter in the biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Acts as an alternative route for the export of bile acids and glucuronides from cholestatic hepatocytes (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ABCC3
Uniprot ID:
O15438
Molecular Weight:
169341.14 Da
References
  1. Zeng H, Chen ZS, Belinsky MG, Rea PA, Kruh GD: Transport of methotrexate (MTX) and folates by multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 3 and MRP1: effect of polyglutamylation on MTX transport. Cancer Res. 2001 Oct 1;61(19):7225-32. [PubMed:11585759 ]
  2. Zehnpfennig B, Urbatsch IL, Galla HJ: Functional reconstitution of human ABCC3 into proteoliposomes reveals a transport mechanism with positive cooperativity. Biochemistry. 2009 May 26;48(20):4423-30. doi: 10.1021/bi9001908. [PubMed:19334674 ]
  3. Zelcer N, Saeki T, Reid G, Beijnen JH, Borst P: Characterization of drug transport by the human multidrug resistance protein 3 (ABCC3). J Biol Chem. 2001 Dec 7;276(49):46400-7. [PubMed:11581266 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Isoform 1: May participate directly in the active transport of drugs into subcellular organelles or influence drug distribution indirectly. Transports glutathione conjugates as leukotriene-c4 (LTC4) and N-ethylmaleimide S-glutathione (NEM-GS).Isoform 2: Inhibits TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis through blocking one or more caspases.
Gene Name:
ABCC6
Uniprot ID:
O95255
Molecular Weight:
164904.81 Da
References
  1. Cai J, Daoud R, Alqawi O, Georges E, Pelletier J, Gros P: Nucleotide binding and nucleotide hydrolysis properties of the ABC transporter MRP6 (ABCC6). Biochemistry. 2002 Jun 25;41(25):8058-67. [PubMed:12069597 ]
  2. Belinsky MG, Chen ZS, Shchaveleva I, Zeng H, Kruh GD: Characterization of the drug resistance and transport properties of multidrug resistance protein 6 (MRP6, ABCC6). Cancer Res. 2002 Nov 1;62(21):6172-7. [PubMed:12414644 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Gao J, Murase O, Schowen RL, Aube J, Borchardt RT: A functional assay for quantitation of the apparent affinities of ligands of P-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cells. Pharm Res. 2001 Feb;18(2):171-6. [PubMed:11405287 ]
  2. Polli JW, Wring SA, Humphreys JE, Huang L, Morgan JB, Webster LO, Serabjit-Singh CS: Rational use of in vitro P-glycoprotein assays in drug discovery. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Nov;299(2):620-8. [PubMed:11602674 ]
  3. Tang F, Horie K, Borchardt RT: Are MDCK cells transfected with the human MDR1 gene a good model of the human intestinal mucosa? Pharm Res. 2002 Jun;19(6):765-72. [PubMed:12134945 ]
  4. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. [PubMed:12699389 ]
  5. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. [PubMed:14985103 ]
  6. Guo A, Marinaro W, Hu P, Sinko PJ: Delineating the contribution of secretory transporters in the efflux of etoposide using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein (Pgp), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1), and canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT). Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Apr;30(4):457-63. [PubMed:11901101 ]
  7. Troutman MD, Thakker DR: Novel experimental parameters to quantify the modulation of absorptive and secretory transport of compounds by P-glycoprotein in cell culture models of intestinal epithelium. Pharm Res. 2003 Aug;20(8):1210-24. [PubMed:12948019 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotrexate, antiviral drugs and other xenobiotics. Confers resistance to anticancer drugs. Hydrolyzes ATP with low efficiency.
Gene Name:
ABCC1
Uniprot ID:
P33527
Molecular Weight:
171589.5 Da
References
  1. Heijn M, Hooijberg JH, Scheffer GL, Szabo G, Westerhoff HV, Lankelma J: Anthracyclines modulate multidrug resistance protein (MRP) mediated organic anion transport. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997 May 22;1326(1):12-22. [PubMed:9188796 ]
  2. Guo A, Marinaro W, Hu P, Sinko PJ: Delineating the contribution of secretory transporters in the efflux of etoposide using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein (Pgp), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1), and canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT). Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Apr;30(4):457-63. [PubMed:11901101 ]
  3. Godinot N, Iversen PW, Tabas L, Xia X, Williams DC, Dantzig AH, Perry WL 3rd: Cloning and functional characterization of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1/ABCC1) from the cynomolgus monkey. Mol Cancer Ther. 2003 Mar;2(3):307-16. [PubMed:12657726 ]
  4. Nunoya K, Grant CE, Zhang D, Cole SP, Deeley RG: Molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of rat multidrug resistance protein 1 (mrp1). Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Aug;31(8):1016-26. [PubMed:12867490 ]
  5. Stride BD, Grant CE, Loe DW, Hipfner DR, Cole SP, Deeley RG: Pharmacological characterization of the murine and human orthologs of multidrug-resistance protein in transfected human embryonic kidney cells. Mol Pharmacol. 1997 Sep;52(3):344-53. [PubMed:9281595 ]
  6. Wong IL, Chan KF, Tsang KH, Lam CY, Zhao Y, Chan TH, Chow LM: Modulation of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1)-mediated multidrug resistance by bivalent apigenin homodimers and their derivatives. J Med Chem. 2009 Sep 10;52(17):5311-22. doi: 10.1021/jm900194w. [PubMed:19725578 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function:
ATP-dependent transporter probably involved in cellular detoxification through lipophilic anion extrusion.
Gene Name:
ABCC10
Uniprot ID:
Q5T3U5
Molecular Weight:
161627.375 Da
References
  1. Chen ZS, Hopper-Borge E, Belinsky MG, Shchaveleva I, Kotova E, Kruh GD: Characterization of the transport properties of human multidrug resistance protein 7 (MRP7, ABCC10). Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Feb;63(2):351-8. [PubMed:12527806 ]
  2. Hopper-Borge E, Xu X, Shen T, Shi Z, Chen ZS, Kruh GD: Human multidrug resistance protein 7 (ABCC10) is a resistance factor for nucleoside analogues and epothilone B. Cancer Res. 2009 Jan 1;69(1):178-84. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-1420. [PubMed:19118001 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name:
ABCC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92887
Molecular Weight:
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Tang F, Horie K, Borchardt RT: Are MDCK cells transfected with the human MRP2 gene a good model of the human intestinal mucosa? Pharm Res. 2002 Jun;19(6):773-9. [PubMed:12134946 ]
  2. Guo A, Marinaro W, Hu P, Sinko PJ: Delineating the contribution of secretory transporters in the efflux of etoposide using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein (Pgp), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1), and canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT). Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Apr;30(4):457-63. [PubMed:11901101 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both from mitochondria to cytosol and from cytosol to extracellular space, and cellular export of hemin, and heme. Xenobiotic transporter that may play an important role in the exclusion of xenobiotics from t...
Gene Name:
ABCG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNQ0
Molecular Weight:
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Wang X, Furukawa T, Nitanda T, Okamoto M, Sugimoto Y, Akiyama S, Baba M: Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) induces cellular resistance to HIV-1 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Jan;63(1):65-72. [PubMed:12488537 ]
  2. Allen JD, Van Dort SC, Buitelaar M, van Tellingen O, Schinkel AH: Mouse breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) mediates etoposide resistance and transport, but etoposide oral availability is limited primarily by P-glycoprotein. Cancer Res. 2003 Mar 15;63(6):1339-44. [PubMed:12649196 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23