You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NamePramlintide
Accession NumberDB01278
TypeBiotech
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

Pramlintide is a relatively new adjunct treatment for diabetes (both type 1 and 2), developed by Amylin Pharmaceuticals. It is derived from amylin, a hormone that is released into the bloodstream, in a similar pattern as insulin, after a meal. Like insulin, amylin is deficient in individuals with diabetes.

Protein structureNo structure small
Related Articles
Protein chemical formulaC171H267N51O53S2
Protein average weight3949.3896 Da
Sequences
>Pramlintide
KCNTATCATQRLANFLVHSSNNFGPILPPTNVGSNTY
Download FASTA Format
SynonymsNot Available
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Symlinpeninjection1000 ug/mLsubcutaneousAstra Zeneca Pharmaceuticals Lp2015-01-08Not applicableUs
Symlinpeninjection1000 ug/mLsubcutaneousAmylin Pharmaceuticals, LLC2005-03-16Not applicableUs
Symlinpeninjection1000 ug/mLsubcutaneousAmylin Pharmaceuticals, LLC2005-03-16Not applicableUs
Symlinpeninjection1000 ug/mLsubcutaneousAstra Zeneca Pharmaceuticals Lp2015-01-08Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
SymlinAmylin Pharmaceuticals
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Pramlintide acetate
Thumb
  • InChI Key:
  • Monoisotopic Mass:
  • Average Mass:
DBSALT000144
Categories
UNIID3FM8FA78T
CAS number151126-32-8
Taxonomy
DescriptionNot Available
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus as an adjunct to preprandial insulin therapy in patients without adequate glycemic control of insulin therapy.
PharmacodynamicsPramlintide is a synthetic analog of amylin, a glucoregulatory hormone that is synthesized by pancreatic β-cells and released into the bloodstream, in a similar pattern as insulin, after a meal. Like insulin, amylin is deficient in individuals with diabetes. It is provided as an acetate salt. Pramlintide is a 37-amino acid polypeptide that differs structurally from human amylin by the replacement of alanine, serine, and serine at positions 25, 28, and 29 respectively with proline.
Mechanism of actionPramlintide is an amlyinomimetic, a functional analog of the naturally occurring pancreatic hormone amylin. Amylin has activity in a number of gastrointestinal and glucodynamic systems, and by mimicking its activity, pramlintide acts to improve glycemic control through modulation of the rate of gastric emptying, prevention of post-prandial rise in glucagon levels, and by increasing sensations of satiety, thereby reducing caloric intake and potentiating weight loss. There appears to be at least three distinct receptor complexes that bind with high affinity to amylin. All three complexes contain the calcitonin receptor at the core, plus one of three Receptor activity-modifying proteins, RAMP1, RAMP2, or RAMP3.
Related Articles
AbsorptionThe absolute bioavailability of a single subcutaneous dose of pramlintide is approximately 30 to 40%.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingPramlintide does not extensively bind to blood cells or albumin (approximately 40% of the drug is unbound in plasma).
Metabolism

Metabolized primarily by the kidneys.

Route of eliminationPramlintide is metabolized primarily by the kidneys.
Half lifeApproximately 48 minutes
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injectionsubcutaneous1000 ug/mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Symlin 600 mcg/ml Solution 5ml Vial227.69USD vial
SymlinPen 120 1000 mcg/ml Solution Two 2.7ml Syringes Per Box168.85USD syringe
Symlinpen 60 pen injector123.51USD ml
Symlin 0.6 mg/ml vial49.35USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5686411 No1999-03-162019-03-16Us
US5814600 No1995-09-292015-09-29Us
US6114304 No1997-09-052017-09-05Us
US6610824 No1994-03-032011-03-03Us
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Andreas Brunner, Oleg Werbitzky, Stephane Varray, Francesca Quattrini, Holger Hermann, Andrew Strong, Fernando Albericio, Judit Tulla-Puche, Yesica Garcia Ramos, “PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF PRAMLINTIDE.” U.S. Patent US20100249370, issued September 30, 2010.

US20100249370
General References
  1. Jones MC: Therapies for diabetes: pramlintide and exenatide. Am Fam Physician. 2007 Jun 15;75(12):1831-5. [PubMed:17619527 ]
  2. Ryan GJ, Jobe LJ, Martin R: Pramlintide in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clin Ther. 2005 Oct;27(10):1500-12. [PubMed:16330288 ]
  3. Edelman S, Maier H, Wilhelm K: Pramlintide in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. BioDrugs. 2008;22(6):375-86. doi: 10.2165/0063030-200822060-00004. [PubMed:18998755 ]
  4. Kleppinger EL, Vivian EM: Pramlintide for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Ann Pharmacother. 2003 Jul-Aug;37(7-8):1082-9. [PubMed:12841822 ]
External Links
ATC CodesA10BX05
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (856 KB)
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pramlintide.
AclidiniumPramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Aclidinium.
AmitriptylinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Amitriptyline.
AmoxapinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Amoxapine.
AtropinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Atropine.
AzelastinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Azelastine.
BenzatropinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Benzatropine.
BrompheniraminePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Brompheniramine.
CarbinoxaminePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Carbinoxamine.
CetirizinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Cetirizine.
ChlorphenaminePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Chlorphenamine.
ChlorpromazinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Chlorpromazine.
ClemastinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Clemastine.
ClomipraminePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Clomipramine.
ClozapinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Clozapine.
CyclizinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Cyclizine.
CyclobenzaprinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Cyclobenzaprine.
CyclopentolatePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Cyclopentolate.
CyproheptadinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Cyproheptadine.
DarifenacinPramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Darifenacin.
DesipraminePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Desipramine.
DesloratadinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Desloratadine.
Dexchlorpheniramine maleatePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Dexchlorpheniramine maleate.
DicyclominePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Dicyclomine.
DihydrotestosteroneDihydrotestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pramlintide.
DimenhydrinatePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Dimenhydrinate.
DiphenhydraminePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Diphenhydramine.
DisopyramidePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Disopyramide.
DoxepinPramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Doxepin.
DoxylaminePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Doxylamine.
DroperidolPramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Droperidol.
FesoterodinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Fesoterodine.
FexofenadinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Fexofenadine.
FlavoxatePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Flavoxate.
FlupentixolPramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Flupentixol.
FluphenazinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Fluphenazine.
GlycopyrroniumPramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Glycopyrrolate.
HaloperidolPramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Haloperidol.
HomatropinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Homatropine.
HydroxyzinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Hydroxyzine.
HyoscyaminePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Hyoscyamine.
ImipraminePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Imipramine.
Insulin AspartPramlintide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
Insulin DegludecPramlintide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin degludec.
Insulin DetemirPramlintide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
Insulin GlarginePramlintide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glargine.
Insulin GlulisinePramlintide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
Insulin HumanPramlintide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Insulin LisproPramlintide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Lispro.
Ipratropium bromidePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Ipratropium bromide.
IsocarboxazidPramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Isocarboxazid.
LeuprolideThe therapeutic efficacy of Pramlintide can be decreased when used in combination with Leuprolide.
LevocetirizinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Levocetirizine.
Lipoic AcidLipoic Acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pramlintide.
LoratadinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Loratadine.
LoxapinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Loxapine.
MaprotilinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Maprotiline.
MeclizinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Meclizine.
MepenzolatePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Mepenzolate.
MethotrimeprazinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Methotrimeprazine.
MethscopolaminePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Methscopolamine.
MoclobemidePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Moclobemide.
NortriptylinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Nortriptyline.
OlanzapinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Olanzapine.
OlopatadinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Olopatadine.
OrphenadrinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Orphenadrine.
OxandroloneOxandrolone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pramlintide.
OxybutyninPramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Oxybutynin.
ParoxetineParoxetine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pramlintide.
PegvisomantPegvisomant may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pramlintide.
PerphenazinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Perphenazine.
PhenelzinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Phenelzine.
PimozidePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Pimozide.
PizotifenPramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Pizotifen.
ProchlorperazinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Prochlorperazine.
ProcyclidinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Procyclidine.
PromazinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Promazine.
PromethazinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Promethazine.
PropanthelinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Propantheline.
ProtriptylinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Protriptyline.
QuetiapinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Quetiapine.
RisperidonePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Risperidone.
ScopolaminePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Scopolamine.
Scopolamine butylbromidePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Scopolamine butylbromide.
SolifenacinPramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Solifenacin.
SparfloxacinSparfloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pramlintide.
TestosteroneTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pramlintide.
ThioridazinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Thioridazine.
ThiothixenePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Thiothixene.
TiotropiumPramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Tiotropium.
TolterodinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Tolterodine.
TranylcyprominePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Tranylcypromine.
TrichlormethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Pramlintide can be decreased when used in combination with Trichlormethiazide.
TrifluoperazinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Trifluoperazine.
TrihexyphenidylPramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Trihexyphenidyl.
TrimethobenzamidePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Trimethobenzamide.
TrimipraminePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Trimipramine.
TriprolidinePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Triprolidine.
TrospiumPramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Trospium.
UmeclidiniumPramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Umeclidinium.
ZuclopenthixolPramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Zuclopenthixol.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Receptor activity
Specific Function:
This is a receptor for calcitonin. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase. The calcitonin receptor is thought to couple to the heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate-binding protein that is sensitive to cholera toxin.
Gene Name:
CALCR
Uniprot ID:
P30988
Molecular Weight:
59351.865 Da
References
  1. Nyholm B, Brock B, Orskov L, Schmitz O: Amylin receptor agonists: a novel pharmacological approach in the management of insulin-treated diabetes mellitus. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2001 Sep;10(9):1641-52. [PubMed:11772274 ]
  2. Roth JD, Maier H, Chen S, Roland BL: Implications of amylin receptor agonism: integrated neurohormonal mechanisms and therapeutic applications. Arch Neurol. 2009 Mar;66(3):306-10. doi: 10.1001/archneurol.2008.581. [PubMed:19273748 ]
  3. Lutz TA: The role of amylin in the control of energy homeostasis. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010 Jun;298(6):R1475-84. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00703.2009. Epub 2010 Mar 31. [PubMed:20357016 ]
  4. Qi T, Hay DL: Structure-function relationships of the N-terminus of receptor activity-modifying proteins. Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Mar;159(5):1059-68. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00541.x. Epub 2009 Dec 10. [PubMed:20015292 ]
  5. Qi T, Christopoulos G, Bailey RJ, Christopoulos A, Sexton PM, Hay DL: Identification of N-terminal receptor activity-modifying protein residues important for calcitonin gene-related peptide, adrenomedullin, and amylin receptor function. Mol Pharmacol. 2008 Oct;74(4):1059-71. doi: 10.1124/mol.108.047142. Epub 2008 Jul 1. [PubMed:18593822 ]
  6. Hay DL, Christopoulos G, Christopoulos A, Sexton PM: Amylin receptors: molecular composition and pharmacology. Biochem Soc Trans. 2004 Nov;32(Pt 5):865-7. [PubMed:15494035 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Receptor activity
Specific Function:
Transports the calcitonin gene-related peptide type 1 receptor (CALCRL) to the plasma membrane. Acts as a receptor for calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) together with CALCRL.
Gene Name:
RAMP1
Uniprot ID:
O60894
Molecular Weight:
16987.765 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Nyholm B, Brock B, Orskov L, Schmitz O: Amylin receptor agonists: a novel pharmacological approach in the management of insulin-treated diabetes mellitus. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2001 Sep;10(9):1641-52. [PubMed:11772274 ]
  4. Roth JD, Maier H, Chen S, Roland BL: Implications of amylin receptor agonism: integrated neurohormonal mechanisms and therapeutic applications. Arch Neurol. 2009 Mar;66(3):306-10. doi: 10.1001/archneurol.2008.581. [PubMed:19273748 ]
  5. Lutz TA: The role of amylin in the control of energy homeostasis. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010 Jun;298(6):R1475-84. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00703.2009. Epub 2010 Mar 31. [PubMed:20357016 ]
  6. Qi T, Hay DL: Structure-function relationships of the N-terminus of receptor activity-modifying proteins. Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Mar;159(5):1059-68. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00541.x. Epub 2009 Dec 10. [PubMed:20015292 ]
  7. Qi T, Christopoulos G, Bailey RJ, Christopoulos A, Sexton PM, Hay DL: Identification of N-terminal receptor activity-modifying protein residues important for calcitonin gene-related peptide, adrenomedullin, and amylin receptor function. Mol Pharmacol. 2008 Oct;74(4):1059-71. doi: 10.1124/mol.108.047142. Epub 2008 Jul 1. [PubMed:18593822 ]
  8. Hay DL, Christopoulos G, Christopoulos A, Sexton PM: Amylin receptors: molecular composition and pharmacology. Biochem Soc Trans. 2004 Nov;32(Pt 5):865-7. [PubMed:15494035 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Protein transporter activity
Specific Function:
Transports the calcitonin gene-related peptide type 1 receptor (CALCRL) to the plasma membrane. Acts as a receptor for adrenomedullin (AM) together with CALCRL.
Gene Name:
RAMP2
Uniprot ID:
O60895
Molecular Weight:
19607.44 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Roth JD, Maier H, Chen S, Roland BL: Implications of amylin receptor agonism: integrated neurohormonal mechanisms and therapeutic applications. Arch Neurol. 2009 Mar;66(3):306-10. doi: 10.1001/archneurol.2008.581. [PubMed:19273748 ]
  4. Qi T, Hay DL: Structure-function relationships of the N-terminus of receptor activity-modifying proteins. Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Mar;159(5):1059-68. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00541.x. Epub 2009 Dec 10. [PubMed:20015292 ]
  5. Qi T, Christopoulos G, Bailey RJ, Christopoulos A, Sexton PM, Hay DL: Identification of N-terminal receptor activity-modifying protein residues important for calcitonin gene-related peptide, adrenomedullin, and amylin receptor function. Mol Pharmacol. 2008 Oct;74(4):1059-71. doi: 10.1124/mol.108.047142. Epub 2008 Jul 1. [PubMed:18593822 ]
  6. Hay DL, Christopoulos G, Christopoulos A, Sexton PM: Amylin receptors: molecular composition and pharmacology. Biochem Soc Trans. 2004 Nov;32(Pt 5):865-7. [PubMed:15494035 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Receptor activity
Specific Function:
Plays a role in cardioprotection by reducing cardiac hypertrophy and perivascular fibrosis in a GPER1-dependent manner. Transports the calcitonin gene-related peptide type 1 receptor (CALCRL) and GPER1 to the plasma membrane. Acts as a receptor for adrenomedullin (AM) together with CALCRL.
Gene Name:
RAMP3
Uniprot ID:
O60896
Molecular Weight:
16518.325 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Nyholm B, Brock B, Orskov L, Schmitz O: Amylin receptor agonists: a novel pharmacological approach in the management of insulin-treated diabetes mellitus. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2001 Sep;10(9):1641-52. [PubMed:11772274 ]
  4. Roth JD, Maier H, Chen S, Roland BL: Implications of amylin receptor agonism: integrated neurohormonal mechanisms and therapeutic applications. Arch Neurol. 2009 Mar;66(3):306-10. doi: 10.1001/archneurol.2008.581. [PubMed:19273748 ]
  5. Lutz TA: The role of amylin in the control of energy homeostasis. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010 Jun;298(6):R1475-84. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00703.2009. Epub 2010 Mar 31. [PubMed:20357016 ]
  6. Qi T, Hay DL: Structure-function relationships of the N-terminus of receptor activity-modifying proteins. Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Mar;159(5):1059-68. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00541.x. Epub 2009 Dec 10. [PubMed:20015292 ]
  7. Qi T, Christopoulos G, Bailey RJ, Christopoulos A, Sexton PM, Hay DL: Identification of N-terminal receptor activity-modifying protein residues important for calcitonin gene-related peptide, adrenomedullin, and amylin receptor function. Mol Pharmacol. 2008 Oct;74(4):1059-71. doi: 10.1124/mol.108.047142. Epub 2008 Jul 1. [PubMed:18593822 ]
  8. Hay DL, Christopoulos G, Christopoulos A, Sexton PM: Amylin receptors: molecular composition and pharmacology. Biochem Soc Trans. 2004 Nov;32(Pt 5):865-7. [PubMed:15494035 ]
Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on May 16, 2007 16:15 / Updated on July 27, 2016 01:56