You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NameDopamine
Accession NumberDB00988  (APRD00085)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionOne of the catecholamine neurotransmitters in the brain. It is derived from tyrosine and is the precursor to norepinephrine and epinephrine. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (receptors, dopamine) mediate its action. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine
3-Hydroxytyramine
3,4-Dihydroxyphenethylamine
4-(2-Aminoethyl)-1,2-benzenediol
4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol
4-(2-Aminoethyl)catechol
4-(2-Aminoethyl)pyrocatechol
Deoxyepinephrine
Dopamin
Dopamina
Dopamine
Dopaminum
Dophamine
Hydroxytyramin
Hydroxytyramine
Oxytyramine
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Dopamine HCl Inj 4%liquid40 mgintravenousInternational Medication Systems Ltd.1980-12-311997-08-15Canada
Dopamine Hydrochlorideinjection, solution, concentrate40 mg/mLintravenousCardinal Health1981-05-19Not applicableUs
Dopamine Hydrochlorideinjection, solution, concentrate40 mg/mLintravenousHospira, Inc.1981-05-19Not applicableUs
Dopamine Hydrochlorideinjection, solution, concentrate40 mg/mLintravenousHospira, Inc.1981-05-19Not applicableUs
Dopamine Hydrochlorideinjection, solution, concentrate40 mg/mLintravenousREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-01-24Not applicableUs
Dopamine Hydrochlorideinjection40 mg/mLintravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-08-01Not applicableUs
Dopamine Hydrochlorideinjection40 mg/mLintravenousGENERAL INJECTABLES AND VACCINES, INC.2015-09-18Not applicableUs
Dopamine Hydrochlorideinjection, solution, concentrate80 mg/mLintravenousHospira, Inc.1981-05-19Not applicableUs
Dopamine Hydrochloride and Dextroseinjection, solution3.2 mg/mLintravenousHospira, Inc.1983-09-30Not applicableUs
Dopamine Hydrochloride and Dextroseinjection, solution80 mg/100mLintravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation1987-03-27Not applicableUs
Dopamine Hydrochloride and Dextroseinjection, solution160 mg/100mLintravenousHospira, Inc.1981-05-19Not applicableUs
Dopamine Hydrochloride and Dextroseinjection, solution160 mg/100mLintravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation1987-03-27Not applicableUs
Dopamine Hydrochloride and Dextroseinjection, solution.8 mg/mLintravenousHospira, Inc.1983-09-30Not applicableUs
Dopamine Hydrochloride and Dextroseinjection, solution320 mg/100mLintravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation1987-03-27Not applicableUs
Dopamine Hydrochloride and Dextroseinjection, solution1.6 mg/mLintravenousHospira, Inc.1983-09-30Not applicableUs
Intropin Injection 40mg/mlsolution40 mgintravenousBristol Myers Squibb Canada1993-12-312006-05-29Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Dopamineinjection, solution80 mg/mLintravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-04-01Not applicableUs
Dopamine HClinjection, solution160 mg/mLintravenousAmerican Regent, Inc.1990-09-30Not applicableUs
Dopamine HClinjection, solution40 mg/mLintravenousAmerican Regent, Inc.1990-09-30Not applicableUs
Dopamine HClinjection, solution80 mg/mLintravenousCardinal Health1990-09-30Not applicableUs
Dopamine HClinjection, solution80 mg/mLintravenousAmerican Regent, Inc.1990-09-30Not applicableUs
Dopamine HClinjection, solution40 mg/mLintravenousCardinal Health1987-02-11Not applicableUs
Dopamine Hydrochlorideinjection, solution40 mg/mLintravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-07-01Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
IntropinNot Available
RevimineNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Dopamine HCl 0.8mg/ml Dextrose 5% Inj USPBaxter Corporation
Dopamine HCl 1.6mg/ml Dextrose 5% Inj USPBaxter Corporation
Dopamine HCl 3.2mg/ml Dextrose 5% Inj USPBaxter Corporation
Dopamine Hydrochloride and 5% Dextrose Injection USPHospira Healthcare Corporation
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Dopamine Hydrochloride
Thumb
  • InChI Key: CTENFNNZBMHDDG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 189.05565634
  • Average Mass: 189.639
DBSALT000508
Categories
UNIIVTD58H1Z2X
CAS number51-61-6
WeightAverage: 153.1784
Monoisotopic: 153.078978601
Chemical FormulaC8H11NO2
InChI KeyInChIKey=VYFYYTLLBUKUHU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C8H11NO2/c9-4-3-6-1-2-7(10)8(11)5-6/h1-2,5,10-11H,3-4,9H2
IUPAC Name
4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol
SMILES
NCCC1=CC(O)=C(O)C=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as catecholamines and derivatives. These are compounds containing 4-(2-Aminoethyl)pyrocatechol [4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol] or a derivative thereof formed by substitution.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenols and derivatives
Direct ParentCatecholamines and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Catecholamine
  • Phenethylamine
  • Aralkylamine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the correction of hemodynamic imbalances present in the shock syndrome due to myocardial infarction, trauma, endotoxic septicemia, open-heart surgery, renal failure, and chronic cardiac decompensation as in congestive failure
PharmacodynamicsDopamine is a natural catecholamine formed by the decarboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). It is a precursor to norepinephrine in noradrenergic nerves and is also a neurotransmitter in certain areas of the central nervous system, especially in the nigrostriatal tract, and in a few peripheral sympathetic nerves. Dopamine produces positive chronotropic and inotropic effects on the myocardium, resulting in increased heart rate and cardiac contractility. This is accomplished directly by exerting an agonist action on beta-adrenoceptors and indirectly by causing release of norepinephrine from storage sites in sympathetic nerve endings.
Mechanism of actionDopamine is a precursor to norepinephrine in noradrenergic nerves and is also a neurotransmitter in certain areas of the central nervous system. Dopamine produces positive chronotropic and inotropic effects on the myocardium, resulting in increased heart rate and cardiac contractility. This is accomplished directly by exerting an agonist action on beta-adrenoceptors and indirectly by causing release of norepinephrine from storage sites in sympathetic nerve endings. In the brain, dopamine actas as an agonist to the five dopamine receptor subtypes (D!, D2, D3, D4, D5).
Related Articles
AbsorptionDopamine is rapidly absorbed from the small intestine.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNo information currently available on protein binding.
Metabolism

Biotransformation of dopamine proceeds rapidly to yield the principal excretion products, 3-4-dihydroxy-phenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylacetic acid (homovanillic acid, HVA).

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Dopamine
Not Available
6-HydroxydopamineDetails
Dopamine
Not Available
Dopamine 4-sulfateDetails
Dopamine
Not Available
Dopamine 3-O-sulfateDetails
Dopamine
Not Available
Dopamine glucuronideDetails
Dopamine
Not Available
Dopamine quinoneDetails
Route of eliminationIt has been reported that about 80% of the drug is excreted in the urine within 24 hours, primarily as HVA and its sulfate and glucuronide conjugates and as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. A very small portion is excreted unchanged.
Half life2 minutes
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityLD50 oral mice = 1460 mg/kg, LD50 oral rats = 1780 mg/kg. Spasm or closing of eyelids, nausea, vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias, involuntary movements of the body including the face, tongue, arms, hand, head, and upper body; hypotension, haemolytic anaemia, urinary retention, duodenal ulcer, sialorrhea, ataxia, abdominal pain, dry mouth, nightmares, tachypnoea, bruxism, confusion, and insomnia.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Catecholamine BiosynthesisMetabolicSMP00012
Prilocaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00401
Heroin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00407
Methadone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00408
Alfentanil Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00413
Carfentanil Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00414
Tramadol Action Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00671
Levallorphan Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00683
Tyrosinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00218
Benzocaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00392
Mepivacaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00399
Morphine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00406
Oxycodone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00409
Hydrocodone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00411
Desipramine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00423
Citalopram Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00424
Disulfiram Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00429
Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00497
Dezocine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00676
Naloxone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00688
Dihydromorphine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00689
Ketobemidone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00690
Aromatic L-Aminoacid Decarboxylase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00170
Dopamine Activation of Neurological Reward SystemSignalingSMP00308
Levobupivacaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00397
Oxymorphone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00412
Fentanyl Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00415
Fluoxetine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00426
Nicotine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00431
Levorphanol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00673
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9547
Blood Brain Barrier-0.8414
Caco-2 permeable-0.5479
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5431
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9739
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9357
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7115
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8462
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.6383
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6905
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9459
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9422
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9477
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9001
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8648
Ames testAMES toxic0.9107
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8642
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.7449
Rat acute toxicity2.1415 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.7712
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.5715
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Abbott laboratories hosp products div
  • Abraxis pharmaceutical products
  • Astrazeneca lp
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
  • Hospira inc
  • International medication system
  • Luitpold pharmaceuticals inc
  • Smith and nephew solopak div smith and nephew
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
  • Warner chilcott div warner lambert co
  • B braun medical inc
  • Baxter healthcare corp
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionintravenous160 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintravenous40 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintravenous80 mg/mL
Solutionintravenous
Liquidintravenous40 mg
Injectionintravenous40 mg/mL
Injection, solution, concentrateintravenous40 mg/mL
Injection, solution, concentrateintravenous80 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintravenous.8 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintravenous1.6 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintravenous160 mg/100mL
Injection, solutionintravenous3.2 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintravenous320 mg/100mL
Injection, solutionintravenous80 mg/100mL
Solutionintravenous40 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Dopamine 40 mg/ml vial0.15USD ml
Dopamine 800 mg-d5w 500 ml0.05USD ml
Dopamine 400 mg-d5w 250 ml0.04USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point128 °CPhysProp
boiling point227 °C at 2.30E+01 mm HgPhysProp
water solubility600 g/LNot Available
logP-0.98HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Caco2 permeability-5.03ADME Research, USCD
pKa8.93PERRIN,DD (1965)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility7.43 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.4ALOGPS
logP0.03ChemAxon
logS-1.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.01ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.27ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.48 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity43.25 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.21 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-00di-1900000000-117a1a7207245f5377e7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-00di-1900000000-8b7dcae82868308513daView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0uxu-4900000000-ff51177ebcb89b8c956cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9200000000-a554eb700a06cecb8292View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014l-9000000000-db9813e1025f237a549bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-27e0d71db6d14d79759cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0uk9-0900000000-f1cf97c0d0dd509e229eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-aa09a2411e287abe74edView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-1900000000-97c42b109cab2005373dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-006x-9700000000-974bd18febffcceea2d6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0f79-0900000000-099173d4201beca9e548View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-1900000000-9dc09f2661247c9d84b0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-0006-9300000000-8b85fa9aac1ffb4c2873View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-9ea16d2057010279d433View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-014l-9000000000-32ca2db8fe2b4729ab94View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0f79-0900000000-ff587935c79b4592ffcfView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-1900000000-8a35d8a2241bc18d6c50View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-0006-9300000000-356a4b8f268863c7893eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-a88c1004f357858fbc6cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-014l-9000000000-271874005dcb90288512View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00e9-8900000000-88acdc978fe4a64e0fc5View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Klaus Schoellkopf, Rudolf Albrecht, Manfred Lehmann, Gertrud Schroeder, “Novel dopamine derivatives, processes for their preparation, and their use as medicinal agents.” U.S. Patent US4958026, issued February, 1972.

US4958026
General References
  1. Barron AB, Maleszka R, Vander Meer RK, Robinson GE: Octopamine modulates honey bee dance behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jan 30;104(5):1703-7. Epub 2007 Jan 19. [PubMed:17237217 ]
  2. Giuliano F, Allard J: Dopamine and male sexual function. Eur Urol. 2001 Dec;40(6):601-8. [PubMed:11805404 ]
  3. Giuliano F, Allard J: Dopamine and sexual function. Int J Impot Res. 2001 Aug;13 Suppl 3:S18-28. [PubMed:11477488 ]
  4. Berridge KC, Robinson TE: What is the role of dopamine in reward: hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience? Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1998 Dec;28(3):309-69. [PubMed:9858756 ]
  5. Pecina S, Cagniard B, Berridge KC, Aldridge JW, Zhuang X: Hyperdopaminergic mutant mice have higher "wanting" but not "liking" for sweet rewards. J Neurosci. 2003 Oct 15;23(28):9395-402. [PubMed:14561867 ]
External Links
ATC CodesC01CA04
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (72.1 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbirateroneThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Abiraterone.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Acebutolol.
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.
AmphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amphetamine is combined with Dopamine.
AprepitantThe metabolism of Dopamine can be increased when combined with Aprepitant.
ArmodafinilThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Armodafinil.
ArtemetherThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Artemether.
AtomoxetineAtomoxetine may increase the hypertensive activities of Dopamine.
BenzphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzphetamine is combined with Dopamine.
BetaxololThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Betaxolol.
BortezomibThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.
BupropionThe serum concentration of Dopamine can be increased when it is combined with Bupropion.
CapecitabineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Capecitabine.
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.
CelecoxibThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Celecoxib.
CeliprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Celiprolol.
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Dopamine can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.
ChloramphenicolThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Chloramphenicol.
ChloroquineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.
ChlorphentermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Chlorphentermine.
ChlorpromazineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Chlorpromazine.
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.
CimetidineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Cimetidine.
CinacalcetThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Cinacalcet.
CitalopramThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.
ClemastineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.
ClenbuterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Clenbuterol.
ClobazamThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Clobazam.
ClomipramineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Clomipramine.
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.
ClozapineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Clozapine.
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Dopamine can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.
CocaineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Cocaine.
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Dopamine can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DarifenacinThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Darifenacin.
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Dopamine can be increased when it is combined with Darunavir.
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.
DesfluraneDesflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Dopamine.
DesipramineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Desipramine.
DiphenhydramineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Diphenhydramine.
DobutamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dobutamine is combined with Dopamine.
DoxofyllineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Doxofylline.
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the tachycardic activities of Dopamine.
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.
DuloxetineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Duloxetine.
EfavirenzThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Efavirenz.
EliglustatThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Eliglustat.
EnfluraneEnflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Dopamine.
EntacaponeThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Entacapone.
EphedrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Ephedrine.
EpinephrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Epinephrine is combined with Dopamine.
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.
EsomeprazoleThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Esomeprazole.
EtilefrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Etilefrine.
EtravirineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Etravirine.
FenoterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Fenoterol.
FloxuridineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Floxuridine.
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.
FluorouracilThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Fluorouracil.
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Fluoxetine.
FluvastatinThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Fluvastatin.
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.
FosphenytoinThe metabolism of Dopamine can be increased when combined with Fosphenytoin.
GemfibrozilThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.
HaloperidolThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Haloperidol.
HalothaneHalothane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Dopamine.
HyaluronidaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hyaluronidase is combined with Dopamine.
Hydroxyamphetamine hydrobromideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Hydroxyamphetamine hydrobromide.
ImipramineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Imipramine.
IndinavirThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.
IrbesartanThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Irbesartan.
IsofluraneIsoflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Dopamine.
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.
IsoprenalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Isoprenaline.
IsoxsuprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Isoxsuprine.
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.
LabetalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Labetalol is combined with Dopamine.
LeflunomideThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Leflunomide.
LinezolidLinezolid may increase the hypertensive activities of Dopamine.
LopinavirThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.
LorcaserinThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Lorcaserin.
LosartanThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Losartan.
LovastatinThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Dopamine can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Dopamine can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.
LumefantrineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Lumefantrine.
LurasidoneDopamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Lurasidone.
MephentermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Mephentermine.
MetaraminolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metaraminol is combined with Dopamine.
MethadoneThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Methadone.
MethamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Methamphetamine.
MethotrimeprazineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Methotrimeprazine.
MethoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methoxamine is combined with Dopamine.
MethoxyfluraneMethoxyflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Dopamine.
MetoprololThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Metoprolol.
MidodrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midodrine is combined with Dopamine.
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Dopamine can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.
MirabegronThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Mirabegron.
MoclobemideThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Moclobemide.
ModafinilThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Modafinil.
NabiloneNabilone may increase the tachycardic activities of Dopamine.
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.
NevirapineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Nevirapine.
NicardipineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Nicardipine.
NilotinibThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.
Nitrous oxideNitrous oxide may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Dopamine.
NorepinephrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Norepinephrine is combined with Dopamine.
NylidrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Nylidrin.
OmeprazoleThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Omeprazole.
OrciprenalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Orciprenaline is combined with Dopamine.
OxymetazolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxymetazoline is combined with Dopamine.
PanobinostatThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Panobinostat.
PantoprazoleThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Pantoprazole.
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Paroxetine.
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Dopamine can be decreased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.
PhenmetrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenmetrazine is combined with Dopamine.
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Dopamine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.
PhentermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phentermine is combined with Dopamine.
PhenylephrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenylephrine is combined with Dopamine.
PhenylpropanolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenylpropanolamine is combined with Dopamine.
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Dopamine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Dopamine can be increased when combined with Primidone.
ProcaterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Procaterol.
PromazineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Promazine.
PseudoephedrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Pseudoephedrine.
PyrimethamineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Pyrimethamine.
QuinidineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Quinidine.
QuinineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Quinine.
RacepinephrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Racepinephrine.
RanolazineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Ranolazine.
RifampicinThe metabolism of Dopamine can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.
RifapentineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.
RitodrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritodrine is combined with Dopamine.
RitonavirThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
RolapitantThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Rolapitant.
RopiniroleThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Ropinirole.
SecobarbitalThe metabolism of Dopamine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
SertralineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.
SevofluraneSevoflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Dopamine.
SildenafilThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.
SorafenibThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Sorafenib.
StiripentolThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Stiripentol.
SulfadiazineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Sulfadiazine.
SulfamethoxazoleThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Sulfamethoxazole.
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.
SynephrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Synephrine.
Tedizolid PhosphateTedizolid Phosphate may increase the hypertensive activities of Dopamine.
TerbinafineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Terbinafine.
TerbutalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Terbutaline is combined with Dopamine.
Testosterone PropionateThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Testosterone Propionate.
TetryzolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Tetryzoline.
ThioridazineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Thioridazine.
TicagrelorThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Ticagrelor.
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.
TipranavirThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Tipranavir.
TolbutamideThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Tolbutamide.
TolcaponeThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Tolcapone.
TopiramateThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.
TranylcypromineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Tranylcypromine.
TrimethoprimThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Trimethoprim.
TyramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Tyramine.
Valproic AcidThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
ValsartanThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Valsartan.
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.
ZafirlukastThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Zafirlukast.
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular Weight:
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. [PubMed:17301410 ]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD1
Uniprot ID:
P21728
Molecular Weight:
49292.765 Da
References
  1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. [PubMed:17301410 ]
  2. Dolzan V, Plesnicar BK, Serretti A, Mandelli L, Zalar B, Koprivsek J, Breskvar K: Polymorphisms in dopamine receptor DRD1 and DRD2 genes and psychopathological and extrapyramidal symptoms in patients on long-term antipsychotic treatment. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007 Sep 5;144B(6):809-15. [PubMed:17455212 ]
  3. Hoenicka J, Aragues M, Ponce G, Rodriguez-Jimenez R, Jimenez-Arriero MA, Palomo T: From dopaminergic genes to psychiatric disorders. Neurotox Res. 2007 Jan;11(1):61-72. [PubMed:17449449 ]
  4. da Silva Lobo DS, Vallada HP, Knight J, Martins SS, Tavares H, Gentil V, Kennedy JL: Dopamine genes and pathological gambling in discordant sib-pairs. J Gambl Stud. 2007 Dec;23(4):421-33. Epub 2007 Mar 30. [PubMed:17394052 ]
  5. Fu W, Shen J, Luo X, Zhu W, Cheng J, Yu K, Briggs JM, Jin G, Chen K, Jiang H: Dopamine D1 receptor agonist and D2 receptor antagonist effects of the natural product (-)-stepholidine: molecular modeling and dynamics simulations. Biophys J. 2007 Sep 1;93(5):1431-41. Epub 2007 Apr 27. [PubMed:17468175 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD5
Uniprot ID:
P21918
Molecular Weight:
52950.5 Da
References
  1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. [PubMed:17301410 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Promotes cell proliferation.
Gene Name:
DRD3
Uniprot ID:
P35462
Molecular Weight:
44224.335 Da
References
  1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. [PubMed:17301410 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Sh3 domain binding
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor responsible for neuronal signaling in the mesolimbic system of the brain, an area of the brain that regulates emotion and complex behavior. Its activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Modulates the circadian rhythm of contrast sensitivity by regulating the rhythmic expression of NPAS2 in the retinal ganglion cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
DRD4
Uniprot ID:
P21917
Molecular Weight:
48359.86 Da
References
  1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. [PubMed:17301410 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID:
Q01959
Molecular Weight:
68494.255 Da
References
  1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. [PubMed:17301410 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
ligand
General Function:
L-ascorbic acid binding
Specific Function:
Conversion of dopamine to noradrenaline.
Gene Name:
DBH
Uniprot ID:
P09172
Molecular Weight:
69064.45 Da
References
  1. Goldman JM, Cooper RL, Murr AS: Reproductive functions and hypothalamic catecholamines in response to the soil fumigant metam sodium: adaptations to extended exposures. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2007 May-Jun;29(3):368-76. Epub 2006 Dec 6. [PubMed:17258889 ]
  2. Arboleda G, Huang TJ, Waters C, Verkhratsky A, Fernyhough P, Gibson RM: Insulin-like growth factor-1-dependent maintenance of neuronal metabolism through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway is inhibited by C2-ceramide in CAD cells. Eur J Neurosci. 2007 May;25(10):3030-8. [PubMed:17561816 ]
  3. Garland EM, Black BK, Harris PA, Robertson D: Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase in postural tachycardia syndrome. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Jul;293(1):H684-90. [PubMed:17625104 ]
  4. Pyatskowit JW, Prohaska JR: Rodent brain and heart catecholamine levels are altered by different models of copper deficiency. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007 Mar;145(2):275-81. Epub 2007 Jan 12. [PubMed:17287146 ]
  5. LeBlanc J, Ducharme MB: Plasma dopamine and noradrenaline variations in response to stress. Physiol Behav. 2007 Jun 8;91(2-3):208-11. Epub 2007 Mar 2. [PubMed:17433386 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
binder
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G pro...
Gene Name:
HTR1A
Uniprot ID:
P08908
Molecular Weight:
46106.335 Da
References
  1. Weber JT, Hayataka K, O'Connor MF, Parker KK: Rabbit cerebral cortex 5HT1a receptors. Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol. 1997 May;117(1):19-24. [PubMed:9185324 ]
  2. Toll L, Berzetei-Gurske IP, Polgar WE, Brandt SR, Adapa ID, Rodriguez L, Schwartz RW, Haggart D, O'Brien A, White A, Kennedy JM, Craymer K, Farrington L, Auh JS: Standard binding and functional assays related to medications development division testing for potential cocaine and opiate narcotic treatment medications. NIDA Res Monogr. 1998 Mar;178:440-66. [PubMed:9686407 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
binder
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that stimulate adenylate cyclase.
Gene Name:
HTR7
Uniprot ID:
P34969
Molecular Weight:
53554.43 Da
References
  1. Lovenberg TW, Baron BM, de Lecea L, Miller JD, Prosser RA, Rea MA, Foye PE, Racke M, Slone AL, Siegel BW, et al.: A novel adenylyl cyclase-activating serotonin receptor (5-HT7) implicated in the regulation of mammalian circadian rhythms. Neuron. 1993 Sep;11(3):449-58. [PubMed:8398139 ]
  2. Shen Y, Monsma FJ Jr, Metcalf MA, Jose PA, Hamblin MW, Sibley DR: Molecular cloning and expression of a 5-hydroxytryptamine7 serotonin receptor subtype. J Biol Chem. 1993 Aug 25;268(24):18200-4. [PubMed:8394362 ]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
agonist
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
D(1A) dopamine receptorP21728 Details
D(1B) dopamine receptorP21918 Details
References
  1. Hubner H, Haubmann C, Utz W, Gmeiner P: Conjugated enynes as nonaromatic catechol bioisosteres: synthesis, binding experiments, and computational studies of novel dopamine receptor agonists recognizing preferentially the D(3) subtype. J Med Chem. 2000 Feb 24;43(4):756-62. [PubMed:10691700 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular Weight:
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Rothman RB, Baumann MH, Dersch CM, Romero DV, Rice KC, Carroll FI, Partilla JS: Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and serotonin. Synapse. 2001 Jan;39(1):32-41. [PubMed:11071707 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic terminal for re-utilization. Plays a key role in mediating regulation of the availability of serotonin to other receptors of serotonergic systems. Terminates the action of serotonin an...
Gene Name:
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID:
P31645
Molecular Weight:
70324.165 Da
References
  1. Rothman RB, Baumann MH, Dersch CM, Romero DV, Rice KC, Carroll FI, Partilla JS: Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and serotonin. Synapse. 2001 Jan;39(1):32-41. [PubMed:11071707 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Serotonin binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Gene Name:
MAOA
Uniprot ID:
P21397
Molecular Weight:
59681.27 Da
References
  1. Bortolato M, Chen K, Shih JC: Monoamine oxidase inactivation: from pathophysiology to therapeutics. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2008 Oct-Nov;60(13-14):1527-33. doi: 10.1016/j.addr.2008.06.002. Epub 2008 Jul 4. [PubMed:18652859 ]
  2. Kaludercic N, Carpi A, Menabo R, Di Lisa F, Paolocci N: Monoamine oxidases (MAO) in the pathogenesis of heart failure and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Jul;1813(7):1323-32. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2010.09.010. Epub 2010 Sep 24. [PubMed:20869994 ]
  3. Volavka J, Bilder R, Nolan K: Catecholamines and aggression: the role of COMT and MAO polymorphisms. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1036:393-8. [PubMed:15817751 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Primary amine oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOB preferentially degrades benzylamine and phenylethylamine.
Gene Name:
MAOB
Uniprot ID:
P27338
Molecular Weight:
58762.475 Da
References
  1. Bortolato M, Chen K, Shih JC: Monoamine oxidase inactivation: from pathophysiology to therapeutics. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2008 Oct-Nov;60(13-14):1527-33. doi: 10.1016/j.addr.2008.06.002. Epub 2008 Jul 4. [PubMed:18652859 ]
  2. Kaludercic N, Carpi A, Menabo R, Di Lisa F, Paolocci N: Monoamine oxidases (MAO) in the pathogenesis of heart failure and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Jul;1813(7):1323-32. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2010.09.010. Epub 2010 Sep 24. [PubMed:20869994 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
O-methyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the O-methylation, and thereby the inactivation, of catecholamine neurotransmitters and catechol hormones. Also shortens the biological half-lives of certain neuroactive drugs, like L-DOPA, alpha-methyl DOPA and isoproterenol.
Gene Name:
COMT
Uniprot ID:
P21964
Molecular Weight:
30036.77 Da
References
  1. Ittiwut R, Listman JB, Ittiwut C, Cubells JF, Weiss RD, Brady K, Oslin D, Farrer LA, Kranzler HR, Gelernter J: Association between polymorphisms in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and cocaine-induced paranoia in European-American and African-American populations. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2011 Sep;156B(6):651-60. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.b.31205. Epub 2011 Jun 8. [PubMed:21656904 ]
  2. Boot E, Booij J, Abeling N, Meijer J, da Silva Alves F, Zinkstok J, Baas F, Linszen D, van Amelsvoort T: Dopamine metabolism in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome, with and without schizophrenia--relationship with COMT Val(1)(0)(8)/(1)(5)(8)Met polymorphism, gender and symptomatology. J Psychopharmacol. 2011 Jul;25(7):888-95. doi: 10.1177/0269881111400644. Epub 2011 Mar 29. [PubMed:21447540 ]
  3. Volavka J, Bilder R, Nolan K: Catecholamines and aggression: the role of COMT and MAO polymorphisms. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1036:393-8. [PubMed:15817751 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
L-ascorbic acid binding
Specific Function:
Conversion of dopamine to noradrenaline.
Gene Name:
DBH
Uniprot ID:
P09172
Molecular Weight:
69064.45 Da
References
  1. Goldman JM, Cooper RL, Murr AS: Reproductive functions and hypothalamic catecholamines in response to the soil fumigant metam sodium: adaptations to extended exposures. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2007 May-Jun;29(3):368-76. Epub 2006 Dec 6. [PubMed:17258889 ]
  2. Arboleda G, Huang TJ, Waters C, Verkhratsky A, Fernyhough P, Gibson RM: Insulin-like growth factor-1-dependent maintenance of neuronal metabolism through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway is inhibited by C2-ceramide in CAD cells. Eur J Neurosci. 2007 May;25(10):3030-8. [PubMed:17561816 ]
  3. Garland EM, Black BK, Harris PA, Robertson D: Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase in postural tachycardia syndrome. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Jul;293(1):H684-90. [PubMed:17625104 ]
  4. Pyatskowit JW, Prohaska JR: Rodent brain and heart catecholamine levels are altered by different models of copper deficiency. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007 Mar;145(2):275-81. Epub 2007 Jan 12. [PubMed:17287146 ]
  5. LeBlanc J, Ducharme MB: Plasma dopamine and noradrenaline variations in response to stress. Physiol Behav. 2007 Jun 8;91(2-3):208-11. Epub 2007 Mar 2. [PubMed:17433386 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creatinine, amantadine, memantine, acriflavine, 4-[4-(dimethylamino)-styryl]-N-methylpyridinium ASP, amiloride, metformin, N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridiniu...
Gene Name:
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID:
O15244
Molecular Weight:
62579.99 Da
References
  1. Urakami Y, Akazawa M, Saito H, Okuda M, Inui K: cDNA cloning, functional characterization, and tissue distribution of an alternatively spliced variant of organic cation transporter hOCT2 predominantly expressed in the human kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Jul;13(7):1703-10. [PubMed:12089365 ]
  2. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. [PubMed:9830022 ]
  3. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. [PubMed:11758759 ]
  4. Busch AE, Karbach U, Miska D, Gorboulev V, Akhoundova A, Volk C, Arndt P, Ulzheimer JC, Sonders MS, Baumann C, Waldegger S, Lang F, Koepsell H: Human neurons express the polyspecific cation transporter hOCT2, which translocates monoamine neurotransmitters, amantadine, and memantine. Mol Pharmacol. 1998 Aug;54(2):342-52. [PubMed:9687576 ]
  5. Grundemann D, Koster S, Kiefer N, Breidert T, Engelhardt M, Spitzenberger F, Obermuller N, Schomig E: Transport of monoamine transmitters by the organic cation transporter type 2, OCT2. J Biol Chem. 1998 Nov 20;273(47):30915-20. [PubMed:9812985 ]
  6. Verhaagh S, Schweifer N, Barlow DP, Zwart R: Cloning of the mouse and human solute carrier 22a3 (Slc22a3/SLC22A3) identifies a conserved cluster of three organic cation transporters on mouse chromosome 17 and human 6q26-q27. Genomics. 1999 Jan 15;55(2):209-18. [PubMed:9933568 ]
  7. Grundemann D, Liebich G, Kiefer N, Koster S, Schomig E: Selective substrates for non-neuronal monoamine transporters. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 Jul;56(1):1-10. [PubMed:10385678 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine...
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular Weight:
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Bednarczyk D, Ekins S, Wikel JH, Wright SH: Influence of molecular structure on substrate binding to the human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Mar;63(3):489-98. [PubMed:12606755 ]
  2. Zhang L, Schaner ME, Giacomini KM: Functional characterization of an organic cation transporter (hOCT1) in a transiently transfected human cell line (HeLa). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Jul;286(1):354-61. [PubMed:9655880 ]
  3. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. [PubMed:11758759 ]
  4. Busch AE, Quester S, Ulzheimer JC, Gorboulev V, Akhoundova A, Waldegger S, Lang F, Koepsell H: Monoamine neurotransmitter transport mediated by the polyspecific cation transporter rOCT1. FEBS Lett. 1996 Oct 21;395(2-3):153-6. [PubMed:8898084 ]
  5. Breidert T, Spitzenberger F, Grundemann D, Schomig E: Catecholamine transport by the organic cation transporter type 1 (OCT1). Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Sep;125(1):218-24. [PubMed:9776363 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations. May play a significant role in the disposition of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters in the brain.
Gene Name:
SLC22A3
Uniprot ID:
O75751
Molecular Weight:
61279.485 Da
References
  1. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. [PubMed:9830022 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3.
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular Weight:
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Nezu Ji J, Nikaido H, Hashimoto N, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular and physiological evidence for multifunctionality of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN2. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;59(2):358-66. [PubMed:11160873 ]
  2. Wu X, Huang W, Prasad PD, Seth P, Rajan DP, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Functional characteristics and tissue distribution pattern of organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2), an organic cation/carnitine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1482-92. [PubMed:10454528 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Transcription factor that binds to the octamer motif (5'-ATTTGCAT-3'). Forms a trimeric complex with SOX2 on DNA and controls the expression of a number of genes involved in embryonic development such as YES1, FGF4, UTF1 and ZFP206. Critical for early embryogenesis and for embryonic stem cell pluripotency.
Gene Name:
POU5F1
Uniprot ID:
Q01860
Molecular Weight:
38570.415 Da
References
  1. Zhu HJ, Appel DI, Grundemann D, Markowitz JS: Interaction of organic cation transporter 3 (SLC22A3) and amphetamine. J Neurochem. 2010 Jul;114(1):142-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.06738.x. Epub 2010 Apr 6. [PubMed:20402963 ]
Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23