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Identification
NamePrimidone
Accession NumberDB00794  (APRD00549)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

An antiepileptic agent related to the barbiturates; it is partly metabolized to phenobarbital in the body and owes some of its actions to this metabolite. Adverse effects are reported to be more frequent than with phenobarbital. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p309)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
5-Phenyl-5-ethyl-hexahydropyrimidine-4,6-dioneNot AvailableNot Available
DesoxyphenobarbitalNot AvailableIS
MysolineNot AvailableNot Available
PrimacloneNot AvailableIS
PrimidonGermanINN
PrimidonaSpanishINN
PrimidoneFrenchINN
PrimidonumLatinINN
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Mysolinetablet50 mgoralValeant Pharmaceuticals North America2009-06-24Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Mysolinetablet250 mgoralValeant Pharmaceuticals North America2009-06-24Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Primidonetablet50 mgoralGlobal Pharmaceuticals2008-02-12Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet250 mgoralGlobal Pharmaceuticals2008-02-12Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet50 mgoralWest ward Pharmaceutical Corp2006-07-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet250 mgoralWest ward Pharmaceutical Corp2006-07-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet250 mgoralLannett Company, Inc.1978-12-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet50 mgoralLannett Company, Inc.2001-05-24Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet250 mgoralWatson Laboratories, Inc.2010-06-19Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet50 mgoralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2005-02-24Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet250 mgoralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2005-02-24Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet250 mgoralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2006-07-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet50 mgoralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2001-05-24Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet250 mgoralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs1978-12-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet250 mgoralMajor Pharmaceuticals2005-04-07Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet50 mgoralMajor Pharmaceuticals2005-04-07Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet250 mgoralMajor Pharmaceuticals2009-12-24Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet50 mgoralAv Kare, Inc.2008-04-24Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet250 mgoralAv Kare, Inc.2008-04-24Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet50 mgoralSTAT Rx USA LLC2001-05-24Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet50 mgoralAv Pak2011-05-19Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet250 mgoralAv Pak2011-05-19Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet250 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-07-27Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet50 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-01-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet250 mgoralDr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd2008-10-03Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet50 mgoralDr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd2008-10-03Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet50 mgoralCardinal Health2001-05-24Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet50 mgoralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2006-07-012015-08-30Us 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet50 mgoralAmneal Pharmaceuticals2009-12-24Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet250 mgoralAmneal Pharmaceuticals2009-12-24Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet50 mgoralAmerican Health Packaging2007-06-14Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet250 mgoralAmerican Health Packaging2007-06-14Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet50 mgoralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2011-12-27Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Primidonetablet250 mgoralAa Pharma IncNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Primidonetablet125 mgoralAa Pharma IncNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
LiskantinDesitin
MizodinUnia
MylepsinumNot Available
PridonaPsicofarma
PrimidApsen
PrysolineRekah
SertanAlkaloida
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
CAS number125-33-7
WeightAverage: 218.2518
Monoisotopic: 218.105527702
Chemical FormulaC12H14N2O2
InChI KeyDQMZLTXERSFNPB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C12H14N2O2/c1-2-12(9-6-4-3-5-7-9)10(15)13-8-14-11(12)16/h3-7H,2,8H2,1H3,(H,13,15)(H,14,16)
IUPAC Name
5-ethyl-5-phenyl-1,3-diazinane-4,6-dione
SMILES
CCC1(C(=O)NCNC1=O)C1=CC=CC=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydropyrimidines. These are compounds containing a hydrogenated pyrimidine ring (i.e containing less than the maximum bumber of double bonds.).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassDiazines
Sub ClassPyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct ParentHydropyrimidines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Benzenoid
  • 1,3-diazinane
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Lactam
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of epilepsy
PharmacodynamicsPrimidone is a barbiturate with anticonvulsant properties. Primidone, either alone or used concomitantly with other anticonvulsants, is indicated in the control of grand mal, psychomotor, and focal epileptic seizures. It may control grand mal seizures refractory to other anticonvulsant therapy. Primidone raises electro- or chemoshock seizure thresholds or alters seizure patterns in experimental animals. Primidone per se has anticonvulsant activity as do its two metabolites, phenobarbital and phenylethylmalonamide (PEMA). In addition to its anticonvulsant activity, Primidone potentiates that of phenobarbital in experimental animals.
Mechanism of actionPrimidone is a GABA receptor agonist. The mechanism of Primidone's antiepileptic action is not known.
Absorption90 to 100%
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding70%
Metabolism

Hepatic

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Primidone
PhenobarbitalDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life3-23 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySymptoms of an overdose typically include sluggishness, incoordination, difficulty in thinking, slowness of speech, faulty judgment, drowsiness or coma, shallow breathing, staggering, and in severe cases coma and death.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9907
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9642
Caco-2 permeable-0.5593
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5222
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.536
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9048
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8298
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7961
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6863
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-inhibitor0.924
CYP450 2C19 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8682
Ames testAMES toxic0.9107
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7814
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.982
Rat acute toxicity2.1941 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9912
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8735
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Xcel pharmaceuticals
  • Valeant pharmaceuticals international
  • Amneal pharmaceutical
  • Dr reddys laboratories ltd
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Lannett co inc
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • West ward pharmaceutical corp
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral125 mg
Tabletoral250 mg
Tabletoral50 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Primidone powder10.56USD g
Mysoline 250 mg tablet6.52USD tablet
Mysoline 50 mg tablet1.26USD tablet
Primidone 250 mg tablet1.02USD tablet
Primidone 50 mg tablet0.51USD tablet
Apo-Primidone 250 mg Tablet0.09USD tablet
Apo-Primidone 125 mg Tablet0.06USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point281.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility500 mg/L (at 22 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP0.91HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-2.64ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.04 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.62ALOGPS
logP1.12ChemAxon
logS-2.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.5ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area58.2 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity59.04 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability22.44 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (9.01 KB)
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General Reference
  1. Murphy K, Delanty N: Primary Generalized Epilepsies. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2000 Nov;2(6):527-542. Pubmed
  2. Kagitani-Shimono K, Imai K, Okamoto N, Ono J, Okada S: Unverricht-Lundborg disease with cystatin B gene abnormalities. Pediatr Neurol. 2002 Jan;26(1):55-60. Pubmed
  3. Brown GM, Stone GH, Rathbone MP: Primidone and rapid cycling affective disorders. Lancet. 1993 Oct 9;342(8876):925. Pubmed
  4. Schaffer LC, Schaffer CB, Caretto J: The use of primidone in the treatment of refractory bipolar disorder. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 1999 Jun;11(2):61-6. Pubmed
  5. Young MC, Hughes IA: Loss of therapeutic control in congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to interaction between dexamethasone and primidone. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1991 Jan;80(1):120-4. Pubmed
External Links
ATC CodesN03AA03
AHFS Codes
  • 28:12.04
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (108 KB)
MSDSDownload (65.5 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcebutololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
AcenocoumarolMay increase the metabolism of Vitamin K Antagonists.
AcetaminophenMay increase the metabolism of Acetaminophen. This may 1) diminish the effect of acetaminophen; and 2) increase the risk of liver damage.
AcetazolamideMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Primidone. Specifically, osteomalacia and rickets. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Primidone. Exceptions: Brinzolamide; Dorzolamide.
AfatinibP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inducers may decrease the serum concentration of Afatinib.
AldesleukinMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
AliskirenMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
AmilorideMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
AminophyllineMay decrease the serum concentration of Theophylline Derivatives.
AmitriptylineMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
AmlodipineMay increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
AmobarbitalMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Barbiturates. Primidone is converted to phenobarbital, and thus becomes additive with existing barbiturate therapy.
AmoxapineMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
Amyl NitriteMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
ApixabanCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Apixaban.
ApraclonidineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
ApremilastCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Apremilast.
AripiprazoleCYP3A4 Inducers may decrease the serum concentration of ARIPiprazole.
ArtemetherCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Artemether. Specifically, dihydroartemisinin concentrations may be reduced. CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Artemether.
AtenololMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
AxitinibCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Axitinib.
Azilsartan medoxomilMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide Diuretics.
bazedoxifenePrimidone may decrease the serum concentration of Bazedoxifene. This may lead to loss of efficacy or, if bazedoxifene is combined with estrogen therapy, an increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia.
BedaquilineCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Bedaquiline.
BenazeprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
BendamustineCYP1A2 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Bendamustine. Concentrations of active metabolites may be increased.
BendroflumethiazideMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide Diuretics.
BetaxololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
BisoprololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
BoceprevirPrimidone may decrease the serum concentration of Boceprevir.
BortezomibCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Bortezomib.
BosutinibCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Bosutinib.
Brentuximab vedotinCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Brentuximab Vedotin. Specifically, concentrations of the active monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) component may be decreased.
BretyliumMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
BrimonidineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
BumetanideMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
BuprenorphineCNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Buprenorphine.
ButabarbitalMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Barbiturates. Primidone is converted to phenobarbital, and thus becomes additive with existing barbiturate therapy.
ButalbitalMay increase the metabolism of Acetaminophen. This may 1) diminish the effect of acetaminophen; and 2) increase the risk of liver damage.
ButethalPrimidone may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Barbiturates. Primidone is converted to phenobarbital, and thus becomes additive with existing barbiturate therapy.
CabozantinibCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Cabozantinib.
CanagliflozinPrimidone may decrease the serum concentration of Canagliflozin.
CandesartanMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
CaptoprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
CarteololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
CarvedilolMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
ChloramphenicolMay increase the metabolism of Chloramphenicol. Chloramphenicol may decrease the metabolism of Barbiturates.
ChlorothiazideMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide Diuretics.
ChlorthalidoneMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide Diuretics.
CilazaprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
ClarithromycinCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Clarithromycin. Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong). CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Clarithromycin.
ClevidipineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
ClomipramineMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
ClonidineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
ClozapineCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of CloZAPine.
CosyntropinMay enhance the hepatotoxic effect of Primidone.
CrizotinibCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Crizotinib.
Dabigatran etexilateP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inducers may decrease the serum concentration of Dabigatran Etexilate.
DapagliflozinMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
DasatinibCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Dasatinib.
DesipramineMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
DesogestrelMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptive failure is possible.
DexmethylphenidateMay increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Primidone. Specifically, phenobarbital concentrations could become elevated. Dexmethylphenidate may increase the serum concentration of Primidone.
DiclofenamideMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Primidone. Specifically, osteomalacia and rickets. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Primidone. Exceptions: Brinzolamide; Dorzolamide.
DihydrocodeineMay increase the metabolism of Acetaminophen. This may 1) diminish the effect of acetaminophen; and 2) increase the risk of liver damage.
DiltiazemMay increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
DipyridamoleMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
DolutegravirPrimidone may decrease the serum concentration of Dolutegravir. Specifically, the Primidone metabolite phenobarbital may decrease Dolutegravir serum concentrations.
DoxazosinMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
DoxycyclineMay decrease the serum concentration of Doxycycline.
DoxylamineMay enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants.
DronabinolCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Dronabinol.
DronedaroneCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Dronedarone.
DroperidolMay enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants.
DrospirenoneMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
EliglustatCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Eliglustat.
EmpagliflozinMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
EnalaprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
EnzalutamideCYP2C8 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Enzalutamide.
EplerenoneMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
EprosartanMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
ErlotinibCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Erlotinib.
EsmololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
Ethacrynic acidMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
Ethinyl EstradiolMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptive failure is possible.
EthoxzolamideMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Primidone. Specifically, osteomalacia and rickets. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Primidone. Exceptions: Brinzolamide; Dorzolamide.
EthynodiolMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptive failure is possible.
EtonogestrelMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
EtoposideMay decrease the serum concentration of Etoposide.
EtravirinePrimidone may decrease the serum concentration of Etravirine.
EverolimusCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Everolimus.
ExemestaneCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Exemestane.
FelbamateMay increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Primidone. Specifically, phenobarbital concentrations may increase. Primidone may decrease the serum concentration of Felbamate.
FelodipineMay increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
FentanylCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of FentaNYL.
Folic AcidFolic Acid may decrease the serum concentration of Primidone. Additionally, folic acid may decrease concentrations of active metabolites of primidone (e.g., phenobarbital).
FosinoprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
FosphenytoinMay increase the metabolism of Primidone. The ratio of primidone:phenobarbital is thus changed.
FurosemideMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
GefitinibCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Gefitinib.
GriseofulvinMay decrease the serum concentration of Griseofulvin. Exceptions: Methohexital; Thiopental.
GuanfacineCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of GuanFACINE.
HeptabarbitalPrimidone may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Barbiturates. Primidone is converted to phenobarbital, and thus becomes additive with existing barbiturate therapy.
HexobarbitalPrimidone may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Barbiturates. Primidone is converted to phenobarbital, and thus becomes additive with existing barbiturate therapy.
HydralazineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
HydrochlorothiazideMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide Diuretics.
HydrocodoneCNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Hydrocodone.
HydroxyzineHydrOXYzine may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Barbiturates.
ImatinibCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Imatinib.
ImipramineMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
IndapamideMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide Diuretics.
IrbesartanMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
IrinotecanCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Irinotecan. Specifically, serum concentrations of SN-38 may be reduced. CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Irinotecan.
IsomethepteneMay increase the metabolism of Acetaminophen. This may 1) diminish the effect of acetaminophen; and 2) increase the risk of liver damage.
Isosorbide DinitrateMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
Isosorbide MononitrateMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
IsoxsuprineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
IsradipineMay increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
ItraconazoleCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
IvacaftorCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ivacaftor.
IxabepiloneCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ixabepilone.
LabetalolMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
LamotrigineMay decrease the serum concentration of LamoTRIgine.
LapatinibCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Lapatinib.
LedipasvirP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inducers may decrease the serum concentration of Ledipasvir.
LevobunololMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
LevonorgestrelMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
LinagliptinCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Linagliptin.
LisinoprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
LosartanMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
LumefantrineCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Lumefantrine.
LurasidoneCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Lurasidone.
MACITENTANCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Macitentan.
Magnesium SulfateMay enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants.
MannitolMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
MaravirocCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Maraviroc.
Medroxyprogesterone AcetateMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
MefloquineMefloquine may diminish the therapeutic effect of Anticonvulsants. Mefloquine may decrease the serum concentration of Anticonvulsants.
MestranolMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptive failure is possible.
MethadoneMay decrease the serum concentration of Methadone.
MethazolamideMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
MethohexitalMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Barbiturates. Primidone is converted to phenobarbital, and thus becomes additive with existing barbiturate therapy.
MethotrimeprazineCNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Methotrimeprazine. Methotrimeprazine may enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants.
MethyclothiazideMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide Diuretics.
MethyldopaMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
MethylphenidateMethylphenidate may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Primidone. Specifically, phenobarbital concentrations could become elevated. Methylphenidate may increase the serum concentration of Primidone.
MethylprednisoloneCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of MethylPREDNISolone.
MetipranololMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
MetolazoneMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide Diuretics.
MetoprololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
MetyrosineCNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Metyrosine.
MifepristoneCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Mifepristone.
MoexiprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
NabiloneMay enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants.
NadololMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
NebivololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
NesiritideMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
NifedipineCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of NIFEdipine.
NilotinibCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Nilotinib.
NimodipineMay increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
NisoldipineMay increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
NitroglycerinMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
NitroprussideMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
NorelgestrominMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptive failure is possible.
NorethindroneMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
NorgestimateMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
NortriptylineMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
OlmesartanMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
OrlistatMay decrease the serum concentration of Anticonvulsants.
OrphenadrineCNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Orphenadrine.
PaliperidoneInducers of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein may decrease the serum concentration of Paliperidone.
PanobinostatCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Panobinostat.
PapaverineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
PazopanibCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of PAZOPanib.
PenbutololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
PentobarbitalMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Barbiturates. Primidone is converted to phenobarbital, and thus becomes additive with existing barbiturate therapy.
PerampanelCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Perampanel.
PerindoprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
PethidineMay enhance the CNS depressant effect of Meperidine. Barbiturates may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Meperidine.
PhenobarbitalMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Barbiturates. Primidone is converted to phenobarbital, and thus becomes additive with existing barbiturate therapy.
PhenytoinPhenytoin may increase the metabolism of Primidone. The ratio of primidone:phenobarbital is thus changed.
PindololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
PirfenidoneCYP1A2 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Pirfenidone.
PomalidomideCYP1A2 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Pomalidomide.
PonatinibCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of PONATinib.
PramipexoleCNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Pramipexole.
PraziquantelCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Praziquantel.
PrazosinMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
PrednisoneCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of PredniSONE.
PropafenoneMay decrease the serum concentration of Propafenone.
PropranololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
ProtriptylineMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
PyridoxinePyridoxine may increase the metabolism of Barbiturates. Apparent in high pyridoxine doses (eg, 200 mg/day)
QuetiapineCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of QUEtiapine.
QuinaprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
QuinidinePrimidone may decrease the serum concentration of QuiNIDine.
RamiprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
RanolazineCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ranolazine.
RegorafenibCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Regorafenib.
ReserpineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
RifampicinRifamycin Derivatives may increase the metabolism of Barbiturates.
RifapentineRifamycin Derivatives may increase the metabolism of Barbiturates.
RilpivirinePrimidone may decrease the serum concentration of Rilpivirine.
RiociguatMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
RivaroxabanCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Rivaroxaban.
RoflumilastCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Roflumilast.
RomidepsinCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of RomiDEPsin.
RotigotineCNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Rotigotine.
RufinamidePrimidone may decrease the serum concentration of Rufinamide.
SaxagliptinCYP3A4 Inducers may decrease the serum concentration of Saxagliptin.
SecobarbitalMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Barbiturates. Primidone is converted to phenobarbital, and thus becomes additive with existing barbiturate therapy.
SimeprevirCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Simeprevir.
SofosbuvirP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inducers may decrease the serum concentration of Sofosbuvir.
SorafenibCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of SORAfenib.
SotalolMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
SpironolactoneMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
SunitinibCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of SUNItinib.
SuvorexantCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Suvorexant.
TadalafilCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Tadalafil.
TapentadolMay enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants.
TelaprevirCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Telaprevir.
TelmisartanMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
TeniposideMay decrease the serum concentration of Teniposide.
TerazosinMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
ThalidomideCNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Thalidomide.
TheophyllineMay decrease the serum concentration of Theophylline Derivatives.
TicagrelorCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ticagrelor. CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ticagrelor.
TimololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
TizanidineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
TofacitinibCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Tofacitinib.
TolvaptanCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Tolvaptan.
TopiramateCarbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Primidone. Specifically, osteomalacia and rickets. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Primidone.
TorasemideMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
ToremifeneCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Toremifene.
TrabectedinCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Trabectedin.
TrandolaprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
TreprostinilCYP2C8 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Treprostinil.
TriamtereneMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
TrimipramineMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
UlipristalCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ulipristal.
Valproic AcidValproic Acid and Derivatives may decrease the metabolism of Barbiturates. Barbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Valproic Acid and Derivatives.
ValsartanMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
VandetanibCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Vandetanib.
VemurafenibCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Vemurafenib.
VilazodoneCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Vilazodone.
VorapaxarCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Vorapaxar.
VoriconazoleMay decrease the serum concentration of Voriconazole. Exceptions: Methohexital; PENTobarbital; Secobarbital; Thiopental.
ZolpidemCNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Zolpidem.
ZuclopenthixolCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Zuclopenthixol.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Avoid high doses of caffeine.
  • Take with food to reduce gastric irritation.

Targets

1. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: potentiator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1 P14867 Details

References:

  1. Whiting PJ: The GABAA receptor gene family: new opportunities for drug development. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel. 2003 Sep;6(5):648-57. Pubmed
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. Pubmed
  3. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed
  4. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. Pubmed
  5. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  6. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  7. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

2. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: potentiator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2 P47869 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. Pubmed

3. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: potentiator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3 P34903 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. Pubmed

4. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: potentiator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4 P48169 Details

References:

  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. Pubmed

5. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: potentiator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5 P31644 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. Pubmed

6. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: potentiator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6 Q16445 Details

References:

  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. Pubmed
  2. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed

7. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4 P43681 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. Pubmed
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. Pubmed

8. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7 P36544 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. Pubmed
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. Pubmed

9. Glutamate receptor 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor 2 P42262 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. Pubmed

10. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2 Q13002 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. Pubmed

11. GABA-A receptor (anion channel)

Kind: protein group

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: positive allosteric modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1 P14867 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2 P47869 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3 P34903 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4 P48169 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5 P31644 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6 Q16445 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1 P18505 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2 P47870 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3 P28472 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit delta O14764 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilon P78334 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1 Q8N1C3 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2 P18507 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3 Q99928 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pi O00591 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit theta Q9UN88 Details

References:

  1. ChEMBL Compound Report Card (Accessed December 2013)

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 2C19

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Application available online: The P450 Program
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 2C9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

3. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

4. Cytochrome P450 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

5. Cytochrome P450 2B6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2B6 P20813 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

6. Cytochrome P450 2C8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C8 P10632 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:12