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Identification
NameDopamine
Accession NumberDB00988  (APRD00085)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved
Description

One of the catecholamine neurotransmitters in the brain. It is derived from tyrosine and is the precursor to norepinephrine and epinephrine. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (receptors, dopamine) mediate its action. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
DopaminNot AvailableNot Available
DophamineNot AvailableNot Available
HydroxytyraminNot AvailableNot Available
HydroxytyramineNot AvailableNot Available
OxytyramineNot AvailableNot Available
Salts
Name/CAS Structure Properties
Dopamine Hydrochloride
Thumb
  • InChI Key: CTENFNNZBMHDDG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 189.05565634
  • Average Mass: 189.639
DBSALT000508
Brand names
NameCompany
IntropinNot Available
RevimineNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number51-61-6
WeightAverage: 153.1784
Monoisotopic: 153.078978601
Chemical FormulaC8H11NO2
InChI KeyInChIKey=VYFYYTLLBUKUHU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C8H11NO2/c9-4-3-6-1-2-7(10)8(11)5-6/h1-2,5,10-11H,3-4,9H2
IUPAC Name
4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol
SMILES
NCCC1=CC(O)=C(O)C=C1
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and Substituted Derivatives
SubclassPhenols and Derivatives
Direct parentCatecholamines and Derivatives
Alternative parentsPhenethylamines; Polyols; Polyamines; Enols; Monoalkylamines
Substituentsphenethylamine; polyol; polyamine; enol; amine; primary amine; primary aliphatic amine; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the catecholamines and derivatives. These are compounds containing 4-(2-Aminoethyl)pyrocatechol [4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol] or a derivative thereof formed by substitution.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the correction of hemodynamic imbalances present in the shock syndrome due to myocardial infarction, trauma, endotoxic septicemia, open-heart surgery, renal failure, and chronic cardiac decompensation as in congestive failure
PharmacodynamicsDopamine is a natural catecholamine formed by the decarboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). It is a precursor to norepinephrine in noradrenergic nerves and is also a neurotransmitter in certain areas of the central nervous system, especially in the nigrostriatal tract, and in a few peripheral sympathetic nerves. Dopamine produces positive chronotropic and inotropic effects on the myocardium, resulting in increased heart rate and cardiac contractility. This is accomplished directly by exerting an agonist action on beta-adrenoceptors and indirectly by causing release of norepinephrine from storage sites in sympathetic nerve endings.
Mechanism of actionDopamine is a precursor to norepinephrine in noradrenergic nerves and is also a neurotransmitter in certain areas of the central nervous system. Dopamine produces positive chronotropic and inotropic effects on the myocardium, resulting in increased heart rate and cardiac contractility. This is accomplished directly by exerting an agonist action on beta-adrenoceptors and indirectly by causing release of norepinephrine from storage sites in sympathetic nerve endings. In the brain, dopamine actas as an agonist to the five dopamine receptor subtypes (D!, D2, D3, D4, D5).
AbsorptionDopamine is rapidly absorbed from the small intestine.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNo information currently available on protein binding.
Metabolism

Biotransformation of dopamine proceeds rapidly to yield the principal excretion products, 3-4-dihydroxy-phenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylacetic acid (homovanillic acid, HVA).

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Dopamine
    6-HydroxydopamineDetails
    Dopamine
      Dopamine 4-sulfateDetails
      Dopamine
        Dopamine 3-O-sulfateDetails
        Dopamine
          Dopamine glucuronideDetails
          Dopamine
            Dopamine quinoneDetails
            Route of eliminationIt has been reported that about 80% of the drug is excreted in the urine within 24 hours, primarily as HVA and its sulfate and glucuronide conjugates and as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. A very small portion is excreted unchanged.
            Half life2 minutes
            ClearanceNot Available
            ToxicityLD50 oral mice = 1460 mg/kg, LD50 oral rats = 1780 mg/kg. Spasm or closing of eyelids, nausea, vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias, involuntary movements of the body including the face, tongue, arms, hand, head, and upper body; hypotension, haemolytic anaemia, urinary retention, duodenal ulcer, sialorrhea, ataxia, abdominal pain, dry mouth, nightmares, tachypnoea, bruxism, confusion, and insomnia.
            Affected organisms
            • Humans and other mammals
            Pathways
            PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
            Bupivacaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00393
            Chloroprocaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00394
            Cocaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00395
            Dibucaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00396
            Levobupivacaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00397
            Lidocaine (Local Anaesthetic) Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00398
            Sufentanil Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00417
            Imipramine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00422
            Desipramine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00423
            Citalopram Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00424
            Escitalopram Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00425
            Fluoxetine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00426
            Oxycodone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00409
            Hydromorphone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00410
            Hydrocodone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00411
            Oxymorphone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00412
            Alfentanil Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00413
            Carfentanil Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00414
            Fentanyl Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00415
            Remifentanil Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00416
            Proparacaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00403
            Ropivacaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00404
            Codeine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00405
            Mepivacaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00399
            Oxybuprocaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00400
            Prilocaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00401
            Procaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00402
            Morphine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00406
            Heroin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00407
            Methadone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00408
            Benzocaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00392
            Nicotine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00431
            Disulfiram Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00429
            Dopamine Activation of Neurological Reward SystemSignalingSMP00308
            AlkaptonuriaDiseaseSMP00169
            Aromatic L-Aminoacid Decarboxylase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00170
            Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00498
            Catecholamine BiosynthesisMetabolicSMP00012
            Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)DiseaseSMP00533
            Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00497
            HawkinsinuriaDiseaseSMP00190
            Tyrosinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00218
            Tyrosine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00006
            Tyrosinemia, transient, of the newbornDiseaseSMP00494
            SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
            SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
            ADMET
            Predicted ADMET features
            Property Value Probability
            Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9547
            Blood Brain Barrier - 0.8414
            Caco-2 permeable - 0.5479
            P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.5431
            P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.9739
            P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.9357
            Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.7115
            CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8462
            CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.6383
            CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.6905
            CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9046
            CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9459
            CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9422
            CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9477
            CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9001
            CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.8648
            Ames test AMES toxic 0.9107
            Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.8642
            Biodegradation Ready biodegradable 0.7449
            Rat acute toxicity 2.1415 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
            hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.7712
            hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.5715
            Pharmacoeconomics
            Manufacturers
            • Abbott laboratories hosp products div
            • Abraxis pharmaceutical products
            • Astrazeneca lp
            • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
            • Hospira inc
            • International medication system
            • Luitpold pharmaceuticals inc
            • Smith and nephew solopak div smith and nephew
            • Teva parenteral medicines inc
            • Warner chilcott div warner lambert co
            • B braun medical inc
            • Baxter healthcare corp
            Packagers
            Dosage forms
            FormRouteStrength
            Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous drip
            Prices
            Unit descriptionCostUnit
            Dopamine 40 mg/ml vial0.15USDml
            Dopamine 800 mg-d5w 500 ml0.05USDml
            Dopamine 400 mg-d5w 250 ml0.04USDml
            DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
            PatentsNot Available
            Properties
            Statesolid
            Experimental Properties
            PropertyValueSource
            melting point128 °CPhysProp
            boiling point227 °C at 2.30E+01 mm HgPhysProp
            water solubility600 g/LNot Available
            logP-0.98HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
            Caco2 permeability-5.03ADME Research, USCD
            pKa8.93PERRIN,DD (1965)
            Predicted Properties
            PropertyValueSource
            water solubility7.43e+00 g/lALOGPS
            logP-0.4ALOGPS
            logP0.03ChemAxon
            logS-1.3ALOGPS
            pKa (strongest acidic)10.01ChemAxon
            pKa (strongest basic)9.27ChemAxon
            physiological charge1ChemAxon
            hydrogen acceptor count3ChemAxon
            hydrogen donor count3ChemAxon
            polar surface area66.48ChemAxon
            rotatable bond count2ChemAxon
            refractivity43.25ChemAxon
            polarizability16.21ChemAxon
            number of rings1ChemAxon
            bioavailability1ChemAxon
            rule of fiveYesChemAxon
            Ghose filterNoChemAxon
            Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
            MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
            Spectra
            Spectra
            References
            Synthesis Reference

            Klaus Schoellkopf, Rudolf Albrecht, Manfred Lehmann, Gertrud Schroeder, “Novel dopamine derivatives, processes for their preparation, and their use as medicinal agents.” U.S. Patent US4958026, issued February, 1972.

            US4958026
            General Reference
            1. Barron AB, Maleszka R, Vander Meer RK, Robinson GE: Octopamine modulates honey bee dance behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jan 30;104(5):1703-7. Epub 2007 Jan 19. Pubmed
            2. Giuliano F, Allard J: Dopamine and male sexual function. Eur Urol. 2001 Dec;40(6):601-8. Pubmed
            3. Giuliano F, Allard J: Dopamine and sexual function. Int J Impot Res. 2001 Aug;13 Suppl 3:S18-28. Pubmed
            4. Berridge KC, Robinson TE: What is the role of dopamine in reward: hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience? Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1998 Dec;28(3):309-69. Pubmed
            5. Pecina S, Cagniard B, Berridge KC, Aldridge JW, Zhuang X: Hyperdopaminergic mutant mice have higher “wanting” but not “liking” for sweet rewards. J Neurosci. 2003 Oct 15;23(28):9395-402. Pubmed
            External Links
            ResourceLink
            KEGG CompoundC03758
            PubChem Compound681
            PubChem Substance46506043
            ChemSpider661
            ChEBI18243
            ChEMBLCHEMBL59
            Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000212
            PharmGKBPA449396
            IUPHAR940
            Guide to Pharmacology940
            HETLDP
            Drug Product Database1914014
            RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic3/dopamine.htm
            Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cdi/dopamine.html
            WikipediaDopamine
            ATC CodesC01CA04
            AHFS CodesNot Available
            PDB EntriesNot Available
            FDA labelNot Available
            MSDSshow(72.1 KB)
            Interactions
            Drug Interactions
            Drug
            AmitriptylineThe tricyclic antidepressant, amitriptyline, increases the sympathomimetic effect, dopamine.
            AmoxapineThe tricyclic antidepressant, amoxapine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of dopamine.
            ClomipramineThe tricyclic antidepressant, clomipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of dopamine.
            DesipramineThe tricyclic antidepressant, desipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of dopamine.
            DoxepinThe tricyclic antidepressant, doxepin, increases the sympathomimetic effect of dopamine.
            EntacaponeEntacapone increases the effect and toxicity of the sympathomimetic, dopamine.
            FosphenytoinRisk of severe hypotension
            GuanethidineDopamine may decrease the effect of guanethidine.
            ImipramineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of dopamine.
            IsocarboxazidIncreased arterial pressure
            LinezolidPossible increase of arterial pressure
            LurasidoneDopamine increases toxicity (enhanced hypotensive effects) of lurasidone.
            MethyldopaIncreased arterial pressure
            MidodrineIncreased arterial pressure
            MoclobemideMoclobemide increases the sympathomimetic effect of dopamine.
            NortriptylineThe tricyclic antidepressant, nortriptyline, increases the sympathomimetic effect of dopamine.
            PhenelzineIncreased arterial pressure
            PhenytoinRisk of severe hypotension
            RasagilineIncreased arterial pressure
            ReserpineIncreased arterial pressure
            Food InteractionsNot Available

            1. D(2) dopamine receptor

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: yes

            Actions: agonist

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            D(2) dopamine receptor P14416 Details

            References:

            1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. Pubmed
            2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

            2. D(1A) dopamine receptor

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: yes

            Actions: agonist

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            D(1A) dopamine receptor P21728 Details

            References:

            1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. Pubmed
            2. Dolzan V, Plesnicar BK, Serretti A, Mandelli L, Zalar B, Koprivsek J, Breskvar K: Polymorphisms in dopamine receptor DRD1 and DRD2 genes and psychopathological and extrapyramidal symptoms in patients on long-term antipsychotic treatment. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007 Sep 5;144(6):809-15. Pubmed
            3. Hoenicka J, Aragues M, Ponce G, Rodriguez-Jimenez R, Jimenez-Arriero MA, Palomo T: From dopaminergic genes to psychiatric disorders. Neurotox Res. 2007 Jan;11(1):61-72. Pubmed
            4. da Silva Lobo DS, Vallada HP, Knight J, Martins SS, Tavares H, Gentil V, Kennedy JL: Dopamine genes and pathological gambling in discordant sib-pairs. J Gambl Stud. 2007 Dec;23(4):421-33. Epub 2007 Mar 30. Pubmed
            5. Fu W, Shen J, Luo X, Zhu W, Cheng J, Yu K, Briggs JM, Jin G, Chen K, Jiang H: Dopamine D1 receptor agonist and D2 receptor antagonist effects of the natural product (-)-stepholidine: molecular modeling and dynamics simulations. Biophys J. 2007 Sep 1;93(5):1431-41. Epub 2007 Apr 27. Pubmed

            3. D(1B) dopamine receptor

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: yes

            Actions: agonist

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            D(1B) dopamine receptor P21918 Details

            References:

            1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. Pubmed

            4. D(3) dopamine receptor

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: yes

            Actions: agonist

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            D(3) dopamine receptor P35462 Details

            References:

            1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. Pubmed

            5. D(4) dopamine receptor

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: yes

            Actions: agonist

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            D(4) dopamine receptor P21917 Details

            References:

            1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. Pubmed

            6. Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: yes

            Actions: inducer

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter Q01959 Details

            References:

            1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. Pubmed

            7. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: yes

            Actions: ligand

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Dopamine beta-hydroxylase P09172 Details

            References:

            1. Goldman JM, Cooper RL, Murr AS: Reproductive functions and hypothalamic catecholamines in response to the soil fumigant metam sodium: adaptations to extended exposures. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2007 May-Jun;29(3):368-76. Epub 2006 Dec 6. Pubmed
            2. Arboleda G, Huang TJ, Waters C, Verkhratsky A, Fernyhough P, Gibson RM: Insulin-like growth factor-1-dependent maintenance of neuronal metabolism through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway is inhibited by C2-ceramide in CAD cells. Eur J Neurosci. 2007 May;25(10):3030-8. Pubmed
            3. Garland EM, Black BK, Harris PA, Robertson D: Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase in postural tachycardia syndrome. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Jul;293(1):H684-90. Pubmed
            4. Pyatskowit JW, Prohaska JR: Rodent brain and heart catecholamine levels are altered by different models of copper deficiency. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007 Mar;145(2):275-81. Epub 2007 Jan 12. Pubmed
            5. LeBlanc J, Ducharme MB: Plasma dopamine and noradrenaline variations in response to stress. Physiol Behav. 2007 Jun 8;91(2-3):208-11. Epub 2007 Mar 2. Pubmed

            1. Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A P21397 Details

            References:

            1. Bortolato M, Chen K, Shih JC: Monoamine oxidase inactivation: from pathophysiology to therapeutics. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2008 Oct-Nov;60(13-14):1527-33. Epub 2008 Jul 4. Pubmed
            2. Kaludercic N, Carpi A, Menabo R, Di Lisa F, Paolocci N: Monoamine oxidases (MAO) in the pathogenesis of heart failure and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Jul;1813(7):1323-32. Epub 2010 Sep 24. Pubmed
            3. Volavka J, Bilder R, Nolan K: Catecholamines and aggression: the role of COMT and MAO polymorphisms. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1036:393-8. Pubmed

            2. Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] B

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] B P27338 Details

            References:

            1. Bortolato M, Chen K, Shih JC: Monoamine oxidase inactivation: from pathophysiology to therapeutics. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2008 Oct-Nov;60(13-14):1527-33. Epub 2008 Jul 4. Pubmed
            2. Kaludercic N, Carpi A, Menabo R, Di Lisa F, Paolocci N: Monoamine oxidases (MAO) in the pathogenesis of heart failure and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Jul;1813(7):1323-32. Epub 2010 Sep 24. Pubmed

            3. Catechol O-methyltransferase

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Catechol O-methyltransferase P21964 Details

            References:

            1. Ittiwut R, Listman JB, Ittiwut C, Cubells JF, Weiss RD, Brady K, Oslin D, Farrer LA, Kranzler HR, Gelernter J: Association between polymorphisms in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and cocaine-induced paranoia in European-American and African-American populations. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2011 Sep;156(6):651-60. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.b.31205. Epub 2011 Jun 8. Pubmed
            2. Boot E, Booij J, Abeling N, Meijer J, da Silva Alves F, Zinkstok J, Baas F, Linszen D, van Amelsvoort T: Dopamine metabolism in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome, with and without schizophrenia – relationship with COMT Val108/158 Met polymorphism, gender and symptomatology. J Psychopharmacol. 2011 Jul;25(7):888-95. Epub 2011 Mar 29. Pubmed
            3. Volavka J, Bilder R, Nolan K: Catecholamines and aggression: the role of COMT and MAO polymorphisms. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1036:393-8. Pubmed

            4. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Dopamine beta-hydroxylase P09172 Details

            References:

            1. Goldman JM, Cooper RL, Murr AS: Reproductive functions and hypothalamic catecholamines in response to the soil fumigant metam sodium: adaptations to extended exposures. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2007 May-Jun;29(3):368-76. Epub 2006 Dec 6. Pubmed
            2. Arboleda G, Huang TJ, Waters C, Verkhratsky A, Fernyhough P, Gibson RM: Insulin-like growth factor-1-dependent maintenance of neuronal metabolism through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway is inhibited by C2-ceramide in CAD cells. Eur J Neurosci. 2007 May;25(10):3030-8. Pubmed
            3. Garland EM, Black BK, Harris PA, Robertson D: Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase in postural tachycardia syndrome. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Jul;293(1):H684-90. Pubmed
            4. Pyatskowit JW, Prohaska JR: Rodent brain and heart catecholamine levels are altered by different models of copper deficiency. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007 Mar;145(2):275-81. Epub 2007 Jan 12. Pubmed
            5. LeBlanc J, Ducharme MB: Plasma dopamine and noradrenaline variations in response to stress. Physiol Behav. 2007 Jun 8;91(2-3):208-11. Epub 2007 Mar 2. Pubmed

            5. Cytochrome P450 1A2

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: inhibitor

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

            References:

            1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

            6. Cytochrome P450 2C19

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

            References:

            1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

            7. Cytochrome P450 2C9

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

            References:

            1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

            8. Cytochrome P450 2D6

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

            References:

            1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

            1. Solute carrier family 22 member 2

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate inhibitor

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Solute carrier family 22 member 2 O15244 Details

            References:

            1. Urakami Y, Akazawa M, Saito H, Okuda M, Inui K: cDNA cloning, functional characterization, and tissue distribution of an alternatively spliced variant of organic cation transporter hOCT2 predominantly expressed in the human kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Jul;13(7):1703-10. Pubmed
            2. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. Pubmed
            3. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. Pubmed
            4. Busch AE, Karbach U, Miska D, Gorboulev V, Akhoundova A, Volk C, Arndt P, Ulzheimer JC, Sonders MS, Baumann C, Waldegger S, Lang F, Koepsell H: Human neurons express the polyspecific cation transporter hOCT2, which translocates monoamine neurotransmitters, amantadine, and memantine. Mol Pharmacol. 1998 Aug;54(2):342-52. Pubmed
            5. Grundemann D, Koster S, Kiefer N, Breidert T, Engelhardt M, Spitzenberger F, Obermuller N, Schomig E: Transport of monoamine transmitters by the organic cation transporter type 2, OCT2. J Biol Chem. 1998 Nov 20;273(47):30915-20. Pubmed
            6. Verhaagh S, Schweifer N, Barlow DP, Zwart R: Cloning of the mouse and human solute carrier 22a3 (Slc22a3/SLC22A3) identifies a conserved cluster of three organic cation transporters on mouse chromosome 17 and human 6q26-q27. Genomics. 1999 Jan 15;55(2):209-18. Pubmed
            7. Grundemann D, Liebich G, Kiefer N, Koster S, Schomig E: Selective substrates for non-neuronal monoamine transporters. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 Jul;56(1):1-10. Pubmed

            2. Solute carrier family 22 member 1

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate inhibitor

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Solute carrier family 22 member 1 O15245 Details

            References:

            1. Bednarczyk D, Ekins S, Wikel JH, Wright SH: Influence of molecular structure on substrate binding to the human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Mar;63(3):489-98. Pubmed
            2. Zhang L, Schaner ME, Giacomini KM: Functional characterization of an organic cation transporter (hOCT1) in a transiently transfected human cell line (HeLa). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Jul;286(1):354-61. Pubmed
            3. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. Pubmed
            4. Busch AE, Quester S, Ulzheimer JC, Gorboulev V, Akhoundova A, Waldegger S, Lang F, Koepsell H: Monoamine neurotransmitter transport mediated by the polyspecific cation transporter rOCT1. FEBS Lett. 1996 Oct 21;395(2-3):153-6. Pubmed
            5. Breidert T, Spitzenberger F, Grundemann D, Schomig E: Catecholamine transport by the organic cation transporter type 1 (OCT1). Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Sep;125(1):218-24. Pubmed

            3. Solute carrier family 22 member 3

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: inhibitor

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Solute carrier family 22 member 3 O75751 Details

            References:

            1. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. Pubmed

            4. Solute carrier family 22 member 5

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: inhibitor

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Solute carrier family 22 member 5 O76082 Details

            References:

            1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Nezu Ji J, Nikaido H, Hashimoto N, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular and physiological evidence for multifunctionality of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN2. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;59(2):358-66. Pubmed
            2. Wu X, Huang W, Prasad PD, Seth P, Rajan DP, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Functional characteristics and tissue distribution pattern of organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2), an organic cation/carnitine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1482-92. Pubmed

            5. POU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            POU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1 Q01860 Details

            References:

            1. Zhu HJ, Appel DI, Grundemann D, Markowitz JS: Interaction of organic cation transporter 3 (SLC22A3) and amphetamine. J Neurochem. 2010 Jul;114(1):142-9. Epub 2010 Apr 6. Pubmed

            Comments
            Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:12