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Identification
NameNorfloxacin
Accession NumberDB01059  (APRD00469)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionA synthetic fluoroquinolone (fluoroquinolones) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
1-Ethyl-6-fluor-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-chinolincarbonsaeure
1-Ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid
1,4-Dihydro-1-ethyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid
NFLX
Norfloxacine
Norfloxacino
Norfloxacinum
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ava-norfloxacintablet400 mgoralAvanstra Inc2011-11-232014-08-21Canada
Co Norfloxacintablet400 mgoralCobalt Pharmaceuticals Company2006-07-18Not applicableCanada
Norfloxacintablet400 mgoralPharmel IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Norfloxacintablet400 mgoralCobalt Pharmaceuticals CompanyNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Norfloxacine-400tablet400 mgoralPro Doc Limitee1999-08-232010-07-13Canada
Noroxintablet400 mgoralMerck Canada Inc1986-12-312005-06-18Canada
Noroxinsolution3 mgophthalmicMerck Canada Inc1990-12-312005-06-18Canada
Ntp-norfloxacintablet400 mgoralTeva Canada LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
PMS-norfloxacintablet400 mgoralPharmascience Inc2002-09-26Not applicableCanada
Riva-norfloxacintablet400 mgoralLaboratoire Riva Inc2000-01-312013-07-31Canada
Riva-norfloxacintablet400 mgoralLaboratoire Riva Inc2008-06-132013-07-31Canada
Teva-norfloxacintablet400 mgoralTeva Canada Limited1998-08-20Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-norflox - 400mgtablet400 mgoralApotex Inc1998-07-20Not applicableCanada
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
ChibroxinNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIN0F8P22L1P
CAS number70458-96-7
WeightAverage: 319.3308
Monoisotopic: 319.133219662
Chemical FormulaC16H18FN3O3
InChI KeyInChIKey=OGJPXUAPXNRGGI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C16H18FN3O3/c1-2-19-9-11(16(22)23)15(21)10-7-12(17)14(8-13(10)19)20-5-3-18-4-6-20/h7-9,18H,2-6H2,1H3,(H,22,23)
IUPAC Name
1-ethyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-7-(piperazin-1-yl)-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid
SMILES
CCN1C=C(C(O)=O)C(=O)C2=CC(F)=C(C=C12)N1CCNCC1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as quinoline carboxylic acids. These are quinolines in which the quinoline ring system is substituted by a carboxyl group at one or more positions.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassQuinolines and derivatives
Sub ClassQuinoline carboxylic acids
Direct ParentQuinoline carboxylic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Quinoline-3-carboxylic acid
  • N-arylpiperazine
  • Fluoroquinolone
  • Dihydroquinolone
  • Aminoquinoline
  • Dihydroquinoline
  • Pyridine carboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Pyridine carboxylic acid
  • Dialkylarylamine
  • Fluorobenzene
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyridine
  • Piperazine
  • 1,4-diazinane
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl fluoride
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Tertiary amine
  • Azacycle
  • Secondary amine
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organofluoride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of urinary tract infection
PharmacodynamicsNorfloxacin is a quinolone/fluoroquinolone antibiotic. Norfloxacin is bactericidal and its mode of action depends on blocking of bacterial DNA replication by binding itself to an enzyme called DNA gyrase, which allows the untwisting required to replicate one DNA double helix into two. Notably the drug has 100 times higher affinity for bacterial DNA gyrase than for mammalian.
Mechanism of actionThe bactericidal action of Norfloxacin results from inhibition of the enzymes topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV, which are required for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination. Norfloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterias. The fluorine atom at the 6 position increases potency against gram-negative organisms, and the piperazine moiety at the 7 position is responsible for anti-pseudomonal activity
Related Articles
AbsorptionRapid
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding10 and 15% (Serum protein binding)
Metabolism

Via liver and kidney

Route of eliminationNorfloxacin is eliminated through metabolism, biliary excretion, and renal excretion. Renal excretion occurs by both glomerular filtration and tubular secretion as evidenced by the high rate of renal clearance (approximately 275 mL/min).
Half life3-4 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9916
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9824
Caco-2 permeable-0.8683
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8554
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.849
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8657
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7588
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8301
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7558
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9268
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9148
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8988
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5702
Ames testAMES toxic0.9108
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7923
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity1.8785 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.7034
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.5292
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral400 mg
Solutionophthalmic3 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Noroxin 400 mg tablet4.21USD tablet
Apo-Norflox 400 mg Tablet1.44USD tablet
Co Norfloxacin 400 mg Tablet1.28USD tablet
Novo-Norfloxacin 400 mg Tablet1.28USD tablet
Pms-Norfloxacin 400 mg Tablet1.28USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point227-228 °CPhysProp
water solubility1.78E+005 mg/LNot Available
logP-1.03HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.01 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.47ALOGPS
logP-0.92ChemAxon
logS-2.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)5.77ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.68ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area72.88 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity85.48 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability32.26 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

DrugSyn.org

US4146719
General References
  1. Goldstein EJ: Norfloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent. Classification, mechanism of action, and in vitro activity. Am J Med. 1987 Jun 26;82(6B):3-17. [PubMed:3111257 ]
External Links
ATC CodesS01AE02J01RA13J01MA06
AHFS Codes
  • 08:12.18
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (599 KB)
MSDSDownload (42.5 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcetyldigitoxinAcetyldigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Norfloxacin.
AmiodaroneNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Amiodarone.
AnagrelideNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Anagrelide.
Arsenic trioxideNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Arsenic trioxide.
ArtemetherNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Artemether.
ArtesunateThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Artesunate can be reduced when Artesunate is used in combination with Norfloxacin resulting in a loss in efficacy.
AsenapineNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Asenapine.
AzithromycinNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Azithromycin.
BedaquilineNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Bedaquiline.
BevacizumabBevacizumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Norfloxacin.
CabazitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cabazitaxel is combined with Norfloxacin.
CaffeineThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Norfloxacin.
CeritinibNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ceritinib.
ChloroquineNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Chloroquine.
ChlorpromazineNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Chlorpromazine.
CiprofloxacinNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ciprofloxacin.
CisaprideNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Cisapride.
CitalopramNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Citalopram.
ClarithromycinNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Clarithromycin.
ClozapineNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Clozapine.
CrizotinibNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Crizotinib.
CyclophosphamideCyclophosphamide may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Norfloxacin.
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Cyclosporine can be decreased when combined with Norfloxacin.
DeslanosideDeslanoside may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Norfloxacin.
DigitoxinDigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Norfloxacin.
DigoxinDigoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Norfloxacin.
DisopyramideNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Disopyramide.
DocetaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Docetaxel is combined with Norfloxacin.
DofetilideNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dofetilide.
DolasetronNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dolasetron.
DomperidoneNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Domperidone.
DronedaroneNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dronedarone.
DroperidolNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Droperidol.
EliglustatNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Eliglustat.
ErythromycinNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Erythromycin.
EscitalopramNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Escitalopram.
FlecainideNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Flecainide.
FluoxetineNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Fluoxetine.
FlupentixolNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Flupentixol.
Gadobenic acidNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Gadobenic acid.
GemifloxacinNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Gemifloxacin.
GoserelinNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Goserelin.
GranisetronNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Granisetron.
HaloperidolNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Haloperidol.
IbutilideNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ibutilide.
IloperidoneNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Iloperidone.
LenvatinibNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Lenvatinib.
LeuprolideNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Leuprolide.
LevofloxacinNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Levofloxacin.
LopinavirNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Lopinavir.
LumefantrineNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Lumefantrine.
MethadoneNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Methadone.
MifepristoneMifepristone may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Norfloxacin.
MoxifloxacinNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Moxifloxacin.
NilotinibNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Nilotinib.
NintedanibThe serum concentration of Nintedanib can be increased when it is combined with Norfloxacin.
NitrofurantoinThe therapeutic efficacy of Norfloxacin can be decreased when used in combination with Nitrofurantoin.
OfloxacinNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ofloxacin.
OndansetronNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ondansetron.
OuabainOuabain may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Norfloxacin.
PaclitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paclitaxel is combined with Norfloxacin.
PaliperidoneNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Paliperidone.
PanobinostatNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Panobinostat.
PazopanibNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Pazopanib.
PentamidineNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Pentamidine.
PerflutrenNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Perflutren.
Picosulfuric acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Picosulfuric acid can be decreased when used in combination with Norfloxacin.
PimozideNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Pimozide.
PrimaquineNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Primaquine.
ProcainamideNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Procainamide.
PromazineNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Promazine.
PropafenoneNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Propafenone.
QuetiapineNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quetiapine.
QuinidineNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
QuinineNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinine.
SaquinavirNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Saquinavir.
SotalolNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Sotalol.
SulfisoxazoleNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Sulfisoxazole.
TelavancinNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Telavancin.
TelithromycinNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Telithromycin.
TetrabenazineNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Tetrabenazine.
ThioridazineNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Thioridazine.
ToremifeneNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Toremifene.
TrastuzumabTrastuzumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Norfloxacin.
VandetanibNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Vandetanib.
VemurafenibNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Vemurafenib.
ZiprasidoneNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ziprasidone.
ZuclopenthixolNorfloxacin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Zuclopenthixol.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid high doses of caffeine.
  • Take on an empty stomach. Drink liberally.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Haemophilus influenzae (strain ATCC 51907 / DSM 11121 / KW20 / Rd)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Dna topoisomerase type ii (atp-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific Function:
DNA gyrase negatively supercoils closed circular double-stranded DNA in an ATP-dependent manner and also catalyzes the interconversion of other topological isomers of double-stranded DNA rings, including catenanes and knotted rings.
Gene Name:
gyrA
Uniprot ID:
P43700
Molecular Weight:
97817.145 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Hombrouck C, Capmau ML, Moreau N: Overexpression, purification and photoaffinity labeling with a 3H-analogue of norfloxacin, of the GyrA and GyrB subunits of the DNA gyrase. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 1999 May;45(3):347-52. [PubMed:10386791 ]
  4. Hooper DC: Quinolone mode of action--new aspects. Drugs. 1993;45 Suppl 3:8-14. [PubMed:7689456 ]
  5. Fukuda H, Hori S, Hiramatsu K: Antibacterial activity of gatifloxacin (AM-1155, CG5501, BMS-206584), a newly developed fluoroquinolone, against sequentially acquired quinolone-resistant mutants and the norA transformant of Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998 Aug;42(8):1917-22. [PubMed:9687384 ]
  6. Drlica K, Zhao X: DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1997 Sep;61(3):377-92. [PubMed:9293187 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Haemophilus influenzae (strain ATCC 51907 / DSM 11121 / KW20 / Rd)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Dna topoisomerase type ii (atp-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific Function:
Topoisomerase IV is essential for chromosome segregation. It relaxes supercoiled DNA. Performs the decatenation events required during the replication of a circular DNA molecule.
Gene Name:
parC
Uniprot ID:
P43702
Molecular Weight:
83366.24 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Rafii F, Park M, Novak JS: Alterations in DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV in resistant mutants of Clostridium perfringens found after in vitro treatment with fluoroquinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Feb;49(2):488-92. [PubMed:15673722 ]
  4. Vila J, Sanchez-Cespedes J, Sierra JM, Piqueras M, Nicolas E, Freixas J, Giralt E: Antibacterial evaluation of a collection of norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin derivatives against multiresistant bacteria. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2006 Jul;28(1):19-24. Epub 2006 Jun 14. [PubMed:16781123 ]
  5. Oyamada Y, Ito H, Fujimoto K, Asada R, Niga T, Okamoto R, Inoue M, Yamagishi J: Combination of known and unknown mechanisms confers high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones in Enterococcus faecium. J Med Microbiol. 2006 Jun;55(Pt 6):729-36. [PubMed:16687591 ]
  6. Drlica K, Zhao X: DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1997 Sep;61(3):377-92. [PubMed:9293187 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Ubiquitin binding
Specific Function:
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks. Essential during mitosis and meiosis for proper segregation of daughter chromosomes. May play a role in regulating the period length of ARNTL/BMAL1 transcriptional oscillation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TOP2A
Uniprot ID:
P11388
Molecular Weight:
174383.88 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular Weight:
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular Weight:
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular Weight:
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular Weight:
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3.
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular Weight:
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. [PubMed:10525100 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one molecule of endogenous dicarboxylic acid (glutarate, ketoglutarate, etc). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) (By similarity). Mediates the sodium-in...
Gene Name:
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID:
Q4U2R8
Molecular Weight:
61815.78 Da
References
  1. Jariyawat S, Sekine T, Takeda M, Apiwattanakul N, Kanai Y, Sophasan S, Endou H: The interaction and transport of beta-lactam antibiotics with the cloned rat renal organic anion transporter 1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Aug;290(2):672-7. [PubMed:10411577 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23