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Identification
NameNitrendipine
Accession NumberDB01054  (APRD00421)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

A calcium channel blocker with marked vasodilator action. It is an effective antihypertensive agent and differs from other calcium channel blockers in that it does not reduce glomerular filtration rate and is mildly natriuretic, rather than sodium retentive. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
1,4-dihydro-2,6-Dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid ethyl methyl ester
BAY e 5009
Bayotensin
Baypress
Bylotensin
Deiten
Nidrel
Nitrendipino
Nitrendipinum
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
BayotensinNot Available
BaypressNot Available
DeitenNot Available
NidrelNot Available
NitrepinNot Available
NitrezicNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII9B627AW319
CAS number39562-70-4
WeightAverage: 360.3612
Monoisotopic: 360.132136382
Chemical FormulaC18H20N2O6
InChI KeyInChIKey=PVHUJELLJLJGLN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C18H20N2O6/c1-5-26-18(22)15-11(3)19-10(2)14(17(21)25-4)16(15)12-7-6-8-13(9-12)20(23)24/h6-9,16,19H,5H2,1-4H3
IUPAC Name
3-ethyl 5-methyl 2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate
SMILES
CCOC(=O)C1=C(C)NC(C)=C(C1C1=CC(=CC=C1)[N+]([O-])=O)C(=O)OC
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dihydropyridinecarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are compounds containing a dihydropyridine moiety bearing a carboxylic acid group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassPyridines and derivatives
Sub ClassHydropyridines
Direct ParentDihydropyridinecarboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Nitrobenzene
  • Dihydropyridinecarboxylic acid derivative
  • Benzenoid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Alpha,beta-unsaturated carboxylic ester
  • Enoate ester
  • Methyl ester
  • Organic nitro compound
  • Organic nitrite
  • C-nitro compound
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Azacycle
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Allyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Organic oxoazanium
  • Enamine
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic salt
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Organic zwitterion
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension
PharmacodynamicsNitrendipine, a dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker, is used alone or with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, to treat hypertension, chronic stable angina pectoris, and Prinzmetal's variant angina. Nitrendipine is similar to other peripheral vasodilators. Nitrendipine inhibits the influx of extra cellular calcium across the myocardial and vascular smooth muscle cell membranes possibly by deforming the channel, inhibiting ion-control gating mechanisms, and/or interfering with the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The decrease in intracellular calcium inhibits the contractile processes of the myocardial smooth muscle cells, causing dilation of the coronary and systemic arteries, increased oxygen delivery to the myocardial tissue, decreased total peripheral resistance, decreased systemic blood pressure, and decreased afterload.
Mechanism of actionBy deforming the channel, inhibiting ion-control gating mechanisms, and/or interfering with the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, Nitrendipine inhibits the influx of extracellular calcium across the myocardial and vascular smooth muscle cell membranes The decrease in intracellular calcium inhibits the contractile processes of the myocardial smooth muscle cells, causing dilation of the coronary and systemic arteries, increased oxygen delivery to the myocardial tissue, decreased total peripheral resistance, decreased systemic blood pressure, and decreased afterload.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding> 99%
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Nitrendipine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00382
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9536
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9549
Caco-2 permeable+0.7853
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5265
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8564
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.8313
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8984
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8212
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8931
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7266
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.8949
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.8993
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.8037
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9247
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7334
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.5186
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9581
Rat acute toxicity2.3810 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8131
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9094
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point156-160 °CNot Available
water solubilityInsolubleNot Available
logP2.88MASUMATO,K ET AL. (1995)
Caco2 permeability-4.77ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0142 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.21ALOGPS
logP2.17ChemAxon
logS-4.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)5.43ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area110.45 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity96.91 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability36.25 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Wolfgang Schmidt, Bernhard Streuff, Manfred Winter, “Preparation of solid medicament formulation containing nitrendipine.” U.S. Patent US4724141, issued April, 1980.

US4724141
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesC08CA08C09BB06
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Nitrendipine can be increased when combined with Acetaminophen.
AmobarbitalThe metabolism of Nitrendipine can be increased when combined with Amobarbital.
Atracurium besylateNitrendipine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Atracurium besylate.
ButabarbitalThe metabolism of Nitrendipine can be increased when combined with Butabarbital.
ButalbitalThe metabolism of Nitrendipine can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
CaffeineThe metabolism of Nitrendipine can be increased when combined with Caffeine.
Calcium AcetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Nitrendipine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Acetate.
Calcium carbonateThe therapeutic efficacy of Nitrendipine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium carbonate.
Calcium ChlorideThe therapeutic efficacy of Nitrendipine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Chloride.
Calcium citrateThe therapeutic efficacy of Nitrendipine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium citrate.
Calcium gluconateThe therapeutic efficacy of Nitrendipine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium gluconate.
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Nitrendipine can be increased when it is combined with Cimetidine.
Cisatracurium besylateNitrendipine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Cisatracurium besylate.
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Nitrendipine can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.
ClopidogrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Nitrendipine.
DoxazosinDoxazosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitrendipine.
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Nitrendipine can be decreased when it is combined with Efavirenz.
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Nitrendipine can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.
FluconazoleThe serum concentration of Nitrendipine can be increased when it is combined with Fluconazole.
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Fosphenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Nitrendipine.
ItraconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Itraconazole is combined with Nitrendipine.
KetoconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketoconazole is combined with Nitrendipine.
Magnesium chlorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrendipine is combined with Magnesium chloride.
Magnesium citrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrendipine is combined with Magnesium citrate.
Magnesium hydroxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrendipine is combined with Magnesium hydroxide.
Magnesium oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrendipine is combined with Magnesium oxide.
Magnesium salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrendipine is combined with Magnesium salicylate.
Magnesium SulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrendipine is combined with Magnesium Sulfate.
MethohexitalThe metabolism of Nitrendipine can be increased when combined with Methohexital.
NafcillinThe metabolism of Nitrendipine can be increased when combined with Nafcillin.
NitroprussideNitrendipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitroprusside.
PancuroniumNitrendipine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Pancuronium.
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Nitrendipine can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Nitrendipine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.
PhenoxybenzaminePhenoxybenzamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitrendipine.
PhentolaminePhentolamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitrendipine.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Nitrendipine.
PosaconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Posaconazole is combined with Nitrendipine.
PrazosinPrazosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitrendipine.
RifabutinThe serum concentration of Nitrendipine can be decreased when it is combined with Rifabutin.
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Nitrendipine can be decreased when it is combined with Rifampicin.
RifapentineThe serum concentration of Nitrendipine can be decreased when it is combined with Rifapentine.
RocuroniumNitrendipine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Rocuronium.
SecobarbitalThe metabolism of Nitrendipine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
SilodosinSilodosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitrendipine.
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Nitrendipine can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.
TamsulosinTamsulosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitrendipine.
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Nitrendipine can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.
TerazosinTerazosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitrendipine.
Ursodeoxycholic acidUrsodeoxycholic acid can cause a decrease in the absorption of Nitrendipine resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
VecuroniumNitrendipine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Vecuronium.
VoriconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Voriconazole is combined with Nitrendipine.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1C gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belon...
Gene Name:
CACNA1C
Uniprot ID:
Q13936
Molecular Weight:
248974.1 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Striessnig, J. (2004). Ca 2+ channel blockers. In Encyclopedic reference of molecular pharmacology (pp. 201-207). Berlin: Springer. [ISBN:9783540298328 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The alpha-2/delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels regulates calcium current density and activation/inactivation kinetics of the calcium channel. Plays an important role in excitation-contraction coupling (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CACNA2D1
Uniprot ID:
P54289
Molecular Weight:
124566.93 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Striessnig, J. (2004). Ca 2+ channel blockers. In Encyclopedic reference of molecular pharmacology (pp. 201-207). Berlin: Springer. [ISBN:9783540298328 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and inactivation, modulating G protein inhibition and controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting.
Gene Name:
CACNB2
Uniprot ID:
Q08289
Molecular Weight:
73579.925 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Striessnig, J. (2004). Ca 2+ channel blockers. In Encyclopedic reference of molecular pharmacology (pp. 201-207). Berlin: Springer. [ISBN:9783540298328 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
This protein is a subunit of the dihydropyridine (DHP) sensitive calcium channel. Plays a role in excitation-contraction coupling. The skeletal muscle DHP-sensitive Ca(2+) channel may function only as a multiple subunit complex.
Gene Name:
CACNG1
Uniprot ID:
Q06432
Molecular Weight:
25028.105 Da
References
  1. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  2. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity involved sa node cell action potential
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1D gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belon...
Gene Name:
CACNA1D
Uniprot ID:
Q01668
Molecular Weight:
245138.75 Da
References
  1. Sinnegger-Brauns MJ, Huber IG, Koschak A, Wild C, Obermair GJ, Einzinger U, Hoda JC, Sartori SB, Striessnig J: Expression and 1,4-dihydropyridine-binding properties of brain L-type calcium channel isoforms. Mol Pharmacol. 2009 Feb;75(2):407-14. doi: 10.1124/mol.108.049981. Epub 2008 Nov 24. [PubMed:19029287 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1S gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belon...
Gene Name:
CACNA1S
Uniprot ID:
Q13698
Molecular Weight:
212348.1 Da
References
  1. Peterson BZ, Catterall WA: Allosteric interactions required for high-affinity binding of dihydropyridine antagonists to Ca(V)1.1 Channels are modulated by calcium in the pore. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Aug;70(2):667-75. Epub 2006 May 4. [PubMed:16675661 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The alpha-2/delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels regulates calcium current density and activation/inactivation kinetics of the calcium channel. Acts as a regulatory subunit for P/Q-type calcium channel (CACNA1A), N-type (CACNA1B), L-type (CACNA1C OR CACNA1D) and possibly T-type (CACNA1G). Overexpression induces apoptosis.
Gene Name:
CACNA2D2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY47
Molecular Weight:
129816.095 Da
References
  1. Perez-Reyes E, Van Deusen AL, Vitko I: Molecular pharmacology of human Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels: block by antihypertensives, antiarrhythmics, and their analogs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009 Feb;328(2):621-7. doi: 10.1124/jpet.108.145672. Epub 2008 Oct 30. [PubMed:18974361 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1H gives rise to T-type calcium currents. T-type calcium channels belong to the "low-v...
Gene Name:
CACNA1H
Uniprot ID:
O95180
Molecular Weight:
259160.2 Da
References
  1. Perez-Reyes E, Van Deusen AL, Vitko I: Molecular pharmacology of human Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels: block by antihypertensives, antiarrhythmics, and their analogs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009 Feb;328(2):621-7. doi: 10.1124/jpet.108.145672. Epub 2008 Oct 30. [PubMed:18974361 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular Weight:
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular Weight:
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Polli JW, Wring SA, Humphreys JE, Huang L, Morgan JB, Webster LO, Serabjit-Singh CS: Rational use of in vitro P-glycoprotein assays in drug discovery. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Nov;299(2):620-8. [PubMed:11602674 ]
  2. Takara K, Sakaeda T, Tanigawara Y, Nishiguchi K, Ohmoto N, Horinouchi M, Komada F, Ohnishi N, Yokoyama T, Okumura K: Effects of 12 Ca2+ antagonists on multidrug resistance, MDR1-mediated transport and MDR1 mRNA expression. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2002 Aug;16(3):159-65. [PubMed:12128170 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23