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Identification
NameMetoclopramide
Accession NumberDB01233  (APRD00665)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

A dopamine D2 antagonist that is used as an antiemetic. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
2-Methoxy-4-amino-5-chloro-N,N-(dimethylaminoethyl)benzamideNot AvailableNot Available
2-methoxy-5-chloroprocainamideNot AvailableNot Available
4-amino-5-chloro-2-Methoxy-N-(beta-diethylaminoethyl)benzamideNot AvailableNot Available
4-amino-5-chloro-N-(2-(Diethylamino)ethyl)-2-methoxybenzamideNot AvailableNot Available
4-amino-5-chloro-N-(2-(Diethylamino)ethyl)-O-anisamideNot AvailableNot Available
ElietenNot AvailableNot Available
MetoclopramidaSpanishINN
MetoclopramidumLatinINN
ReliveranNot AvailableNot Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Reglantablet10 mgoralUCB, Inc.2003-05-05Not AvailableUs
Reglantablet5 mgoralUCB, Inc.2003-06-19Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramideinjection, solution5 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2010-12-09Not AvailableUs
Reglantablet10 mgoralSTAT Rx USA LLC2010-01-15Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramideinjection, solution5 mg/2mLintramuscular; intravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc.2010-05-01Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramideinjection, solution10 mg/2mLintramuscular; intravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-08-01Not AvailableUs
Reglaninjection, solution5 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-08-01Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramideinjection, solution5 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousCardinal Health2010-12-09Not AvailableUs
Reglaninjection, solution5 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2010-12-09Not AvailableUs
Reglantablet5 mgoralANI Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-07-05Not AvailableUs
Reglantablet10 mgoralANI Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-07-05Not AvailableUs
Metoniatablet5 mgoralPendopharm Division Of De Pharmascience IncNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada
Metoniatablet10 mgoralPendopharm Division Of De Pharmascience IncNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada
Metoniasolution1 mgoralPendopharm Division Of De Pharmascience IncNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc1990-09-30Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet5 mgoralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc1993-07-01Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidesolution5 mg/5mLoralPharmaceutical Associates, Inc.1991-06-01Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidesolution5 mg/5mLoralPharmaceutical Associates, Inc.1991-06-01Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralActavis Elizabeth LLC1985-10-17Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramideinjection, solution5 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousHospira, Inc.1991-01-17Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralLiberty Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1990-09-30Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramide Hydrochloridetablet5 mgoralWatson Laboratories, Inc.2011-08-22Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramide Hydrochloridetablet10 mgoralWatson Laboratories, Inc.2011-08-22Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet5 mgoralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2006-08-28Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2006-08-28Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs1985-10-17Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet5 mgoralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2011-11-18Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs1985-10-17Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramideinjection, solution5 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.1991-12-01Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramideinjection, solution5 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.1991-12-01Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet5 mgoralSTAT Rx USA LLC2006-08-28Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralSTAT Rx USA LLC2006-08-28Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramide Hydrochloridetablet5 mgoralNorthstar Rx LLC2011-03-17Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramide Hydrochloridetablet10 mgoralNorthstar Rx LLC2011-03-17Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralRebel Distributors Corp.2006-01-01Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet5 mgoralRebel Distributors Corp.2008-01-01Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramideinjection5 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousHeritage Pharmaceuticals Inc.2014-01-03Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-19Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC1990-09-30Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramide Hydrochloridetablet, orally disintegrating10 mgoralNovel Laboratories, Inc.2014-08-15Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramide Hydrochloridetablet, orally disintegrating5 mgoralNovel Laboratories, Inc.2014-08-15Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramide Hydrochloridetablet5 mgoralRebel Distributors Corp2011-08-22Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramide Hydrochloridetablet10 mgoralRebel Distributors Corp2011-08-22Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet5 mgoralAv Kare, Inc.2014-09-30Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralAv Kare, Inc.2014-09-30Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramide Hydrochloridetablet10 mgoralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2011-08-22Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramide Hydrochloridetablet5 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-09-21Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramide Hydrochloridetablet10 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-05-16Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralPar Pharmaceutical Inc.1985-10-17Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC1990-09-30Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralA S Medication Solutions Llc1990-09-30Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidesolution5 mg/5mLoralUnit Dose Services1991-06-01Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet5 mgoralUnit Dose Services1993-07-01Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralUDL Laboratories, Inc.2011-08-23Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet5 mgoralUDL Laboratories, Inc.2011-08-23Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet5 mgoralMylan Institutional Inc.2013-12-30Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralMylan Institutional Inc.2014-01-02Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-14Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-14Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-23Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-07-01Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramide Hydrochloridetablet10 mgoralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2013-01-01Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet5 mgoralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralA S Medication Solutions Llc1990-09-30Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-05-01Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet5 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-03-27Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramideinjection, solution5 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousCardinal Health2009-09-22Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralCardinal Health2014-01-02Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet5 mgoralCardinal Health2013-12-30Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet5 mgoralCardinal Health1993-07-01Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralCardinal Health2011-08-23Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet5 mgoralCardinal Health2011-08-23Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramide Hydrochloridetablet10 mgoralCardinal Health1985-10-17Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramide Hydrochloridetablet10 mgoralCardinal Health2011-03-17Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramide Hydrochloridetablet5 mgoralCardinal Health2011-03-17Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralCardinal Health2013-07-23Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet5 mgoralCardinal Health2010-10-19Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidesolution5 mg/5mLoralCardinal Health1991-06-01Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidesolution5 mg/5mLoralMorton Grove Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1997-10-31Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramide Hydrochloridetablet5 mgoralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidesolution5 mg/5mLoralANIP Acquisition Company2011-03-10Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralProficient Rx LP1990-09-30Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet5 mgoralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc.2009-03-13Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc.2009-03-13Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralbryant ranch prepack2009-03-13Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramide Hydrochloridetablet5 mgoralbryant ranch prepack2008-12-23Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramide Hydrochloridetablet5 mgoralMc Kesson Packaging Services A Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2011-03-17Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramide Hydrochloridetablet10 mgoralMc Kesson Packaging Services A Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2011-03-17Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramide Hydrochloridesolution5 mg/5mLoralVista Pharm Inc.2010-02-12Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralAmerican Health Packaging2013-07-23Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralAmerican Health Packaging2005-06-23Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidesolution10 mg/10mLoralPrecision Dose Inc.2007-11-26Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2013-04-01Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc2009-03-13Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramide Hydrochloridetablet10 mgoralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2013-02-06Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramideinjection, solution10 mg/2mLintravenousBD Rx Inc.2013-05-03Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet5 mgoralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2011-10-04Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2011-09-30Not AvailableUs
Metoclopramidetablet10 mgoralMc Kesson Contract Packager2013-03-14Not AvailableUs
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
CerucalNot Available
DeganNot Available
ElietenNot Available
MaxeranNot Available
MaxolonNot Available
METOZOLVNot Available
Plasil1Not Available
PlazilinNot Available
PraminNot Available
PrimperanNot Available
PulinNot Available
PylomidNot Available
ReliveranNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Metoclopramide Hydrochloride
Thumb
  • InChI Key: KJBLQGHJOCAOJP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 353.127297095
  • Average Mass: 354.273
DBSALT000393
Categories
CAS number364-62-5
WeightAverage: 299.796
Monoisotopic: 299.14005467
Chemical FormulaC14H22ClN3O2
InChI KeyTTWJBBZEZQICBI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C14H22ClN3O2/c1-4-18(5-2)7-6-17-14(19)10-8-11(15)12(16)9-13(10)20-3/h8-9H,4-7,16H2,1-3H3,(H,17,19)
IUPAC Name
4-amino-5-chloro-N-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]-2-methoxybenzamide
SMILES
CCN(CC)CCNC(=O)C1=CC(Cl)=C(N)C=C1OC
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aminobenzoic acids and derivatives. These are benzoic acids (or derivative thereof) containing an amine group attached to the benzene moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzoic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentAminobenzoic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 3-halobenzoic acid or derivatives
  • Salicylamide
  • Aminobenzoic acid or derivatives
  • Methoxyaniline
  • Benzamide
  • Aminobenzamide
  • Methoxybenzene
  • Substituted aniline
  • Phenol ether
  • Benzoyl
  • Anisole
  • Halobenzene
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Aniline
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Primary aromatic amine
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It is also used in treating nausea and vomiting, and to increase gastric emptying.
PharmacodynamicsMetoclopramide, although chemically related to procainamide, does not possess local anesthetic or antiarrhythmic properties. Metoclopramide is used to enhance GI motility, to treat diabetic gastroparesis, as an antinauseant, and to facilitate intubation of the small bowel during radiologic examination. Metoclopramide may be used to treat chemotherapy-induced emesis and as a radiosensitizing agents in the treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma and glioblastomas in the future.
Mechanism of actionMetoclopramide inhibits gastric smooth muscle relaxation produced by dopamine, therefore increasing cholinergic response of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle. It accelerates intestinal transit and gastric emptying by preventing relaxation of gastric body and increasing the phasic activity of antrum. Simultaneously, this action is accompanied by relaxation of the upper small intestine, resulting in an improved coordination between the body and antrum of the stomach and the upper small intestine. Metoclopramide also decreases reflux into the esophagus by increasing the resting pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter and improves acid clearance from the esophagus by increasing amplitude of esophageal peristaltic contractions. Metoclopramide's dopamine antagonist action raises the threshold of activity in the chemoreceptor trigger zone and decreases the input from afferent visceral nerves. Studies have also shown that high doses of metoclopramide can antagonize 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors in the peripheral nervous system in animals.
AbsorptionRapidly and well absorbed (oral bioavailability 80±15.5%).
Volume of distribution
  • 4.4±0.65 L/kg
Protein binding30%
Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of eliminationApproximately 85% of the radioactivity of an orally administered dose appears in the urine within 72 hours.
Half life5-6 hr
Clearance
  • 0.67 +/- 0.14 L/hr/kg [infants (0.9-5.4 months) with gastroesophageal reflux (GER)]
ToxicityOral, mouse LD50: 280 mg/kg. Signs of overdose include drowsiness, disorientation, and extrapyramidal reactions.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.979
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9713
Caco-2 permeable+0.8866
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7687
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8782
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8783
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7276
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8602
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8918
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6375
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 substrateInhibitor0.8931
CYP450 2C19 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9099
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6223
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5378
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6142
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.6332 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8367
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8579
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injectionintramuscular; intravenous5 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular; intravenous10 mg/2mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular; intravenous5 mg/2mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular; intravenous5 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintravenous10 mg/2mL
Solutionoral1 mg
Solutionoral10 mg/10mL
Solutionoral5 mg/5mL
Tabletoral10 mg
Tabletoral5 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingoral10 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingoral5 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Metoclopramide hcl powder7.65USD g
Reglan 10 mg tablet1.81USD tablet
Reglan 5 mg tablet1.41USD tablet
Metoclopramide Hydrochloride 5 mg/ml1.39USD ml
Reglan 5 mg/ml vial0.56USD ml
Metoclopramide HCl 5 mg tablet0.43USD tablet
Metoclopramide 5 mg tablet0.33USD tablet
Metoclopramide 10 mg tablet0.28USD tablet
Metoclopramide 5 mg/ml ampul0.28USD ml
Metoclopramide HCl 10 mg tablet0.27USD tablet
Metoclopramide HCl 5 mg/5ml Solution0.06USD ml
Apo-Metoclop 10 mg Tablet0.06USD tablet
Apo-Metoclop 5 mg Tablet0.06USD tablet
Nu-Metoclopramide 10 mg Tablet0.06USD tablet
Nu-Metoclopramide 5 mg Tablet0.06USD tablet
Pms-Metoclopramide 10 mg Tablet0.06USD tablet
Pms-Metoclopramide 5 mg Tablet0.06USD tablet
Pms-Metoclopramide 1 mg/ml Liquid0.04USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
United States60249811998-04-092018-04-09
United States64135491997-07-112017-07-11
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point147.25 °CPhysProp
water solubility200 mg/L (at 25 °C)MERCK (1989)
logP2.62HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-3.18ADME Research, USCD
pKa9.27 (at 25 °C)EL TAYAR,N ET AL. (1985)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.31 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.18ALOGPS
logP1.4ChemAxon
logS-3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.49ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.04ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area67.59 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity83.52 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability32.7 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

DrugSyn.org

US3177252
General Reference
  1. JUSTIN-BESANCON L, LAVILLE C: [ANTIEMETIC ACTION OF METOCLOPRAMIDE WITH RESPECT TO APOMORPHINE AND HYDERGINE.] C R Seances Soc Biol Fil. 1964;158:723-7. Pubmed
  2. Tonini M, Candura SM, Messori E, Rizzi CA: Therapeutic potential of drugs with mixed 5-HT4 agonist/5-HT3 antagonist action in the control of emesis. Pharmacol Res. 1995 May;31(5):257-60. Pubmed
External Links
ATC CodesA03FA01
AHFS Codes
  • 56:32.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (90.1 KB)
MSDSDownload (73.2 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
CyclosporineMetoclopramide increases serum levels of cyclosporine
L-DOPALevodopa decreases the effect of metoclopramide
LurasidoneIncreases toxicity and risk of extrapyramidal effects of lurasidone by antidopaminergic effects. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
PaliperidoneMetoclopramide may increase the risk of extrapyramidal side effects of paliperidone. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
TacrolimusMetoclopramide may increase the concentration of Tacrolimus in the blood. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/toxic effects of Tacrolimus if Metoclopramide therapy is initiated, discontinued or altered.
TetrabenazineSimilar pharmacologic properties thus combination therapy will worsen the severity of sedative, parkinsonian, and extrapyramidal adverse effects.
VenlafaxinePossible serotoninergic syndrome with this combination
VilazodoneSeek alternatives to this combination when possible. Monitor patients receiving metoclopramide with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for signs of extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and serotonin syndrome.
ZuclopenthixolAdditive dopamine D2 receptor antagonism may cause dopaminergic imbalance in the nigrostriatal (dopamine D1 receptors) and striatopallidal (dopamine D2 receptors). Increased risk of extrapyramidal reactions and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
Food Interactions
  • Food reduces availability, take 30 minutes before meals. Avoid alcohol.

Targets

1. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 P11229 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Burger DM, Wiestner T, Hubler M, Binder H, Keiser M, Arnold S: Effect of anticholinergics (atropine, glycopyrrolate) and prokinetics (metoclopramide, cisapride) on gastric motility in beagles and labrador retrievers. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2006 Mar;53(2):97-107. Pubmed
  4. Hammer D: Gastroesophageal reflux and prokinetic agents. Neonatal Netw. 2005 Mar-Apr;24(2):51-8; quiz 59-62. Pubmed

2. D(2) dopamine receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
D(2) dopamine receptor P14416 Details

References:

  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  2. See RE, Lynch AM, Sorg BA: Subchronic administration of clozapine, but not haloperidol or metoclopramide, decreases dopamine D2 receptor messenger RNA levels in the nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen in rats. Neuroscience. 1996 May;72(1):99-104. Pubmed
  3. Harrold MW, Sriburi A, Matsumoto K, Miller DD, Farooqui T, Uretsky N: The interaction of ammonium, sulfonium, and sulfide analogues of metoclopramide with the dopamine D2 receptor. J Med Chem. 1993 Oct 15;36(21):3166-70. Pubmed
  4. Kishibayashi N, Karasawa A: Stimulating effects of KW-5092, a novel gastroprokinetic agent, on the gastric emptying, small intestinal propulsion and colonic propulsion in rats. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1995 Jan;67(1):45-50. Pubmed
  5. Chemnitius JM, Haselmeyer KH, Gonska BD, Kreuzer H, Zech R: Indirect parasympathomimetic activity of metoclopramide: reversible inhibition of cholinesterases from human central nervous system and blood. Pharmacol Res. 1996 Jul-Aug;34(1-2):65-72. Pubmed
  6. Dahlof CG, Hargreaves RJ: Pathophysiology and pharmacology of migraine. Is there a place for antiemetics in future treatment strategies? Cephalalgia. 1998 Nov;18(9):593-604. Pubmed
  7. Hammer D: Gastroesophageal reflux and prokinetic agents. Neonatal Netw. 2005 Mar-Apr;24(2):51-8; quiz 59-62. Pubmed

3. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 Q13639 Details

References:

  1. Guillemot J, Compagnon P, Cartier D, Thouennon E, Bastard C, Lihrmann I, Pichon P, Thuillez C, Plouin PF, Bertherat J, Anouar Y, Kuhn JM, Yon L, Lefebvre H: Metoclopramide stimulates catecholamine- and granin-derived peptide secretion from pheochromocytoma cells through activation of serotonin type 4 (5-HT4) receptors. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2009 Mar;16(1):281-90. Epub 2008 Oct 23. Pubmed

4. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A P46098 Details

References:

  1. Costall B, Gunning SJ, Naylor RJ, Tyers MB: The effect of GR38032F, novel 5-HT3-receptor antagonist on gastric emptying in the guinea-pig. Br J Pharmacol. 1987 Jun;91(2):263-4. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 2D6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrial P15538 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

3. Cytochrome P450 11B2, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 11B2, mitochondrial P19099 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

4. Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase P05093 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 08, 2013 14:24