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Identification
NameFentanyl
Accession NumberDB00813  (APRD00347, DB05853)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved, illicit, investigational
Description

A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
Fentanil Not AvailableDCIT
FentaniloSpanishINN
FentanylGerman INN
FentanylFrench INN
FentanylumLatinINN
PhentanylNot AvailableIS
Salts
Name/CAS Structure Properties
Fentanyl citrate
990-73-8
Thumb
  • InChI Key: IVLVTNPOHDFFCJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 528.247166138
  • Average Mass: 528.594
DBSALT000301
Brand names
NameCompany
ActiqCephalon
DuragesicJanssen
DurogesicJanssen
FentanestPfizer
NasalfentArchimedes
RapinylGedeon Richter
Subsys Insys Therapeutics
Brand mixtures
Brand NameIngredients
Innovar Injectiondroperidol + fentanyl citrate
Categories
CAS number437-38-7
WeightAverage: 336.4705
Monoisotopic: 336.220163528
Chemical FormulaC22H28N2O
InChI KeyInChIKey=PJMPHNIQZUBGLI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C22H28N2O/c1-2-22(25)24(20-11-7-4-8-12-20)21-14-17-23(18-15-21)16-13-19-9-5-3-6-10-19/h3-12,21H,2,13-18H2,1H3
IUPAC Name
N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)piperidin-4-yl]propanamide
SMILES
CCC(=O)N(C1CCN(CCC2=CC=CC=C2)CC1)C1=CC=CC=C1
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassHeterocyclic Compounds
ClassPiperidines
SubclassFentanyls
Direct parentFentanyls
Alternative parentsAnilides; Phenethylamines; Aminopiperidines; Tertiary Carboxylic Acid Amides; Tertiary Amines; Carboxylic Acids; Enolates; Polyamines
Substituentsacetanilide; phenethylamine; 4-aminopiperidine; benzene; tertiary carboxylic acid amide; carboxamide group; tertiary amine; polyamine; enolate; carboxylic acid derivative; carboxylic acid; amine; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the fentanyls. These are compounds containing the fentanyl moiety or a derivative, which is based on a N-(1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl)-N-phenylpropanamide skeleton.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of cancer patients with severe pain that breaks through their regular narcotic therapy.
PharmacodynamicsFentanyl is an opioid analgesic. Fentanyl interacts predominately with the opioid mu-receptor but also binds to kappa and delta-type opioid receptors. These mu-binding sites are discretely distributed in the human brain, spinal cord, and other tissues. In clinical settings, Fentanyl exerts its principal pharmacologic effects on the central nervous system. Its primary actions of therapeutic value are analgesia and sedation. Fentanyl may increase the patient's tolerance for pain and decrease the perception of suffering, although the presence of the pain itself may still be recognized. In addition to analgesia, alterations in mood, euphoria and dysphoria, and drowsiness commonly occur. Fentanyl depresses the respiratory centers, depresses the cough reflex, and constricts the pupils.
Mechanism of actionOpiate receptors are coupled with G-protein receptors and function as both positive and negative regulators of synaptic transmission via G-proteins that activate effector proteins. Binding of the opiate stimulates the exchange of GTP for GDP on the G-protein complex. As the effector system is adenylate cyclase and cAMP located at the inner surface of the plasma membrane, opioids decrease intracellular cAMP by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. Subsequently, the release of nociceptive neurotransmitters such as substance P, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine and noradrenaline is inhibited. Opioids also inhibit the release of vasopressin, somatostatin, insulin and glucagon. Fentanyl's analgesic activity is, most likely, due to its conversion to morphine. Opioids close N-type voltage-operated calcium channels (OP2-receptor agonist) and open calcium-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium channels (OP3 and OP1 receptor agonist). This results in hyperpolarization and reduced neuronal excitability.
AbsorptionBioavailability is 92% following transdermal administration and 50% following buccal administration.
Volume of distribution
  • 3 to 8 L/kg [Surgical Patients]
  • 0.8 to 8 [Hepatically Impaired Patients]
Protein binding80-85%
Metabolism

Fentanyl is metabolized primarily via human cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme system.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Fentanyl
norfentanylDetails
Route of eliminationFentanyl is metabolized primarily via human cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme system and mostly eliminated in urine. Within 72 hours of IV fentanyl administration, approximately 75% of the dose is excreted in urine, mostly as metabolites with less than 10% representing unchanged drug.
Half life7 hours (range 3-12)
Clearance
  • 27 – 75 L/h [Surgical Patients receving IV administration]
  • 3 – 80 L/h [Hepatically Impaired Patients receving IV administration]
  • 30 – 78 L/h [Renally Impaired Patients receving IV administration]
ToxicityFentanyl has an LD50 of 3.1 milligrams per kilogram in rats, and, 0.03 milligrams per kilogram in monkeys. The LD50 in humans is not known.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Fentanyl Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00415
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9766
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9901
Caco-2 permeable + 0.6459
P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.6082
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Inhibitor 0.7161
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.8371
Renal organic cation transporter Inhibitor 0.5824
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.7879
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.9117
CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.5856
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.7715
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.873
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.6327
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.5724
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8218
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity High CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.7346
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.8417
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.8536
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.8554
Rat acute toxicity 3.9836 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.796
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Inhibitor 0.6791
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Ortho mcneil janssen pharmaceuticals inc
  • Actavis southatlantic llc
  • Lavipharm laboratories inc
  • Mylan technologies inc
  • Noven pharmaceuticals inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Meda pharmaceuticals inc
  • Abbott laboratories hosp products div
  • Hospira inc
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
  • Marsam pharmaceuticals llc
  • Akorn inc
  • Cephalon inc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Mallinckrodt inc
  • Incline therapeutics inc
  • Abbott Laboratories
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionIntravenous0.05 mg/mL
LozengeOral200 mcg; 400 mcg; 600 mcg; 800 mcg; 1200 mcg; 1600 mcg
PatchTransdermal
SolutionNasal400 mcg/spray
SpraySublingual100 mcg; 200 mcg; 400 mcg; 600 mcg; 800 mcg
TabletBuccal100 mcg; 200 mcg; 400 mcg; 600 mcg; 800 mcg
TabletSublingual100 mcg; 200 mcg; 300 mcg; 400 mcg; 600 mcg; 800 mcg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Fentanyl base powder1498.18USDg
Fentanyl citrate powder1062.5USDg
Duragesic-100 5 100 mcg/hr Patches Box411.59USDbox
Duragesic-75 5 75 mcg/hr Patches Box318.93USDbox
Fentanyl 5 100 mcg/hr Patches Box210.0USDbox
Duragesic-50 5 50 mcg/hr Patches Box205.78USDbox
Actiq 1600 mcg lozenge150.29USDlozenge
Fentanyl 5 50 mcg/hr Patches Box129.99USDbox
Actiq 1200 mcg lozenge121.82USDlozenge
Actiq 1600 mcg Lollipop119.42USDlollipop
Duragesic-25 5 25 mcg/hr Patches Box114.42USDbox
Duragesic-12 5 12 mcg/hr Patches Box95.99USDbox
Actiq 800 mcg lozenge93.76USDlozenge
Actiq 1200 mcg Lollipop85.7USDlollipop
Duragesic 100 mcg/hr patch81.36USDpatch
Actiq 600 mcg lozenge79.16USDlozenge
Actiq 800 mcg Lollipop75.98USDlollipop
Fentanyl 5 12 (12.5)mcg/hr Patches Box67.99USDbox
Fentanyl 5 25 mcg/hr Patches Box66.66USDbox
Actiq 600 mcg Lollipop65.13USDlollipop
Actiq 400 mcg lozenge64.62USDlozenge
Fentanyl 100 mcg/hr patch61.69USDpatch
Duragesic 75 mcg/hr patch61.3USDpatch
Fentora 800 mcg buccal tablet54.77USDtablet
Actiq 400 mcg Lollipop53.75USDlollipop
Actiq 200 mcg lozenge51.05USDlozenge
Fentora 600 mcg buccal tablet47.37USDtablet
Fentanyl 75 mcg/hr patch46.48USDpatch
Actiq 200 mcg Lollipop42.14USDlollipop
Duragesic 50 mcg/hr patch40.19USDpatch
FentaNYL Citrate 1600 mcg Lollipop38.53USDlollipop
Fentora 400 mcg buccal tablet34.24USDtablet
Fentanyl 50 mcg/hr patch30.47USDpatch
FentaNYL Citrate 1200 mcg Lollipop30.0USDlollipop
Fentora 300 mcg buccal tablet28.84USDtablet
Fentora 200 mcg buccal tablet23.57USDtablet
Duragesic 25 mcg/hr patch21.98USDpatch
FentaNYL Citrate 400 mcg Lollipop20.0USDlollipop
Fentora 100 mcg buccal tablet18.64USDtablet
Duragesic 12 mcg/hr patch18.21USDpatch
Fentanyl 25 mcg/hr patch16.67USDpatch
Fentanyl 12 mcg/hr patch13.8USDpatch
Fentanyl 0.05 mg/ml vial1.96USDml
Fentanyl cit 1500 mcg/30 ml1.44USDml
Fentanyl-ns 50 mcg/ml syringe1.0USDml
Fentanyl-ns 300 mcg/30 ml syr0.99USDml
Fentanyl-ns 20 mcg/ml syringe0.72USDml
Fentanyl-ns 10 mcg/ml syringe0.64USDml
Fentanyl cit 2750 mcg/55 ml0.35USDml
Fentanyl-ns 500 mcg/50 ml syr0.31USDml
Sublimaze 0.05 mg/ml ampul0.23USDml
Fentanyl 0.05 mg/ml ampul0.21USDml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
United States69759022004-04-012024-04-01
United States63176291995-06-022012-06-02
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point87.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility200 mg/L (at 25 °C)ROY,SD & FLYNN,GL (1988)
logP4.05SANGSTER (1993)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility2.40e-02 g/lALOGPS
logP4.12ALOGPS
logP3.82ChemAxon
logS-4.2ALOGPS
pKa (strongest basic)8.77ChemAxon
physiological charge1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count2ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area23.55ChemAxon
rotatable bond count6ChemAxon
refractivity103.48ChemAxon
polarizability40.03ChemAxon
number of rings3ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveYesChemAxon
Ghose filterYesChemAxon
Veber's ruleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Mark Rubino, “Process of making fentanyl intermediates.” U.S. Patent US20060100438, issued May 11, 2006.

US20060100438
General Reference
  1. Van Bever WF, Niemegeers CJ, Janssen PA: Synthetic analgesics. Synthesis and pharmacology of the diastereoisomers of N-(3-methyl-1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidyl)-N-phenylpropanamide and N-(3-methyl-1-(1-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidyl)-N-phenylpropanamide. J Med Chem. 1974 Oct;17(10):1047-51. Pubmed
  2. Messina J, Darwish M, Fine PG: Fentanyl buccal tablet. Drugs Today (Barc). 2008 Jan;44(1):41-54. Pubmed
  3. Taylor DR: Fentanyl buccal tablet: rapid relief from breakthrough pain. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2007 Dec;8(17):3043-51. Pubmed
  4. Simpson DM, Messina J, Xie F, Hale M: Fentanyl buccal tablet for the relief of breakthrough pain in opioid-tolerant adult patients with chronic neuropathic pain: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clin Ther. 2007 Apr;29(4):588-601. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD00320
PubChem Compound3345
PubChem Substance46506372
ChemSpider3228
BindingDB50008984
ChEBI119915
ChEMBLCHEMBL596
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000072
PharmGKBPA449599
IUPHAR1626
Guide to Pharmacology1626
Drug Product Database2240434
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic2/fentanyl.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/fentanyl.html
WikipediaFentanyl
ATC CodesN01AH01N02AB03
AHFS Codes
  • 28:08.08
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelshow(507 KB)
MSDSshow(75.5 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AlvimopanIncreases levels by receptor binding competition. Discontinue opioid administration at least 7 days prior to administrating Alvimopan.
AmiodaronePossible bradycardia, hypotension
AmprenavirThe protease inhibitor, amprenavir, may increase the effect and toxicity of fentanyl.
BicalutamideCYP3A4 Inhibitors like bicalutamide may increase the serum concentration of fentanyl. The risk of prolonged adverse effects, including potentially fatal respiratory depression is increased. Consider therapy modification.
CimetidineCimetidine, a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism of fentanyl. Closely monitor changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of fentanyl if cimetidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
ClotrimazoleCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) such as clotrimazole may increase the serum concentration of fentanyl. Concurrent use of fentanyl with any CYP3A4 inhibitor may result in increased fentanyl concentrations and could increase or prolong adverse effects, including potentially fatal respiratory depression. Patients receiving fentanyl and any CYP3A4 inhibitor should be closely monitored for several days following initiation of the combination, and fentanyl dosage reductions should be made as appropriate.
ConivaptanCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fentanyl. Concurrent use of fentanyl with any CYP3A4 inhibitor may result in increased fentanyl concentrations and could increase or prolong adverse effects, including potentially fatal respiratory depression. Patients receiving fentanyl and any CYP3A4 inhibitor should be closely monitored for several days following initiation of the combination, and fentanyl dosage reductions should be made as appropriate.
EltrombopagIncreases levels of Fentanyl via metabolism decrease. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase inhibition.
FluconazoleFluconazole may increase levels/toxicity of fentanyl.
FosamprenavirThe protease inhibitor, fosamprenavir, may increase the effect and toxicity of fentanyl.
IndinavirThe protease inhibitor, indinavir, may increase the effect and toxicity of fentanyl.
ItraconazoleItraconazole may increase levels/toxicity of fentanyl.
KetoconazoleKetoconazole may increase levels/toxicity of fentanyl.
NelfinavirThe protease inhibitor, nelfinavir, may increase the effect and toxicity of fentanyl.
RifampicinRifampin may decrease the serum level and therapeutic effect of fentanyl.
RitonavirRitonavir increases the effect and toxicity of fentanyl/alfentanyl
RotigotinePharmacodynamic synergism may increase the effects of rotigotine. Monitor therapy closely.
SaquinavirThe protease inhibitor, saquinavir, may increase the effect and toxicity of fentanyl.
TelithromycinTelithromycin may reduce clearance of Fentanyl. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Fentanyl if Telithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TranylcyprominePossible increased risk of serotonin syndrome.
TriprolidineThe CNS depressants, Triprolidine and Fentanyl, may increase adverse/toxic effects due to additivity. Monitor for increased CNS depressant effects during concomitant therapy.
VoriconazoleVoriconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of fentanyl by decreasing its metabolism. Adverse effects include life-threatening respiratory depression. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of fentanyl if voriconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.

1. Mu-type opioid receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Mu-type opioid receptor P35372 Details

References:

  1. You HJ, Colpaert FC, Arendt-Nielsen L: The novel analgesic and high-efficacy 5-HT1A receptor agonist F 13640 inhibits nociceptive responses, wind-up, and after-discharges in spinal neurons and withdrawal reflexes. Exp Neurol. 2005 Jan;191(1):174-83. Pubmed
  2. Scott LJ, Perry CM: Remifentanil: a review of its use during the induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia. Drugs. 2005;65(13):1793-823. Pubmed
  3. Scott LJ, Perry CM: Spotlight on remifentanil for general anaesthesia. CNS Drugs. 2005;19(12):1069-74. Pubmed
  4. Dosen-Micovic L, Ivanovic M, Micovic V: Steric interactions and the activity of fentanyl analogs at the mu-opioid receptor. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 May 1;14(9):2887-95. Epub 2006 Jan 11. Pubmed
  5. Dardonville C, Fernandez-Fernandez C, Gibbons SL, Ryan GJ, Jagerovic N, Gabilondo AM, Meana JJ, Callado LF: Synthesis and pharmacological studies of new hybrid derivatives of fentanyl active at the mu-opioid receptor and I2-imidazoline binding sites. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 Oct 1;14(19):6570-80. Epub 2006 Jun 23. Pubmed
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  7. Hajiha M, DuBord MA, Liu H, Horner RL: Opioid receptor mechanisms at the hypoglossal motor pool and effects on tongue muscle activity in vivo. J Physiol. 2009 Jun 1;587(Pt 11):2677-92. Epub 2009 Apr 29. Pubmed

2. Delta-type opioid receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Delta-type opioid receptor P41143 Details

References:

  1. Rodrigues AR, Castro MS, Francischi JN, Perez AC, Duarte ID: Participation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in the peripheral antinociceptive effect of fentanyl in rats. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2005 Jan;38(1):91-7. Epub 2005 Jan 18. Pubmed
  2. Poonawala T, Levay-Young BK, Hebbel RP, Gupta K: Opioids heal ischemic wounds in the rat. Wound Repair Regen. 2005 Mar-Apr;13(2):165-74. Pubmed
  3. Sahin AS, Duman A, Atalik EK, Ogun CO, Sahin TK, Erol A, Ozergin U: The mechanisms of the direct vascular effects of fentanyl on isolated human saphenous veins in vitro. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2005 Apr;19(2):197-200. Pubmed
  4. Darwish M, Tempero K, Kirby M, Thompson J: Pharmacokinetics and dose proportionality of fentanyl effervescent buccal tablets in healthy volunteers. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2005;44(12):1279-86. Pubmed
  5. Darwish M, Kirby M, Robertson P Jr, Tracewell W, Jiang JG: Pharmacokinetic properties of fentanyl effervescent buccal tablets: a phase I, open-label, crossover study of single-dose 100, 200, 400, and 800 microg in healthy adult volunteers. Clin Ther. 2006 May;28(5):707-14. Pubmed
  6. Hajiha M, DuBord MA, Liu H, Horner RL: Opioid receptor mechanisms at the hypoglossal motor pool and effects on tongue muscle activity in vivo. J Physiol. 2009 Jun 1;587(Pt 11):2677-92. Epub 2009 Apr 29. Pubmed

3. Kappa-type opioid receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Kappa-type opioid receptor P41145 Details

References:

  1. Pascoe JE, Williams KL, Mukhopadhyay P, Rice KC, Woods JH, Ko MC: Effects of mu, kappa, and delta opioid receptor agonists on the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in monkeys. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2008 May;33(4):478-86. Epub 2008 Mar 5. Pubmed

1. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  3. Ekins S, Bravi G, Wikel JH, Wrighton SA: Three-dimensional-quantitative structure activity relationship analysis of cytochrome P-450 3A4 substrates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):424-33. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 3A5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A5 P20815 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

3. Cytochrome P450 3A7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A7 P24462 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.

1. Multidrug resistance protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

References:

  1. Wandel C, Kim R, Wood M, Wood A: Interaction of morphine, fentanyl, sufentanil, alfentanil, and loperamide with the efflux drug transporter P-glycoprotein. Anesthesiology. 2002 Apr;96(4):913-20. Pubmed

Comments
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:12