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Identification
NameDocetaxel
Accession NumberDB01248  (APRD00932)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved, investigational
Description

Docetaxel is a clinically well established anti-mitotic chemotherapy medication used mainly for the treatment of breast, ovarian, and non-small cell lung cancer. Docetaxel binds to microtubules reversibly with high affinity and has a maximum stoichiometry of one mole docetaxel per mole tubulin in microtubules.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
Docetaxel anhydrousNot AvailableNot Available
TXLNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
DocefrezNot Available
TaxotereNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number114977-28-5
WeightAverage: 807.8792
Monoisotopic: 807.346605409
Chemical FormulaC43H53NO14
InChI KeyInChIKey=ZDZOTLJHXYCWBA-VCVYQWHSSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C43H53NO14/c1-22-26(55-37(51)32(48)30(24-15-11-9-12-16-24)44-38(52)58-39(3,4)5)20-43(53)35(56-36(50)25-17-13-10-14-18-25)33-41(8,34(49)31(47)29(22)40(43,6)7)27(46)19-28-42(33,21-54-28)57-23(2)45/h9-18,26-28,30-33,35,46-48,53H,19-21H2,1-8H3,(H,44,52)/t26-,27-,28+,30-,31+,32+,33-,35-,41+,42-,43+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,2S,3R,4S,7R,9S,10S,12R,15S)-4-(acetyloxy)-15-{[(2R,3S)-3-{[(tert-butoxy)carbonyl]amino}-2-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoyl]oxy}-1,9,12-trihydroxy-10,14,17,17-tetramethyl-11-oxo-6-oxatetracyclo[11.3.1.0^{3,10}.0^{4,7}]heptadec-13-en-2-yl benzoate
SMILES
[H][C@@]12C[C@H](O)[C@@]3(C)C(=O)[C@H](O)C4=C(C)[C@H](C[C@@](O)([C@@H](OC(=O)C5=CC=CC=C5)[C@]3([H])[C@@]1(CO2)OC(C)=O)C4(C)C)OC(=O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](NC(=O)OC(C)(C)C)C1=CC=CC=C1
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassLipids
ClassPrenol Lipids
SubclassDiterpenes
Direct parentTaxanes and 11(15->1)Abeotaxanes
Alternative parentsGermacrane Sesquiterpenes; Phenylpyruvic Acid Derivatives; Phenylpropylamines; Benzoic Acid Esters; Tricarboxylic Acids and Derivatives; Benzylethers; Benzoyl Derivatives; Cyclohexanols; Tertiary Alcohols; Ketones; Oxetanes; Polyols; Cyclic Alcohols and Derivatives; Carboxylic Acid Esters; Carbamic Acids and Derivatives; Enolates; Dialkyl Ethers; Polyamines; Aldehydes
Substituentsgermacrane sesquiterpene; phenylpyruvate; benzoate ester; phenylpropylamine; benzoic acid or derivative; tricarboxylic acid derivative; benzylether; benzoyl; cyclohexanol; benzene; tertiary alcohol; cyclic alcohol; carboxylic acid ester; polyol; carbamic acid derivative; oxetane; ketone; secondary alcohol; dialkyl ether; ether; enolate; carboxylic acid derivative; polyamine; carbonyl group; amine; alcohol; organonitrogen compound; aldehyde
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the taxanes and 11(15->1)abeotaxanes. These are diterpenes whose structure is based on the taxane or 11(15->1)abeaotaxane skeleton, which is characterized by a 6-8-6 tricyclic ring system.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer after failure of prior chemotherapy. Also used as a single agent in the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer after failure of prior platinum-based chemotherapy. It is also used in combination with prednisone, in the treatment of patients with androgen independent (hormone refractory) metastatic prostate cancer. Furthermore, docetaxel has uses in the treatment of gastric adenocarinoma and head and neck cancer.
PharmacodynamicsDocetaxel is a taxoid antineoplastic agent. It promotes the assembly of microtubules from tubulin dimers and stabilizes microtubules by preventing depolymerization. This stability results in the inhibition of the normal dynamic reorganization of the microtubule network that is essential for vital interphase and mitotic cellular functions. In addition, docetaxel induces abnormal arrays or "bundles" of microtubules throughout the cell cycle and multiple asters of microtubules during mitosis.
Mechanism of actionDocetaxel interferes with the normal function of microtubule growth. Whereas drugs like colchicine cause the depolymerization of microtubules in vivo, docetaxel arrests their function by having the opposite effect; it hyper-stabilizes their structure. This destroys the cell's ability to use its cytoskeleton in a flexible manner. Specifically, docetaxel binds to the β-subunit of tubulin. Tubulin is the "building block" of mictotubules, and the binding of docetaxel locks these building blocks in place. The resulting microtubule/docetaxel complex does not have the ability to disassemble. This adversely affects cell function because the shortening and lengthening of microtubules (termed dynamic instability) is necessary for their function as a transportation highway for the cell. Chromosomes, for example, rely upon this property of microtubules during mitosis. Further research has indicated that docetaxel induces programmed cell death (apoptosis) in cancer cells by binding to an apoptosis stopping protein called Bcl-2 (B-cell leukemia 2) and thus arresting its function.
AbsorptionThe pharmacokinetic profile is consistent with a three-compartment model. The area under the curve (AUC) was dose proportional following doses of 70 mg/m2 to 115 mg/m2 with infusion times of 1 to 2 hours.
Volume of distribution

The initial rapid decline represents distribution to the peripheral compartments and the late (terminal) phase is due, in part, to a relatively slow efflux of docetaxel from the peripheral compartment.

  • 113 L
Protein bindingIn vitro studies show that 94% protein bound, mainly to a1-acid glycoprotein, albumin, and lipoproteins. When measured in cancer patients, docetaxel is 97% bound to plasma protein. Dexamethasone does not affect the protein binding of docetaxel.
Metabolism

Hepatic. In vitro drug interaction studies revealed that docetaxel is metabolized by the CYP3A4 isoenzyme (1 major, 3 minor metabolites).

Route of eliminationDocetaxel was eliminated in both the urine and feces following oxidative metabolism of the tert-butyl ester group, but fecal excretion was the main elimination route. Within 7 days, urinary and fecal excretion accounted for approximately 6% and 75% of the administered radioactivity, respectively.
Half lifeDose-dependent. Doses of 70 mg per square meter of body surface area (mg/m 2 ) or higher produce a triphasic elimination profile. With lower doses, assay limitations precluded detection of the terminal elimination phase. The half-life of the alpha, beta, and gamma phase are 4 minutes, 36 minutes, and 11.1 hours, respectively.
Clearance
  • 21 L/h/m2 [Total body clearance, cancer patients after IV administration of 20–115 mg/m2]
ToxicityOral LD50 in rat is >2000 mg/kg. Anticipated complications of overdosage include: bone marrow suppression, peripheral neurotoxicity, and mucositis. In two reports of overdose, one patient received 150 mg/m2 and the other received 200 mg/m2 as 1-hour infusions. Both patients experienced severe neutropenia, mild asthenia, cutaneous reactions, and mild paresthesia, and recovered without incident.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Docetaxel Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00435
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug Reactions
Interacting Gene/EnzymeSNP RS IDAllele nameDefining changeAdverse ReactionReference(s)
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1
Gene symbol: ABCC2
UniProt: Q92887
rs12762549 Not AvailableG AlleleLeukopenia, neutropenia18294295
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9743
Blood Brain Barrier - 0.9659
Caco-2 permeable - 0.8252
P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.8259
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Inhibitor 0.644
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.5139
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.9393
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.816
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.8828
CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.7119
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8299
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8737
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8972
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8421
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.7324
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.8776
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.8382
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9133
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.9934
Rat acute toxicity 2.5741 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9907
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.7905
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
ConcentrateIntravenous20 mg/mL; 80 mg/4 mL; 160 mg/8 mL; 20 mg/0.5 mL; 80 mg/2 mL
SolutionIntravenous20 mg/2 mL; 80 mg/8 mL; 160 mg/16 mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Taxotere 20 mg/0.5 ml vial477.37USDvial
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
United States54380721994-05-222014-05-22
United States48144701993-05-142010-05-14
Canada21505762005-06-212013-11-26
Canada21490552003-01-072013-11-08
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point232 °CPhysProp
water solubilityInsoluble FDA label
logP2.4Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility1.27e-02 g/lALOGPS
logP2.59ALOGPS
logP2.92ChemAxon
logS-4.8ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)10.96ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)-3ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count10ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count5ChemAxon
polar surface area224.45ChemAxon
rotatable bond count13ChemAxon
refractivity203.9ChemAxon
polarizability82.06ChemAxon
number of rings6ChemAxon
bioavailability0ChemAxon
rule of fiveNoChemAxon
Ghose filterNoChemAxon
Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Nicholas J. Sisti, Charles S. Swindell, “Method for docetaxel synthesis.” U.S. Patent US5688977, issued September, 1991.

US5688977
General Reference
  1. FDA label
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD02165
KEGG CompoundC11231
PubChem Compound148124
PubChem Substance46506766
ChemSpider130581
ChEBI4672
ChEMBLCHEMBL92
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000590
PharmGKBPA449383
Drug Product Database2177080
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic3/docetaxel.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cdi/docetaxel.html
WikipediaDocetaxel
ATC CodesL01CD02
AHFS Codes
  • 10:00.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelshow(140 KB)
MSDSshow(100 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AprepitantAprepitant may change levels of the chemotherapy agent, docetaxel.
CarboplatinPlatinum derivatives such as carboplatin may enhance the myelosuppressive effect of taxane derivatives such as docetaxel. Administer taxane derivative before platinum derivative when given as sequential infusions to limit toxicity. Administering the taxane derivative before the platinum derivative seems prudent.
CisplatinPlatinum derivatives such as cisplatin may enhance the myelosuppressive effect of taxane derivatives such as docetaxel. Administer taxane derivative before platinum derivative when given as sequential infusions to limit toxicity. Administer paclitaxel before cisplatin, when given as sequential infusions, to limit toxicity. Problems associated with other taxane/platinum combinations are possible, although unsubstantiated. Administering the taxane derivative before the platinum derivative seems prudent.
ErythromycinErythromycin may increase the serum levels and toxicity of docetaxel.
JosamycinJosamycin may increase the serum levels and toxicity of docetaxel.
KetoconazoleKetoconazole may increase the serum levels and toxicity of docetaxel.
MidazolamMidazolam may increase the serum levels and toxicity of docetaxel.
OrphenadrineOrphenadrine may increase the serum levels and toxicity of docetaxel.
QuinupristinThis combination presents an increased risk of toxicity.
TelithromycinTelithromycin may reduce clearance of Docetaxel. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Docetaxel if Telithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TestosteroneTestosterone may increase the serum levels and toxicity of docetaxel.
Testosterone PropionateTestosterone propionate may increase the serum levels and toxicity of docetaxel.
TrastuzumabTrastuzumab may increase the risk of neutropenia and anemia. Monitor closely for signs and symptoms of adverse events.
ValrubicinThe taxane derivative, Docetaxel, may increase Valrubicin toxicity. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for toxic effects.
VoriconazoleVoriconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of docetaxel by decreasing its metabolism. Consider using a non-interacting antifungal or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of docetaxel if voriconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
Food InteractionsNot Available

1. Tubulin beta-1 chain

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Tubulin beta-1 chain Q9H4B7 Details

References:

  1. Gligorov J, Lotz JP: Preclinical pharmacology of the taxanes: implications of the differences. Oncologist. 2004;9 Suppl 2:3-8. Pubmed
  2. Matesanz R, Barasoain I, Yang CG, Wang L, Li X, de Ines C, Coderch C, Gago F, Barbero JJ, Andreu JM, Fang WS, Diaz JF: Optimization of taxane binding to microtubules: binding affinity dissection and incremental construction of a high-affinity analog of paclitaxel. Chem Biol. 2008 Jun;15(6):573-85. Pubmed
  3. Snyder JP, Nettles JH, Cornett B, Downing KH, Nogales E: The binding conformation of Taxol in beta-tubulin: a model based on electron crystallographic density. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Apr 24;98(9):5312-6. Epub 2001 Apr 17. Pubmed
  4. Belani CP, Eckardt J: Development of docetaxel in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2004 Dec;46 Suppl 2:S3-11. Pubmed

2. Apoptosis regulator Bcl-2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Apoptosis regulator Bcl-2 P10415 Details

References:

  1. Gligorov J, Lotz JP: Preclinical pharmacology of the taxanes: implications of the differences. Oncologist. 2004;9 Suppl 2:3-8. Pubmed
  2. Marshall J, Chen H, Yang D, Figueira M, Bouker KB, Ling Y, Lippman M, Frankel SR, Hayes DF: A phase I trial of a Bcl-2 antisense (G3139) and weekly docetaxel in patients with advanced breast cancer and other solid tumors. Ann Oncol. 2004 Aug;15(8):1274-83. Pubmed
  3. Inoue Y, Gika M, Abiko T, Oyama T, Saitoh Y, Yamazaki H, Nakamura M, Abe Y, Kawamura M, Kobayashi K: Bcl-2 overexpression enhances in vitro sensitivity against docetaxel in non-small cell lung cancer. Oncol Rep. 2005 Feb;13(2):259-64. Pubmed
  4. Petrylak DP: Chemotherapy for androgen-independent prostate cancer. World J Urol. 2005 Feb;23(1):10-3. Epub 2005 Feb 1. Pubmed
  5. Miyoshi Y, Uemura H, Kubota Y: [Treatment of androgen-independent hormone refractory prostate cancer using docetaxel] Nippon Rinsho. 2005 Feb;63(2):298-302. Pubmed
  6. Magi-Galluzzi C, Zhou M, Reuther AM, Dreicer R, Klein EA: Neoadjuvant docetaxel treatment for locally advanced prostate cancer: a clinicopathologic study. Cancer. 2007 Sep 15;110(6):1248-54. Pubmed

3. Microtubule-associated protein 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Microtubule-associated protein 2 P11137 Details

References:

  1. McGrogan BT, Gilmartin B, Carney DN, McCann A: Taxanes, microtubules and chemoresistant breast cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008 Apr;1785(2):96-132. Epub 2007 Nov 12. Pubmed

4. Microtubule-associated protein 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Microtubule-associated protein 4 P27816 Details

References:

  1. McGrogan BT, Gilmartin B, Carney DN, McCann A: Taxanes, microtubules and chemoresistant breast cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008 Apr;1785(2):96-132. Epub 2007 Nov 12. Pubmed

5. Microtubule-associated protein tau

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Microtubule-associated protein tau P10636 Details

References:

  1. McGrogan BT, Gilmartin B, Carney DN, McCann A: Taxanes, microtubules and chemoresistant breast cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008 Apr;1785(2):96-132. Epub 2007 Nov 12. Pubmed

1. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 3A5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A5 P20815 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.

3. Cytochrome P450 3A7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A7 P24462 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.

4. Cytochrome P450 1B1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1B1 Q16678 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

1. Multidrug resistance protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

References:

  1. Wils P, Phung-Ba V, Warnery A, Lechardeur D, Raeissi S, Hidalgo IJ, Scherman D: Polarized transport of docetaxel and vinblastine mediated by P-glycoprotein in human intestinal epithelial cell monolayers. Biochem Pharmacol. 1994 Oct 7;48(7):1528-30. Pubmed
  2. Shirakawa K, Takara K, Tanigawara Y, Aoyama N, Kasuga M, Komada F, Sakaeda T, Okumura K: Interaction of docetaxel (“Taxotere”) with human P-glycoprotein. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1999 Dec;90(12):1380-6. Pubmed

2. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 7 Q5T3U5 Details

References:

  1. Hopper-Borge E, Xu X, Shen T, Shi Z, Chen ZS, Kruh GD: Human multidrug resistance protein 7 (ABCC10) is a resistance factor for nucleoside analogues and epothilone B. Cancer Res. 2009 Jan 1;69(1):178-84. Pubmed

3. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3 Q9NPD5 Details

References:

  1. Baker SD, Verweij J, Cusatis GA, van Schaik RH, Marsh S, Orwick SJ, Franke RM, Hu S, Schuetz EG, Lamba V, Messersmith WA, Wolff AC, Carducci MA, Sparreboom A: Pharmacogenetic pathway analysis of docetaxel elimination. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Feb;85(2):155-63. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2008.95. Epub 2008 May 28. Pubmed

4. Solute carrier family 22 member 7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 7 Q9Y694 Details

References:

  1. Kobayashi Y, Ohshiro N, Sakai R, Ohbayashi M, Kohyama N, Yamamoto T: Transport mechanism and substrate specificity of human organic anion transporter 2 (hOat2 [SLC22A7]). J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 May;57(5):573-8. Pubmed

5. ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 Q9UNQ0 Details

References:

  1. Fellner S, Bauer B, Miller DS, Schaffrik M, Fankhanel M, Spruss T, Bernhardt G, Graeff C, Farber L, Gschaidmeier H, Buschauer A, Fricker G: Transport of paclitaxel (Taxol) across the blood-brain barrier in vitro and in vivo. J Clin Invest. 2002 Nov;110(9):1309-18. Pubmed

6. Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1 Q92887 Details

References:

  1. Fellner S, Bauer B, Miller DS, Schaffrik M, Fankhanel M, Spruss T, Bernhardt G, Graeff C, Farber L, Gschaidmeier H, Buschauer A, Fricker G: Transport of paclitaxel (Taxol) across the blood-brain barrier in vitro and in vivo. J Clin Invest. 2002 Nov;110(9):1309-18. Pubmed

7. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 P33527 Details

References:

  1. Fellner S, Bauer B, Miller DS, Schaffrik M, Fankhanel M, Spruss T, Bernhardt G, Graeff C, Farber L, Gschaidmeier H, Buschauer A, Fricker G: Transport of paclitaxel (Taxol) across the blood-brain barrier in vitro and in vivo. J Clin Invest. 2002 Nov;110(9):1309-18. Pubmed

Comments
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:13