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Identification
NameSaquinavir
Accession NumberDB01232  (APRD00623)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

An HIV protease inhibitor which acts as an analog of an HIV protease cleavage site. It is a highly specific inhibitor of HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Saquinavir Mesylate
SQV
External Identifiers
  • RO 31-8959/000
  • SCH-52852
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Fortovase Rochecapsule200 mgoralHoffmann La Roche Limited1998-11-262007-03-06Canada
Invirasetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralGenentech, Inc.2004-12-17Not applicableUs
Invirasetablet500 mgoralHoffmann La Roche Limited2006-04-10Not applicableCanada
Invirasetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Invirasecapsule200 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-01Not applicableUs
Invirasecapsule200 mg/1oralGenentech, Inc.1995-12-06Not applicableUs
Invirase - Cap 200mgcapsule200 mgoralHoffmann La Roche Limited1996-12-31Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
FortovaseNot Available
ROCNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIL3JE09KZ2F
CAS number127779-20-8
WeightAverage: 670.8408
Monoisotopic: 670.38426874
Chemical FormulaC38H50N6O5
InChI KeyQWAXKHKRTORLEM-UGJKXSETSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C38H50N6O5/c1-38(2,3)43-37(49)32-20-26-14-7-8-15-27(26)22-44(32)23-33(45)30(19-24-11-5-4-6-12-24)41-36(48)31(21-34(39)46)42-35(47)29-18-17-25-13-9-10-16-28(25)40-29/h4-6,9-13,16-18,26-27,30-33,45H,7-8,14-15,19-23H2,1-3H3,(H2,39,46)(H,41,48)(H,42,47)(H,43,49)/t26-,27+,30-,31-,32-,33+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-N-[(2S,3R)-4-[(3S,4aS,8aS)-3-(tert-butyl-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl)-decahydroisoquinolin-2-yl]-3-hydroxy-1-phenylbutan-2-yl]-2-(quinolin-2-ylformamido)butanediimidic acid
SMILES
[H][C@@](O)(CN1C[C@@]2([H])CCCC[C@@]2([H])C[C@@]1([H])C(O)=NC(C)(C)C)[C@]([H])(CC1=CC=CC=C1)N=C(O)[C@]([H])(CC(O)=N)NC(=O)C1=NC2=CC=CC=C2C=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as n-acyl-alpha amino acids and derivatives. These are compounds containing an alpha amino acid (or a derivative thereof) which bears an acyl group at its terminal nitrogen atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentN-acyl-alpha amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Quinoline-2-carboxamide
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid amide
  • Phenylbutylamine
  • Quinoline
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • Pyridine carboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Piperidinecarboxylic acid
  • Piperidinecarboxamide
  • 2-piperidinecarboxamide
  • Aralkylamine
  • Fatty acyl
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyridine
  • Piperidine
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Fatty amide
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Primary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of HIV-1 with advanced immunodeficiency together with antiretroviral nucleoside analogues.
PharmacodynamicsSaquinavir is a protease inhibitor with activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1). Protease inhibitors block the part of HIV called protease. HIV-1 protease is an enzyme required for the proteolytic cleavage of the viral polyprotein precursors into the individual functional proteins found in infectious HIV-1. Saquinavir binds to the protease active site and inhibits the activity of the enzyme. This inhibition prevents cleavage of the viral polyproteins resulting in the formation of immature non-infectious viral particles. Protease inhibitors are almost always used in combination with at least two other anti-HIV drugs.
Mechanism of actionSaquinavir inhibits the HIV viral proteinase enzyme which prevents cleavage of the gag-pol polyprotein, resulting in noninfectious, immature viral particles.
Related Articles
AbsorptionAbsolute bioavailability averages 4%
Volume of distribution
  • 700 L
Protein binding98%
Metabolism

Hepatic

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Saquinavir
M2 di-hydroxylated metaboliteDetails
Route of eliminationIn vitro studies using human liver microsomes have shown that the metabolism of saquinavir is cytochrome P450 mediated with the specific isoenzyme, CYP3A4, responsible for more than 90% of the hepatic metabolism. Only 1% of saquinavir is excreted in the urine, so the impact of renal impairment on saquinavir elimination should be minimal.
Half lifeNot Available
Clearance
  • 1.14 L/h/kg [Healthy volunteers receiving IV doses of 6, 36, and 72 mg]
ToxicityProbably experience pain in the throat
Affected organisms
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.7774
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9949
Caco-2 permeable-0.8957
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.9048
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8563
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.5195
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8612
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8593
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8918
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7406
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8729
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7442
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8536
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7124
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.5219
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9053
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8489
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.865
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.6007 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9687
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8153
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsuleoral200 mg/1
Tabletoral500 mg
Tablet, film coatedoral500 mg/1
Capsuleoral200 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Invirase 500 mg tablet8.72USD tablet
Invirase 200 mg capsule3.87USD capsule
Fortovase 200 mg capsule1.46USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2030433 No1997-10-212010-11-21Canada
CA2224125 No2004-09-282016-06-04Canada
US5196438 No1993-11-192010-11-19Us
US6008228 Yes1995-12-062015-12-06Us
US6352717 Yes2000-05-162020-05-16Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point349.84 °CNot Available
water solubilityInsolubleNot Available
logP3.8Not Available
Caco2 permeability-6.26ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00765 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.96ALOGPS
logP2.58ChemAxon
logS-4.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)5.11ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.31ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count10ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area174.72 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count13ChemAxon
Refractivity198.65 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability74.25 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

DrugSyn.org

US5196438
General References
  1. Forestier F, de Renty P, Peytavin G, Dohin E, Farinotti R, Mandelbrot L: Maternal-fetal transfer of saquinavir studied in the ex vivo placental perfusion model. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Jul;185(1):178-81. [PubMed:11483925 ]
External Links
ATC CodesJ05AE01
AHFS Codes
  • 08:18.08.08
PDB Entries
FDA labelDownload (362 KB)
MSDSDownload (15.8 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbacavirThe serum concentration of Abacavir can be decreased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
AcetohexamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acetohexamide can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
ado-trastuzumab emtansineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of ado-trastuzumab emtansine can be increased when ado-trastuzumab emtansine is used in combination with Saquinavir.
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Afatinib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
AlfuzosinThe serum concentration of Alfuzosin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
AliskirenThe serum concentration of Aliskiren can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
AlmotriptanThe serum concentration of Almotriptan can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
AlogliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Alogliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
AlosetronThe serum concentration of Alosetron can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
AlprazolamThe serum concentration of Alprazolam can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
AmiodaroneSaquinavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Amiodarone.
AmitriptylineThe serum concentration of Amitriptyline can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
ApixabanThe serum concentration of Apixaban can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
AripiprazoleThe serum concentration of Aripiprazole can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
AstemizoleThe serum concentration of Astemizole can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
AtorvastatinThe serum concentration of Atorvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
AvanafilThe serum concentration of Avanafil can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
AxitinibThe serum concentration of Axitinib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
AzithromycinThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Azithromycin.
BarnidipineThe serum concentration of Barnidipine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
BatimastatThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Batimastat.
BedaquilineThe serum concentration of Bedaquiline can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
BendroflumethiazideThe serum concentration of Bendroflumethiazide can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
BepridilBepridil may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Saquinavir.
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be decreased when it is combined with Boceprevir.
BortezomibThe serum concentration of Bortezomib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
BosentanThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Bosutinib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
Brentuximab vedotinThe serum concentration of Brentuximab vedotin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
BrexpiprazoleThe serum concentration of Brexpiprazole can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
BrinzolamideThe serum concentration of Brinzolamide can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
BudesonideThe serum concentration of Budesonide can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
CabazitaxelThe serum concentration of Cabazitaxel can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
CabozantinibThe serum concentration of Cabozantinib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
CanagliflozinThe therapeutic efficacy of Canagliflozin can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be decreased when it is combined with Carbamazepine.
CarfilzomibThe serum concentration of Carfilzomib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
CarvedilolThe serum concentration of Carvedilol can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Ceritinib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
CetirizineThe serum concentration of Cetirizine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
ChlorotrianiseneThe serum concentration of Chlorotrianisene can be decreased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
ChlorpropamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorpropamide can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
CilostazolThe serum concentration of Cilostazol can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Cimetidine.
CiprofloxacinThe serum concentration of Ciprofloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
CisaprideThe serum concentration of Cisapride can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
CitalopramSaquinavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Citalopram.
ClarithromycinThe therapeutic efficacy of Clarithromycin can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
ClorazepateThe serum concentration of Clorazepate can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Colchicine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Conivaptan can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
CrizotinibThe serum concentration of Crizotinib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
CyclophosphamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Saquinavir is combined with Cyclophosphamide.
CyclosporineThe serum concentration of Cyclosporine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Dabigatran etexilate can be increased when Dabigatran etexilate is used in combination with Saquinavir.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DaclatasvirThe serum concentration of Daclatasvir can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
DapoxetineThe serum concentration of Dapoxetine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Darunavir can be decreased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Dasatinib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
DaunorubicinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
DelavirdineThe serum concentration of Delavirdine can be decreased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
DesloratadineThe serum concentration of Desloratadine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Dexamethasone can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
DiazepamThe serum concentration of Diazepam can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
DienogestThe serum concentration of Dienogest can be decreased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Digoxin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
DiltiazemThe serum concentration of Diltiazem can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
DipyridamoleThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Dipyridamole.
DocetaxelThe serum concentration of Docetaxel can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
DofetilideSaquinavir may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Dofetilide.
DomperidoneThe serum concentration of Domperidone can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
DronabinolThe serum concentration of Dronabinol can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
DronedaroneThe serum concentration of Dronedarone can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
DrospirenoneThe serum concentration of Drospirenone can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
DutasterideThe serum concentration of Dutasteride can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
EdoxabanThe serum concentration of Edoxaban can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
EfavirenzThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Saquinavir is combined with Efavirenz.
EletriptanThe serum concentration of Eletriptan can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
EliglustatThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Eliglustat.
EluxadolineThe serum concentration of Eluxadoline can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
EnfuvirtideThe serum concentration of Enfuvirtide can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
EplerenoneThe serum concentration of Eplerenone can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
ErlotinibThe serum concentration of Erlotinib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
ErythromycinThe serum concentration of Erythromycin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
EsomeprazoleThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Esomeprazole.
EstazolamThe serum concentration of Estazolam can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
EstradiolThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
EtizolamThe serum concentration of Etizolam can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
EtonogestrelThe serum concentration of Etonogestrel can be decreased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
EtoposideThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Etravirine can be decreased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
EverolimusThe serum concentration of Everolimus can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
FamotidineThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Famotidine.
FentanylThe serum concentration of Fentanyl can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
FesoterodineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Fesoterodine can be increased when Fesoterodine is used in combination with Saquinavir.
FexofenadineThe serum concentration of Fexofenadine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
FlecainideSaquinavir may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Flecainide.
FlibanserinThe serum concentration of Flibanserin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
FludrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Fludrocortisone can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
FlunisolideThe serum concentration of Flunisolide can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
FlurazepamThe serum concentration of Flurazepam can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
Fluticasone PropionateThe serum concentration of Fluticasone Propionate can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
FosamprenavirThe serum concentration of Fosamprenavir can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be decreased when it is combined with Fosphenytoin.
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Fusidic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
GarlicThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be decreased when it is combined with Garlic.
GliclazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Gliclazide can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
GlimepirideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glimepiride can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
GliquidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Gliquidone can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
GlyburideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glyburide can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
GoserelinGoserelin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Saquinavir.
GuanfacineThe serum concentration of Guanfacine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
HalofantrineThe serum concentration of Halofantrine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
HydrocodoneThe serum concentration of Hydrocodone can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
HydrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Hydrocortisone can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
IbrutinibThe serum concentration of Ibrutinib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
IdarubicinThe serum concentration of Idarubicin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Idelalisib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
IfosfamideThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Ifosfamide can be reduced when Ifosfamide is used in combination with Saquinavir resulting in a loss in efficacy.
ImatinibThe serum concentration of Imatinib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
ImidafenacinThe serum concentration of Imidafenacin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
IndinavirThe serum concentration of Indinavir can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
Insulin AspartThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
Insulin DetemirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
Insulin GlargineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glargine can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
Insulin GlulisineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
Insulin HumanThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
Insulin LisproThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Lispro can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
IrinotecanThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Irinotecan can be increased when Irinotecan is used in combination with Saquinavir.
IsavuconazoniumThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Isavuconazonium can be increased when Isavuconazonium is used in combination with Saquinavir.
IsoflurophateThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Isoflurophate.
ItraconazoleThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Itraconazole.
IvabradineThe serum concentration of Ivabradine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Ivacaftor can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
IvermectinThe serum concentration of Ivermectin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
IxabepiloneThe serum concentration of Ixabepilone can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
KetoconazoleThe serum concentration of Ketoconazole can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
LacosamideThe serum concentration of Lacosamide can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
LansoprazoleThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Lansoprazole.
LapatinibThe serum concentration of Lapatinib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
LedipasvirThe serum concentration of Ledipasvir can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
LercanidipineThe serum concentration of Lercanidipine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
LeuprolideLeuprolide may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Saquinavir.
LevobupivacaineThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
LevomilnacipranThe serum concentration of Levomilnacipran can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
LevonorgestrelThe serum concentration of Levonorgestrel can be decreased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
LidocaineSaquinavir may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Lidocaine.
LinagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
LomitapideThe serum concentration of Lomitapide can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
LoperamideThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
LopinavirSaquinavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Lopinavir.
LoratadineThe serum concentration of Loratadine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
LovastatinThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
LurasidoneThe serum concentration of Lurasidone can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
MacitentanThe serum concentration of MACITENTAN can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
MaravirocThe serum concentration of Maraviroc can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
Medroxyprogesterone AcetateThe serum concentration of Medroxyprogesterone Acetate can be decreased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
MefloquineThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Mefloquine.
MetforminThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
MethadoneMethadone may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Saquinavir.
MethotrexateThe serum concentration of Methotrexate can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
MethylprednisoloneThe serum concentration of Methylprednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
MidazolamThe serum concentration of Midazolam can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
MifepristoneMifepristone may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Saquinavir.
MirabegronThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Mirabegron.
MitomycinThe serum concentration of Mitomycin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.
MorphineThe serum concentration of Morphine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
NadololThe serum concentration of Nadolol can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
NaloxegolThe serum concentration of Naloxegol can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
NefazodoneThe serum concentration of Nefazodone can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
NelfinavirThe serum concentration of Nelfinavir can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
NevirapineThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be decreased when it is combined with Nevirapine.
NicardipineThe serum concentration of Nicardipine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
NilotinibThe serum concentration of Nilotinib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
NimodipineThe serum concentration of Nimodipine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
NintedanibThe serum concentration of Nintedanib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
NisoldipineThe serum concentration of Nisoldipine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
NizatidineThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Nizatidine.
NorethisteroneThe serum concentration of Norethindrone can be decreased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
NorgestimateThe serum concentration of Norgestimate can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
OctreotideOctreotide may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Saquinavir.
OlaparibThe serum concentration of Olaparib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
OmeprazoleThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Omeprazole.
OndansetronThe serum concentration of Ondansetron can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
OspemifeneThe serum concentration of Ospemifene can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
OxybutyninThe serum concentration of Oxybutynin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Saquinavir is combined with Oxycodone.
PaclitaxelThe serum concentration of Paclitaxel can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Palbociclib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
PaliperidoneThe serum concentration of Paliperidone can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
PanobinostatThe serum concentration of Panobinostat can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
PantoprazoleThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Pantoprazole.
ParecoxibThe serum concentration of Parecoxib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
ParicalcitolThe serum concentration of Paricalcitol can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
PazopanibThe serum concentration of Pazopanib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Saquinavir is combined with Pethidine.
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
PimecrolimusThe metabolism of Pimecrolimus can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.
PimozideThe serum concentration of Pimozide can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
PonatinibThe serum concentration of Ponatinib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
PranlukastThe serum concentration of Pranlukast can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
PrasugrelThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Prasugrel can be reduced when Prasugrel is used in combination with Saquinavir resulting in a loss in efficacy.
PravastatinThe serum concentration of Pravastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
PrednisoloneThe serum concentration of Prednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
PrednisoneThe serum concentration of Prednisone can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
PrimidoneThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be decreased when it is combined with Primidone.
ProgesteroneThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Progesterone.
PropafenoneSaquinavir may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Propafenone.
PropranololThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Propranolol.
PrucaloprideThe serum concentration of Prucalopride can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
QuinidineSaquinavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
QuinineThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
RabeprazoleThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Rabeprazole.
RamelteonThe serum concentration of Ramelteon can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
RanitidineThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Ranitidine.
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Ranolazine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
RegorafenibThe serum concentration of Regorafenib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
RepaglinideThe serum concentration of Repaglinide can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
ReserpineThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Reserpine.
RetapamulinThe serum concentration of Retapamulin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
RifabutinThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Rifabutin can be increased when Rifabutin is used in combination with Saquinavir.
RifampicinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rifampicin is combined with Saquinavir.
RifaximinThe serum concentration of Rifaximin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
RilpivirineThe serum concentration of Rilpivirine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
RiociguatThe serum concentration of Riociguat can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
RisperidoneThe serum concentration of Risperidone can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
RivaroxabanThe serum concentration of Rivaroxaban can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
RolapitantThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Rolapitant.
RomidepsinThe serum concentration of Romidepsin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
RosuvastatinThe serum concentration of Rosuvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
RuxolitinibThe serum concentration of Ruxolitinib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
SalmeterolThe serum concentration of Salmeterol can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
SaxagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Saxagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
SildenafilThe serum concentration of Sildenafil can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
SilodosinThe serum concentration of Silodosin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Simeprevir can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
SimvastatinThe serum concentration of Simvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
SirolimusThe serum concentration of Sirolimus can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
SitagliptinThe serum concentration of Sitagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
SofosbuvirThe serum concentration of Sofosbuvir can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
SonidegibThe serum concentration of Sonidegib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
SorafenibThe serum concentration of Sorafenib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
St. John's WortThe metabolism of Saquinavir can be increased when combined with St. John's Wort.
SulfisoxazoleThe serum concentration of Sulfisoxazole can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
SunitinibThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Sunitinib.
SuvorexantThe serum concentration of Suvorexant can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
TacrolimusThe metabolism of Tacrolimus can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.
TadalafilThe serum concentration of Tadalafil can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
TamoxifenThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Tamoxifen.
TamsulosinThe serum concentration of Tamsulosin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
TasimelteonThe serum concentration of Tasimelteon can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Telaprevir can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
TemsirolimusThe serum concentration of Temsirolimus can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
TeniposideThe serum concentration of Teniposide can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
TerfenadineThe serum concentration of Terfenadine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
TicagrelorThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Ticagrelor can be reduced when Ticagrelor is used in combination with Saquinavir resulting in a loss in efficacy.
TipranavirThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be decreased when it is combined with Tipranavir.
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.
TofacitinibThe serum concentration of Tofacitinib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
TolbutamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolbutamide can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
TolterodineThe serum concentration of Tolterodine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
TolvaptanThe serum concentration of Tolvaptan can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
TopotecanThe serum concentration of Topotecan can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
ToremifeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Saquinavir is combined with Toremifene.
TrabectedinThe serum concentration of Trabectedin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
TramadolThe serum concentration of Tramadol can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
TrazodoneSaquinavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Trazodone.
TriazolamThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
UlipristalThe serum concentration of Ulipristal can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
Valproic AcidThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
VandetanibThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Vandetanib.
VardenafilThe serum concentration of Vardenafil can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Vemurafenib can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
VerapamilThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
VilazodoneThe serum concentration of Vilazodone can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
VildagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Vildagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
VinblastineThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
VincristineThe serum concentration of Vincristine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
VindesineThe serum concentration of Vindesine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
VorapaxarThe serum concentration of Vorapaxar can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
WarfarinThe serum concentration of Warfarin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
ZidovudineThe serum concentration of Zidovudine can be decreased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
ZopicloneThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
Food Interactions
  • Take after a full meal.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human immunodeficiency virus 1
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Aspartic-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
pol
Uniprot ID:
Q72874
Molecular Weight:
10778.7 Da
References
  1. Wittayanarakul K, Hannongbua S, Feig M: Accurate prediction of protonation state as a prerequisite for reliable MM-PB(GB)SA binding free energy calculations of HIV-1 protease inhibitors. J Comput Chem. 2008 Apr 15;29(5):673-85. [PubMed:17849388 ]
  2. Dandache S, Sevigny G, Yelle J, Stranix BR, Parkin N, Schapiro JM, Wainberg MA, Wu JJ: In vitro antiviral activity and cross-resistance profile of PL-100, a novel protease inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Nov;51(11):4036-43. Epub 2007 Jul 16. [PubMed:17638694 ]
  3. Dandache S, Coburn CA, Oliveira M, Allison TJ, Holloway MK, Wu JJ, Stranix BR, Panchal C, Wainberg MA, Vacca JP: PL-100, a novel HIV-1 protease inhibitor displaying a high genetic barrier to resistance: an in vitro selection study. J Med Virol. 2008 Dec;80(12):2053-63. doi: 10.1002/jmv.21329. [PubMed:19040279 ]
  4. Rhee SY, Taylor J, Fessel WJ, Kaufman D, Towner W, Troia P, Ruane P, Hellinger J, Shirvani V, Zolopa A, Shafer RW: HIV-1 protease mutations and protease inhibitor cross-resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 Oct;54(10):4253-61. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00574-10. Epub 2010 Jul 26. [PubMed:20660676 ]
  5. Alcaro S, Artese A, Ceccherini-Silberstein F, Ortuso F, Perno CF, Sing T, Svicher V: Molecular dynamics and free energy studies on the wild-type and mutated HIV-1 protease complexed with four approved drugs: mechanism of binding and drug resistance. J Chem Inf Model. 2009 Jul;49(7):1751-61. doi: 10.1021/ci900012k. [PubMed:19537723 ]
  6. Vella S, Lazzarin A, Carosi G, Sinicco A, Armignacco O, Angarano G, Andreoni M, Tambussi G, Chiodera A, Floridia M, Scaccabarozzi S, Facey K, Duncan I, Boudes P, Bragman K: A randomized controlled trial of a protease inhibitor (saquinavir) in combination with zidovudine in previously untreated patients with advanced HIV infection. Antivir Ther. 1996 Aug;1(3):129-40. [PubMed:11322246 ]
  7. Hoetelmans RM, Meenhorst PL, Mulder JW, Burger DM, Koks CH, Beijnen JH: Clinical pharmacology of HIV protease inhibitors: focus on saquinavir, indinavir, and ritonavir. Pharm World Sci. 1997 Aug;19(4):159-75. [PubMed:9297727 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  3. Ekins S, Bravi G, Wikel JH, Wrighton SA: Three-dimensional-quantitative structure activity relationship analysis of cytochrome P-450 3A4 substrates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):424-33. [PubMed:10490933 ]
  4. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular Weight:
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular Weight:
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, nad(p)h as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the side-chain cleavage reaction of cholesterol to pregnenolone.
Gene Name:
CYP11A1
Uniprot ID:
P05108
Molecular Weight:
60101.87 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Functions as transport protein in the blood stream. Binds various ligands in the interior of its beta-barrel domain. Also binds synthetic drugs and influences their distribution and availability in the body. Appears to function in modulating the activity of the immune system during the acute-phase reaction.
Gene Name:
ORM1
Uniprot ID:
P02763
Molecular Weight:
23511.38 Da
References
  1. Holladay JW, Dewey MJ, Michniak BB, Wiltshire H, Halberg DL, Weigl P, Liang Z, Halifax K, Lindup WE, Back DJ: Elevated alpha-1-acid glycoprotein reduces the volume of distribution and systemic clearance of saquinavir. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001 Mar;29(3):299-303. [PubMed:11181499 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Molecular Weight:
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Holladay JW, Dewey MJ, Michniak BB, Wiltshire H, Halberg DL, Weigl P, Liang Z, Halifax K, Lindup WE, Back DJ: Elevated alpha-1-acid glycoprotein reduces the volume of distribution and systemic clearance of saquinavir. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001 Mar;29(3):299-303. [PubMed:11181499 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitorinducer
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Perloff MD, von Moltke LL, Fahey JM, Daily JP, Greenblatt DJ: Induction of P-glycoprotein expression by HIV protease inhibitors in cell culture. AIDS. 2000 Jun 16;14(9):1287-9. [PubMed:10894301 ]
  2. Choo EF, Leake B, Wandel C, Imamura H, Wood AJ, Wilkinson GR, Kim RB: Pharmacological inhibition of P-glycoprotein transport enhances the distribution of HIV-1 protease inhibitors into brain and testes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Jun;28(6):655-60. [PubMed:10820137 ]
  3. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. [PubMed:12699389 ]
  4. Kim AE, Dintaman JM, Waddell DS, Silverman JA: Saquinavir, an HIV protease inhibitor, is transported by P-glycoprotein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Sep;286(3):1439-45. [PubMed:9732409 ]
  5. Huisman MT, Smit JW, Wiltshire HR, Hoetelmans RM, Beijnen JH, Schinkel AH: P-glycoprotein limits oral availability, brain, and fetal penetration of saquinavir even with high doses of ritonavir. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Apr;59(4):806-13. [PubMed:11259625 ]
  6. Troutman MD, Thakker DR: Novel experimental parameters to quantify the modulation of absorptive and secretory transport of compounds by P-glycoprotein in cell culture models of intestinal epithelium. Pharm Res. 2003 Aug;20(8):1210-24. [PubMed:12948019 ]
  7. Eagling VA, Profit L, Back DJ: Inhibition of the CYP3A4-mediated metabolism and P-glycoprotein-mediated transport of the HIV-1 protease inhibitor saquinavir by grapefruit juice components. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1999 Oct;48(4):543-52. [PubMed:10583025 ]
  8. Collett A, Tanianis-Hughes J, Hallifax D, Warhurst G: Predicting P-glycoprotein effects on oral absorption: correlation of transport in Caco-2 with drug pharmacokinetics in wild-type and mdr1a(-/-) mice in vivo. Pharm Res. 2004 May;21(5):819-26. [PubMed:15180340 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine...
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular Weight:
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Zhang L, Gorset W, Washington CB, Blaschke TF, Kroetz DL, Giacomini KM: Interactions of HIV protease inhibitors with a human organic cation transporter in a mammalian expression system. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Mar;28(3):329-34. [PubMed:10681378 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibited by the grapefruit juice component naringin.
Gene Name:
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID:
P46721
Molecular Weight:
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Cvetkovic M, Leake B, Fromm MF, Wilkinson GR, Kim RB: OATP and P-glycoprotein transporters mediate the cellular uptake and excretion of fexofenadine. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Aug;27(8):866-71. [PubMed:10421612 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both from mitochondria to cytosol and from cytosol to extracellular space, and cellular export of hemin, and heme. Xenobiotic transporter that may play an important role in the exclusion of xenobiotics from t...
Gene Name:
ABCG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNQ0
Molecular Weight:
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Gupta A, Zhang Y, Unadkat JD, Mao Q: HIV protease inhibitors are inhibitors but not substrates of the human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Jul;310(1):334-41. Epub 2004 Mar 8. [PubMed:15007102 ]
  2. Janneh O, Owen A, Chandler B, Hartkoorn RC, Hart CA, Bray PG, Ward SA, Back DJ, Khoo SH: Modulation of the intracellular accumulation of saquinavir in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by inhibitors of MRP1, MRP2, P-gp and BCRP. AIDS. 2005 Dec 2;19(18):2097-102. [PubMed:16284458 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2, leukotriene C3, leukotriene E4, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Involved in the clearance of bile acids and organic anions from the liver.
Gene Name:
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6L6
Molecular Weight:
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Tirona RG, Leake BF, Wolkoff AW, Kim RB: Human organic anion transporting polypeptide-C (SLC21A6) is a major determinant of rifampin-mediated pregnane X receptor activation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Jan;304(1):223-8. [PubMed:12490595 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotrexate, antiviral drugs and other xenobiotics. Confers resistance to anticancer drugs. Hydrolyzes ATP with low efficiency.
Gene Name:
ABCC1
Uniprot ID:
P33527
Molecular Weight:
171589.5 Da
References
  1. Williams GC, Liu A, Knipp G, Sinko PJ: Direct evidence that saquinavir is transported by multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) and canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (MRP2). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002 Nov;46(11):3456-62. [PubMed:12384350 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name:
ABCC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92887
Molecular Weight:
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Williams GC, Liu A, Knipp G, Sinko PJ: Direct evidence that saquinavir is transported by multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) and canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (MRP2). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002 Nov;46(11):3456-62. [PubMed:12384350 ]
  2. Huisman MT, Smit JW, Crommentuyn KM, Zelcer N, Wiltshire HR, Beijnen JH, Schinkel AH: Multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) transports HIV protease inhibitors, and transport can be enhanced by other drugs. AIDS. 2002 Nov 22;16(17):2295-301. [PubMed:12441801 ]
  3. Zelcer N, Huisman MT, Reid G, Wielinga P, Breedveld P, Kuil A, Knipscheer P, Schellens JH, Schinkel AH, Borst P: Evidence for two interacting ligand binding sites in human multidrug resistance protein 2 (ATP binding cassette C2). J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 27;278(26):23538-44. Epub 2003 Apr 17. [PubMed:12702717 ]
  4. Honda Y, Ushigome F, Koyabu N, Morimoto S, Shoyama Y, Uchiumi T, Kuwano M, Ohtani H, Sawada Y: Effects of grapefruit juice and orange juice components on P-glycoprotein- and MRP2-mediated drug efflux. Br J Pharmacol. 2004 Dec;143(7):856-64. Epub 2004 Oct 25. [PubMed:15504753 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on May 24, 2016 03:10