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Identification
NameInsulin Aspart
Accession NumberDB01306
TypeBiotech
GroupsApproved
Description

Insulin aspart is a recombinant, biosynthetic, fast-acting insulin analogue. It has a single amino acid substitution at position B28 where proline is replaced with aspartic acid. This substitution decreases its propensity to form hexamers and gives it a higher rate of absorption following subcutaneous administration compared to native insulin. Insulin aspart is produced in a genetically modified strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and harvested from a bioreactor.

Protein structureDb01306
Related Articles
Protein chemical formulaC256H381N65O79S6
Protein average weight5825.8 Da
Sequences
>A chain
GIVEQCCTSICSLYQLENYCN
>B chain
FVNQHLCGSHLVEALYLVCGERGFFYTDKT
Download FASTA Format
Synonyms
Aspart
Aspart Insulin
B28-Aspart-Insulin
INA-X14
Insulin aspart protamine recombinant
Insulin aspart recombinant
Insulin X14
Insulin, Asp(B28)
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Novologinjection, solution100 [iU]/mLintravenous; subcutaneousNovo Nordisk2001-08-27Not applicableUs
Novologinjection, solution100 [iU]/mLintravenous; subcutaneousDispensing Solutions, Inc.2003-01-22Not applicableUs
Novologinjection, solution100 [iU]/mLintravenous; subcutaneousTYA Pharmaceuticals2001-08-27Not applicableUs
Novologinjection, solution100 [iU]/mLintravenous; subcutaneousNovo Nordisk2001-08-27Not applicableUs
Novologinjection, solution100 [iU]/mLintravenous; subcutaneousNovo Nordisk2003-01-22Not applicableUs
Novologinjection, solution100 [iU]/mLintravenous; subcutaneousNovo Nordisk2013-10-31Not applicableUs
Novolog Mix 70/30injection, suspension100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2003-02-10Not applicableUs
Novolog Mix 70/30injection, suspension100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2002-09-11Not applicableUs
Novorapidsolution100 unitsubcutaneousNovo Nordisk Canada Inc2002-06-12Not applicableCanada
Novorapidsolution100 unitsubcutaneousNovo Nordisk Canada Inc2001-10-31Not applicableCanada
Novorapidsolution100 unitsubcutaneousNovo Nordisk Canada Inc2012-05-04Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
Novolog FlexPenNovo Nordisk
Novolog PenfillNovo Nordisk
NovoRapid PenfillNovo Nordisk
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIID933668QVX
CAS number116094-23-6
Taxonomy
DescriptionNot Available
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of Type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus. Should normally be used in conjunction with an intermediate or long-acting insulin.
PharmacodynamicsInsulin is a natural hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreas. In non-diabetic individuals, a basal level of insulin is supplemented with insulin spikes following meals. Postprandial insulin spikes are responsible for the metabolic changes that occur as the body transitions from a postabsorptive to absorptive state. Insulin promotes cellular uptake of glucose, particularly in muscle and adipose tissues, promotes energy storage via glycogenesis, opposes catabolism of energy stores, increases DNA replication and protein synthesis by stimulating amino acid uptake by liver, muscle and adipose tissue, and modifies the activity of numerous enzymes involved in glycogen synthesis and glycolysis. Insulin also promotes growth and is required for the actions of growth hormone (e.g. protein synthesis, cell division, DNA synthesis). Insulin aspart is a rapid-acting insulin analogue used to mimic postprandial insulin spikes in diabetic individuals. The onset of action of insulin aspart is 10-15 minutes. Its activity peaks 60-90 minutes following subcutaneous injection and its duration of action is 4-5 hours.
Mechanism of actionInsulin aspart binds to the insulin receptor (IR), a heterotetrameric protein consisting of two extracellular alpha units and two transmembrane beta units. The binding of insulin to the alpha subunit of IR stimulates the tyrosine kinase activity intrinsic to the beta subunit of the receptor. The bound receptor autophosphorylates and phosphorylates numerous intracellular substrates such as insulin receptor substrates (IRS) proteins, Cbl, APS, Shc and Gab 1. Activation of these proteins leads to the activation of downstream signaling molecules including PI3 kinase and Akt. Akt regulates the activity of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and protein kinase C (PKC), both of which play critical roles in metabolism and catabolism. In humans, insulin is stored in the form of hexamers; however, only insulin monomers are able to interact with IR. Substitution of the proline residue at B28 with aspartic acid reduces the tendency to form hexamers and results in a faster rate of absorption and onset of action and shorter duration of action.
Related Articles
AbsorptionRapidly absorbed following subcutaneous administration (more so than regular human insulin). Furthermore, insulin aspart has a faster absorption, a faster onset of action, and a shorter duration of action than regular human insulin after subcutaneous injection. It takes 40 - 50 minutes to reach maximum concentration. When a dose of 0.15 U/kg body weight was injected in type 1 diabetes patients, the mean maximum concentration (Cmax) was 82 mU/L. The site of injection has no impact on extent or speed of absorption.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding<10% bound to plasma proteins.
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life81 minutes (following subcutaneous administration in healthy subjects).
Clearance
  • 1.2 L/h/kg [healthy Caucasian male], excreted in the urine
ToxicityInappropriately high dosages relative to food intake and/or energy expenditure may result in severe and sometimes prolonged and life-threatening hypoglycemia. Neurogenic (autonomic) signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia include trembling, palpitations, sweating, anxiety, hunger, nausea and tingling. Neuroglycopenic signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia include difficulty concentrating, lethargy/weakness, confusion, drowsiness, vision changes, difficulty speaking, headache, and dizziness. Mild hypoglycemia is characterized by the presence of autonomic symptoms. Moderate hypoglycemia is characterized by the presence of autonomic and neuroglycopenic symptoms. Individuals may become unconscious in severe cases of hypoglycemia.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionintravenous; subcutaneous100 [iU]/mL
Injection, suspensionsubcutaneous100 [iU]/mL
Solutionsubcutaneous100 unit
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Novolog 100 unit/ml cartridge14.81USD ml
Novolog mix 70-30 cartridge10.45USD ml
Novorapid 100 unit/ml Cartridge3.89USD cartridge
Novorapid 100 unit/ml2.92USD cartridge
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5618913 No1994-06-072014-06-07Us
US5866538 Yes1997-12-202017-12-20Us
US6004297 Yes1999-07-282019-07-28Us
US6899699 No2002-01-022022-01-02Us
US7615532 No2005-05-252025-05-25Us
US7686786 No2006-08-032026-08-03Us
US8672898 No2002-01-022022-01-02Us
US8684969 No2005-10-202025-10-20Us
US8920383 No2006-07-172026-07-17Us
US9108002 No2006-01-202026-01-20Us
US9132239 No2012-02-012032-02-01Us
US9265893 No2012-09-232032-09-23Us
USRE41956 Yes2001-07-212021-07-21Us
USRE43834 No1999-01-282019-01-28Us
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Ronald E. Zimmerman, David John Stokell, Michael Patrick Akers, “ASPART PROINSULIN COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS OF PRODUCING ASPART INSULIN ANALOGS THEREFROM.” U.S. Patent US20120214963, issued August 23, 2012.

US20120214963
General References
  1. Heller S, Kurtzhals P, Verge D, Lindholm A: Insulin aspart: promising early results borne out in clinical practice. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2002 Feb;3(2):183-95. [PubMed:11829732 ]
  2. Sciacca L, Cassarino MF, Genua M, Pandini G, Le Moli R, Squatrito S, Vigneri R: Insulin analogues differently activate insulin receptor isoforms and post-receptor signalling. Diabetologia. 2010 Aug;53(8):1743-53. doi: 10.1007/s00125-010-1760-6. Epub 2010 Apr 28. [PubMed:20424816 ]
External Links
ATC CodesA10AB05A10AD05A10AD06
AHFS Codes
  • 68:20.08
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (909 KB)
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcetohexamideAcetohexamide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
AlogliptinAlogliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
AripiprazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Aripiprazole.
Arsenic trioxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Arsenic trioxide.
ArticaineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Articaine.
AsenapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
AtazanavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Atazanavir.
BendroflumethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Bendroflumethiazide.
BetamethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Betamethasone.
BrexpiprazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Brexpiprazole.
BumetanideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Bumetanide.
BuserelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Buserelin.
CanagliflozinCanagliflozin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
CeritinibThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Ceritinib.
ChlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorothiazide.
ChlorpropamideInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Chlorpropamide.
ChlorthalidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorthalidone.
ClozapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Clozapine.
CorticotropinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.
Cortisone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Cortisone acetate.
Cyproterone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Cyproterone acetate.
DabrafenibThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Dabrafenib.
DanazolThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Danazol.
DarunavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Darunavir.
DesogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Desogestrel.
DexamethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Dexamethasone.
DiazoxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Diazoxide.
DienogestThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Dienogest.
DihydrotestosteroneDihydrotestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
DisopyramideInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Disopyramide.
DrospirenoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Drospirenone.
Edetic AcidEdetic Acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
EpinephrineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Epinephrine.
ErythromycinInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Erythromycin.
EstradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.
Estrone sulfateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
Etacrynic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Ethacrynic acid.
Ethinyl EstradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.
Ethynodiol diacetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Ethynodiol.
EtonogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Etonogestrel.
EverolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Everolimus.
ExenatideExenatide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
FludrocortisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Fludrocortisone.
FosamprenavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Fosamprenavir.
FurosemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Furosemide.
GliclazideInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Gliclazide.
GlimepirideInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glimepiride.
GlipizideInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glipizide.
GliquidoneGliquidone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
GlyburideInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glyburide.
GoserelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Goserelin.
HistrelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Histrelin.
HydrochlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Hydrochlorothiazide.
HydrocortisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Hydrocortisone.
Hydroxyprogesterone caproateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Hydroxyprogesterone caproate.
IloperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Iloperidone.
IndapamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Indapamide.
IndinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Indinavir.
Insulin DegludecInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin degludec.
Insulin DetemirInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
Insulin GlargineInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glargine.
Insulin GlulisineInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
Insulin HumanInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Insulin LisproInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Lispro.
LanreotideInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Lanreotide.
LeuprolideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Leuprolide.
LevonorgestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Levonorgestrel.
LinagliptinLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
Lipoic AcidLipoic Acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
LiraglutideLiraglutide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
LopinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Lopinavir.
LurasidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Lurasidone.
MecaserminInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Mecasermin.
Medroxyprogesterone AcetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Medroxyprogesterone Acetate.
Megestrol acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Megestrol acetate.
MestranolThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Mestranol.
MetforminMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
MethotrimeprazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Methotrimeprazine.
MethyclothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Methyclothiazide.
MethylprednisoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Methylprednisolone.
MetolazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Metolazone.
MetreleptinMetreleptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
MifepristoneInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Mifepristone.
NadololNadolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
NateglinideInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Nateglinide.
NelfinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Nelfinavir.
NiacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.
NilotinibThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Nilotinib.
NorethisteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Norethindrone.
NorgestimateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Norgestimate.
OctreotideInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Octreotide.
OlanzapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Olanzapine.
OxandroloneOxandrolone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
PaliperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Paliperidone.
ParoxetineParoxetine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
PasireotideInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pasireotide.
PegvisomantPegvisomant may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
PentamidineInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pentamidine.
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
PioglitazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pioglitazone is combined with Insulin Aspart.
PipotiazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
PramlintidePramlintide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
PrednisoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Prednisolone.
PrednisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Prednisone.
ProgesteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Progesterone.
QuetiapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Quetiapine.
QuinineInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
RepaglinideInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Repaglinide.
Repository corticotropinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Repository corticotropin.
RisperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Risperidone.
RitonavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
RosiglitazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Insulin Aspart is combined with Rosiglitazone.
SaquinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
SaxagliptinSaxagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
SirolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Sirolimus.
SitagliptinSitagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
SparfloxacinSparfloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
SulfadiazineInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfadiazine.
SulfamethoxazoleInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
SulfisoxazoleInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfisoxazole.
SunitinibInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sunitinib.
TacrolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrolimus.
TemsirolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Temsirolimus.
TestosteroneTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
TipranavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Tipranavir.
TolazamideInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolazamide.
TolbutamideInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolbutamide.
TorasemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Torasemide.
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
TriamcinoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Triamcinolone.
TrichlormethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Trichlormethiazide.
TrimethoprimInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Trimethoprim.
TriptorelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Triptorelin.
VildagliptinVildagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
VorinostatThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Vorinostat.
ZiprasidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Ziprasidone.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Receptor signaling protein tyrosine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Receptor tyrosine kinase which mediates the pleiotropic actions of insulin. Binding of insulin leads to phosphorylation of several intracellular substrates, including, insulin receptor substrates (IRS1, 2, 3, 4), SHC, GAB1, CBL and other signaling intermediates. Each of these phosphorylated proteins serve as docking proteins for other signaling proteins that contain Src-homology-2 domains (SH2 ...
Gene Name:
INSR
Uniprot ID:
P06213
Molecular Weight:
156331.465 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Zib I, Raskin P: Novel insulin analogues and its mitogenic potential. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2006 Nov;8(6):611-20. [PubMed:17026485 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Comments
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Drug created on June 30, 2007 08:44 / Updated on May 26, 2016 03:15