You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NameSaquinavir
Accession NumberDB01232  (APRD00623)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved, investigational
Description

An HIV protease inhibitor which acts as an analog of an HIV protease cleavage site. It is a highly specific inhibitor of HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
Saquinavir MesylateNot AvailableNot Available
SQVNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
FortovaseNot Available
InviraseNot Available
ROCNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number127779-20-8
WeightAverage: 670.8408
Monoisotopic: 670.38426874
Chemical FormulaC38H50N6O5
InChI KeyQWAXKHKRTORLEM-LINFGICFSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C38H50N6O5/c1-38(2,3)43-37(49)32-20-26-14-7-8-15-27(26)22-44(32)23-33(45)30(19-24-11-5-4-6-12-24)41-36(48)31(21-34(39)46)42-35(47)29-18-17-25-13-9-10-16-28(25)40-29/h4-6,9-13,16-18,26-27,30-33,45H,7-8,14-15,19-23H2,1-3H3,(H2,39,46)(H,41,48)(H,42,47)(H,43,49)/t26?,27?,30-,31-,32-,33+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-N-[(2S,3R)-4-[(3S)-3-(tert-butylcarbamoyl)-decahydroisoquinolin-2-yl]-3-hydroxy-1-phenylbutan-2-yl]-2-(quinolin-2-ylformamido)butanediamide
SMILES
CC(C)(C)NC(=O)[C@@H]1CC2CCCCC2CN1C[C@@H](O)[C@H](CC1=CC=CC=C1)NC(=O)[C@H](CC(N)=O)NC(=O)C1=NC2=CC=CC=C2C=C1
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassOrganic Acids and Derivatives
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
SubclassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct parentN-acyl-alpha Amino Acids and Derivatives
Alternative parentsQuinoline Carboxamides; Alpha Amino Acid Amides; Amphetamines and Derivatives; Piperidinecarboxylic Acids; Pyridinecarboxylic Acids and Derivatives; Primary Carboxylic Acid Amides; Tertiary Amines; Secondary Alcohols; Secondary Carboxylic Acid Amides; Enolates; Carboxylic Acids; Polyamines
Substituentsamphetamine or derivative; quinoline; pyridine carboxylic acid or derivative; piperidinecarboxylic acid; pyridine; benzene; piperidine; secondary alcohol; secondary carboxylic acid amide; carboxamide group; tertiary amine; primary carboxylic acid amide; enolate; polyamine; carboxylic acid; amine; alcohol; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the n-acyl-alpha amino acids and derivatives. These are compounds containing an alpha amino acid (or a derivative thereof) which bears an acyl group at his terminal nitrogen atom.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of HIV-1 with advanced immunodeficiency together with antiretroviral nucleoside analogues.
PharmacodynamicsSaquinavir is a protease inhibitor with activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1). Protease inhibitors block the part of HIV called protease. HIV-1 protease is an enzyme required for the proteolytic cleavage of the viral polyprotein precursors into the individual functional proteins found in infectious HIV-1. Saquinavir binds to the protease active site and inhibits the activity of the enzyme. This inhibition prevents cleavage of the viral polyproteins resulting in the formation of immature non-infectious viral particles. Protease inhibitors are almost always used in combination with at least two other anti-HIV drugs.
Mechanism of actionSaquinavir inhibits the HIV viral proteinase enzyme which prevents cleavage of the gag-pol polyprotein, resulting in noninfectious, immature viral particles.
AbsorptionAbsolute bioavailability averages 4%
Volume of distribution
  • 700 L
Protein binding98%
Metabolism

Hepatic

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Saquinavir
M2 di-hydroxylated metaboliteDetails
Route of eliminationIn vitro studies using human liver microsomes have shown that the metabolism of saquinavir is cytochrome P450 mediated with the specific isoenzyme, CYP3A4, responsible for more than 90% of the hepatic metabolism. Only 1% of saquinavir is excreted in the urine, so the impact of renal impairment on saquinavir elimination should be minimal.
Half lifeNot Available
Clearance
  • 1.14 L/h/kg [Healthy volunteers receiving IV doses of 6, 36, and 72 mg]
ToxicityProbably experience pain in the throat
Affected organisms
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.7774
Blood Brain Barrier - 0.9949
Caco-2 permeable - 0.8957
P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.9048
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Inhibitor 0.8563
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Inhibitor 0.5195
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.8612
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8593
CYP450 2D6 substrate Substrate 0.8918
CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.7406
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8729
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.7442
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8536
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.7124
CYP450 3A4 substrate Inhibitor 0.5219
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.9053
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.8489
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.865
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 1.0
Rat acute toxicity 2.6007 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9687
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Inhibitor 0.8153
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Hoffmann la roche inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral
TabletOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Invirase 500 mg tablet8.72USDtablet
Invirase 200 mg capsule3.87USDcapsule
Fortovase 200 mg capsule1.46USDcapsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
United States63527171999-11-162019-11-16
United States51964381993-11-192010-11-19
Canada22241252004-09-282016-06-04
Canada20304331997-10-212010-11-21
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point349.84 °CNot Available
water solubilityInsolubleNot Available
logP3.8Not Available
Caco2 permeability-6.26ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility2.47e-03 g/lALOGPS
logP4.04ALOGPS
logP3.16ChemAxon
logS-5.4ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)13.61ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)8.47ChemAxon
physiological charge1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count7ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count5ChemAxon
polar surface area166.75ChemAxon
rotatable bond count13ChemAxon
refractivity186.67ChemAxon
polarizability73.83ChemAxon
number of rings5ChemAxon
bioavailability0ChemAxon
rule of fiveNoChemAxon
Ghose filterNoChemAxon
Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

DrugSyn.org

US5196438
General Reference
  1. Forestier F, de Renty P, Peytavin G, Dohin E, Farinotti R, Mandelbrot L: Maternal-fetal transfer of saquinavir studied in the ex vivo placental perfusion model. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Jul;185(1):178-81. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD00429
PubChem Compound60787
PubChem Substance46508726
ChemSpider54783
BindingDB50114967
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000171
PharmGKBPA451305
Drug Product Database2239083
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/saquin.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cdi/saquinavir.html
WikipediaSaquinavir
ATC CodesJ05AE01
AHFS Codes
  • 08:18.08.08
PDB Entries
FDA labelshow(362 KB)
MSDSshow(15.8 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbacavirThe serum concentration of Abacavir may be decreased by protease inhibitors such as Saquinavir. The antiviral response should be closely monitored.
AbirateroneStrong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase levels of abiraterone. Monitor concomitant therapy closely.
AlprazolamThe protease inhibitor, saquinavir, may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, alprazolam.
AmiodaroneThe protease inhibitor, saquinavir, may increase the effect and toxicity of amiodarone.
ArtemetherAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
AsenapineIncreased incidence of adverse effects due to pharmacodynamic synergism. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
AstemizoleIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
AtorvastatinSaquinavir may increase the serum concentration of atorvastatin by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of atorvastatin if saquinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
BromazepamSaquinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of bromazepam by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of bromazepam if saquinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. Dosage adjustments may be required.
CabazitaxelConcomitant therapy with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor may increase concentrations of cabazitaxel. Avoid concomitant therapy.
ChlordiazepoxideThe protease inhibitor, saquinavir, may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide.
CisaprideIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
ClonazepamThe protease inhibitor, saquinavir, may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, clonazepam.
ClorazepateThe protease inhibitor, saquinavir, may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, clorazepate.
CyclosporineThe protease inhibitor, saquinavir, may increase the effect of cyclosporine.
DantroleneSaquinavir may increase the serum concentration of dantrolene by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of dantrolene if saquinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
DarunavirDecreased levels of darunavir
DelavirdineIncreases the effect of saquinavir and hepatic toxicity
DiazepamThe protease inhibitor, saquinavir, may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, diazepam.
DihydroergotamineThe protease inhibitor, saquinavir, may increase the effect and toxicity of the ergot derivative, dihydroergotamine.
EfavirenzEfavirenz decreases the effect of saquinavir
EplerenoneThis CYP3A4 inhibitor increases the effect and toxicity of eplerenone
ErgotamineThe protease inhibitor, saquinavir, may increase the effect and toxicity of the ergot derivative, ergotamine.
ErlotinibThis CYP3A4 inhibitor increases levels/toxicity of erlotinib
EstazolamThe protease inhibitor, saquinavir, may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, estazolam.
EtravirineEtravirine, when used concomitantly with protease inhibitors, may experience a decrease in serum concentration. Protease inhibitors, when used concomitantly with etravirine, may experience an increase in serum concentration. Ritonavir boosting of etravirine therapy is a requirement to concurrent therapy. In addition, it is recommended to monitor serum concentrations of the antiretrovirals, as well as to monitor antiretroviral therapy for efficacy.
FentanylThe protease inhibitor, saquinavir, may increase the effect and toxicity of fentanyl.
FlurazepamThe protease inhibitor, saquinavir, may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, flurazepam.
Fusidic AcidThe protease inhibitor, saquinavir, may increase the effect and toxicity of fusidic acid.
IndinavirPossible antagonism of action
KetoconazoleKetoconazole may increase the effect and toxicity of saquinavir.
LovastatinSaquinavir may increase the effect and toxicity of lovastatin. Concomitant therapy is contraindicated.
MidazolamThe protease inhibitor, saquinavir, may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, midazolam.
NevirapineDecreases the effect of saquinavir
PazopanibAffects CYP3A4 metabolism therefore will decrease levels or effect of pazopanib. Consider alternate therapy.
PimozideThe protease inhibitor, saquinavir, may increase the effect and toxicity of pimozide.
PonatinibStrong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase levels of ponatinib. Monitor concomitant therapy closely.
RanolazineIncreased levels of ranolazine - risk of toxicity
RifabutinRifabutin decreases the effect of saquinavir
RifampicinRifampin decreases the effect of saquinavir
TacrolimusThe protease inhibitor, Saquinavir, may increase the blood concentration of Tacrolimus. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/toxic effects of Tacrolimus if Saquinavir therapy is initiated, discontinued or altered.
TadalafilSaquinavir may reduce the metabolism of Tadalafil. Concomitant therapy should be avoided if possible due to high risk of Tadalafil toxicity.
TamoxifenSaquinavir may increase the serum concentration of Tamoxifen by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for increased adverse/toxic effects of Tamoxifen.
TamsulosinSaquinavir, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tamsulosin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamsulosin if Saquinavir is initiated, discontinued, or dose changed.
TelavancinAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
TelithromycinSaquinavir may increase the plasma concentration of Telithromycin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor therapeutic/adverse effects.
TemsirolimusSaquinavir may inhibit the metabolism and clearance of Temsirolimus. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
TeniposideThe strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, Saquinavir, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Teniposide, a CYP3A4 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Teniposide if Saquinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TerfenadineIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
TiagabineThe strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, Saquinavir, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tiagabine, a CYP3A4 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Tiagabine if Saquinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TipranavirTipranavir, co-administered with Ritonavir, may decrease the plasma concentration of Saquinavir. Consider alternate therapy.
TolterodineSaquinavir may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tolterodine. Adjust Tolterodine dose and monitor for efficacy and toxicity.
TolvaptanSaquinavir is a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4 and will increase serum concentrations of tolvaptan.
TopotecanThe p-glycoprotein inhibitor, Saquinavir, may increase the bioavailability of oral Topotecan. A clinically significant effect is also expected with IV Topotecan. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
TramadolSaquinavir may increase Tramadol toxicity by decreasing Tramadol metabolism and clearance.
TrazodoneThe protease inhibitor, Saquinavir, may increase the efficacy/toxicity of Trazodone by inhibiting Trazodone metabolism and clearance. Monitor for changes in Trazodone efficacy/toxicity if Saquinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TriazolamThe protease inhibitor, saquinavir, may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, triazolam.
TrimipramineThe strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, Saquinavir, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Trimipramine, a CYP3A4 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in therapeutic and adverse effects of Trimipramine if Saquinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
VardenafilSaquinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may reduce the metabolism and clearance of Vardenafil. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of Vardenafil.
VemurafenibStrong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase levels of vemurafenib. Monitor concomitant therapy closely.
VenlafaxineSaquinavir, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Venlafaxine, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Venlafaxine if Saquinavir is initiated, discontinued, or dose changed.
VerapamilSaquinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Veramapil, a CYP3A4 substrate, by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Saquinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
VinblastineSaquinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism of Vinblastine. Consider alternate therapy to avoid Vinblastine toxicity. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Vinblastine if Saquinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
VincristineSaquinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Vincristine by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy to avoid Vincristine toxicity. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of Vincristine if Saquinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
VinorelbineSaquinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Vinorelbine by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy to avoid Vinorelbine toxicity. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of Vinorelbine if Saquinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
VoriconazoleVoriconazole may increase the serum concentration of saquinavir by decreasing its metabolism. Saquinavir may increase the serum concentration of voriconazole. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of both agents if concomitant therapy is initiated, discontinued or if doses are changed.
ZolpidemSaquinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if saquinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
ZonisamideSaquinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zonisamide by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zonisamide if saquinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
ZopicloneSaquinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zopiclone by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zopiclone if saquinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
Food Interactions
  • Take after a full meal.

Targets

1. Protease

Kind: protein

Organism: Human immunodeficiency virus 1

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
HIV-1 Protease Q72874 Details

References:

  1. Wittayanarakul K, Hannongbua S, Feig M: Accurate prediction of protonation state as a prerequisite for reliable MM-PBSA binding free energy calculations of HIV-1 protease inhibitors. J Comput Chem. 2007 Sep 11;. Pubmed
  2. Dandache S, Sevigny G, Yelle J, Stranix BR, Parkin N, Schapiro JM, Wainberg MA, Wu JJ: In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Cross-Resistance Profile of PL-100, a Next Generation Protease Inhibitor of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Jul 16;. Pubmed
  3. Dandache S, Coburn CA, Oliveira M, Allison TJ, Holloway MK, Wu JJ, Stranix BR, Panchal C, Wainberg MA, Vacca JP: PL-100, a novel HIV-1 protease inhibitor displaying a high genetic barrier to resistance: an in vitro selection study. J Med Virol. 2008 Dec;80(12):2053-63. Pubmed
  4. Rhee SY, Taylor J, Fessel WJ, Kaufman D, Towner W, Troia P, Ruane P, Hellinger J, Shirvani V, Zolopa A, Shafer RW: HIV-1 protease mutations and protease inhibitor cross-resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 Oct;54(10):4253-61. Epub 2010 Jul 26. Pubmed
  5. Alcaro S, Artese A, Ceccherini-Silberstein F, Ortuso F, Perno CF, Sing T, Svicher V: Molecular dynamics and free energy studies on the wild-type and mutated HIV-1 protease complexed with four approved drugs: mechanism of binding and drug resistance. J Chem Inf Model. 2009 Jul;49(7):1751-61. Pubmed
  6. Vella S, Lazzarin A, Carosi G, Sinicco A, Armignacco O, Angarano G, Andreoni M, Tambussi G, Chiodera A, Floridia M, Scaccabarozzi S, Facey K, Duncan I, Boudes P, Bragman K: A randomized controlled trial of a protease inhibitor (saquinavir) in combination with zidovudine in previously untreated patients with advanced HIV infection. Antivir Ther. 1996 Aug;1(3):129-40. Pubmed
  7. Hoetelmans RM, Meenhorst PL, Mulder JW, Burger DM, Koks CH, Beijnen JH: Clinical pharmacology of HIV protease inhibitors: focus on saquinavir, indinavir, and ritonavir. Pharm World Sci. 1997 Aug;19(4):159-75. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 3A7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A7 P24462 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.

2. Cytochrome P450 3A5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A5 P20815 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

3. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
  2. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  4. Ekins S, Bravi G, Wikel JH, Wrighton SA: Three-dimensional-quantitative structure activity relationship analysis of cytochrome P-450 3A4 substrates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):424-33. Pubmed

4. Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial P05108 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

5. Cytochrome P450 2C19

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

6. Cytochrome P450 2C8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C8 P10632 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

7. Cytochrome P450 2C9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

8. Cytochrome P450 2D6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Carriers

1. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1 P02763 Details

References:

  1. Holladay JW, Dewey MJ, Michniak BB, Wiltshire H, Halberg DL, Weigl P, Liang Z, Halifax K, Lindup WE, Back DJ: Elevated alpha-1-acid glycoprotein reduces the volume of distribution and systemic clearance of saquinavir. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001 Mar;29(3):299-303. Pubmed

2. Serum albumin

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serum albumin P02768 Details

References:

  1. Holladay JW, Dewey MJ, Michniak BB, Wiltshire H, Halberg DL, Weigl P, Liang Z, Halifax K, Lindup WE, Back DJ: Elevated alpha-1-acid glycoprotein reduces the volume of distribution and systemic clearance of saquinavir. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001 Mar;29(3):299-303. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Multidrug resistance protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

References:

  1. Perloff MD, von Moltke LL, Fahey JM, Daily JP, Greenblatt DJ: Induction of P-glycoprotein expression by HIV protease inhibitors in cell culture. AIDS. 2000 Jun 16;14(9):1287-9. Pubmed
  2. Choo EF, Leake B, Wandel C, Imamura H, Wood AJ, Wilkinson GR, Kim RB: Pharmacological inhibition of P-glycoprotein transport enhances the distribution of HIV-1 protease inhibitors into brain and testes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Jun;28(6):655-60. Pubmed
  3. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. Pubmed
  4. Kim AE, Dintaman JM, Waddell DS, Silverman JA: Saquinavir, an HIV protease inhibitor, is transported by P-glycoprotein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Sep;286(3):1439-45. Pubmed
  5. Huisman MT, Smit JW, Wiltshire HR, Hoetelmans RM, Beijnen JH, Schinkel AH: P-glycoprotein limits oral availability, brain, and fetal penetration of saquinavir even with high doses of ritonavir. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Apr;59(4):806-13. Pubmed
  6. Troutman MD, Thakker DR: Novel experimental parameters to quantify the modulation of absorptive and secretory transport of compounds by P-glycoprotein in cell culture models of intestinal epithelium. Pharm Res. 2003 Aug;20(8):1210-24. Pubmed
  7. Eagling VA, Profit L, Back DJ: Inhibition of the CYP3A4-mediated metabolism and P-glycoprotein-mediated transport of the HIV-1 protease inhibitor saquinavir by grapefruit juice components. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1999 Oct;48(4):543-52. Pubmed
  8. Collett A, Tanianis-Hughes J, Hallifax D, Warhurst G: Predicting P-glycoprotein effects on oral absorption: correlation of transport in Caco-2 with drug pharmacokinetics in wild-type and mdr1a(-/-) mice in vivo. Pharm Res. 2004 May;21(5):819-26. Pubmed

2. Solute carrier family 22 member 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 1 O15245 Details

References:

  1. Zhang L, Gorset W, Washington CB, Blaschke TF, Kroetz DL, Giacomini KM: Interactions of HIV protease inhibitors with a human organic cation transporter in a mammalian expression system. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Mar;28(3):329-34. Pubmed

3. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2 P46721 Details

References:

  1. Cvetkovic M, Leake B, Fromm MF, Wilkinson GR, Kim RB: OATP and P-glycoprotein transporters mediate the cellular uptake and excretion of fexofenadine. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Aug;27(8):866-71. Pubmed

4. ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 Q9UNQ0 Details

References:

  1. Gupta A, Zhang Y, Unadkat JD, Mao Q: HIV protease inhibitors are inhibitors but not substrates of the human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Jul;310(1):334-41. Epub 2004 Mar 8. Pubmed
  2. Janneh O, Owen A, Chandler B, Hartkoorn RC, Hart CA, Bray PG, Ward SA, Back DJ, Khoo SH: Modulation of the intracellular accumulation of saquinavir in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by inhibitors of MRP1, MRP2, P-gp and BCRP. AIDS. 2005 Dec 2;19(18):2097-102. Pubmed

5. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 Q9Y6L6 Details

References:

  1. Tirona RG, Leake BF, Wolkoff AW, Kim RB: Human organic anion transporting polypeptide-C (SLC21A6) is a major determinant of rifampin-mediated pregnane X receptor activation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Jan;304(1):223-8. Pubmed

6. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 P33527 Details

References:

  1. Williams GC, Liu A, Knipp G, Sinko PJ: Direct evidence that saquinavir is transported by multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) and canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (MRP2). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002 Nov;46(11):3456-62. Pubmed

7. Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1 Q92887 Details

References:

  1. Williams GC, Liu A, Knipp G, Sinko PJ: Direct evidence that saquinavir is transported by multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) and canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (MRP2). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002 Nov;46(11):3456-62. Pubmed
  2. Huisman MT, Smit JW, Crommentuyn KM, Zelcer N, Wiltshire HR, Beijnen JH, Schinkel AH: Multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) transports HIV protease inhibitors, and transport can be enhanced by other drugs. AIDS. 2002 Nov 22;16(17):2295-301. Pubmed
  3. Zelcer N, Huisman MT, Reid G, Wielinga P, Breedveld P, Kuil A, Knipscheer P, Schellens JH, Schinkel AH, Borst P: Evidence for two interacting ligand binding sites in human multidrug resistance protein 2 (ATP binding cassette C2). J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 27;278(26):23538-44. Epub 2003 Apr 17. Pubmed
  4. Honda Y, Ushigome F, Koyabu N, Morimoto S, Shoyama Y, Uchiumi T, Kuwano M, Ohtani H, Sawada Y: Effects of grapefruit juice and orange juice components on P-glycoprotein- and MRP2-mediated drug efflux. Br J Pharmacol. 2004 Dec;143(7):856-64. Epub 2004 Oct 25. Pubmed

Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 08, 2013 14:25