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Identification
NameInsulin Glulisine
Accession NumberDB01309
TypeBiotech
GroupsApproved
Description

Insulin glulisine is a biosynthetic, rapid-acting human insulin analogue produced in a non-pathogenic laboratory strain of Escherichia coli (K12). This recombinant hormone differs from native human insulin in that the amino acid arginine at position B3 is replaced by lysine and the lysine at position B29 is replaced by glutamic acid. These structural modifications decrease hexamer formation, stabilize insulin glulisine monomers and increase the rate of absorption and onset of action compared to human insulin.

Protein structureNo structure small
Related Articles
Protein chemical formulaC258H384N64O78S6
Protein average weight5823.0 Da
Sequences
>A chain
GIVEQCCTSICSLYQLENYCN
>B chain
FVKQHLCGSHLVEALYLVCGERGFFYTPET
Download FASTA Format
Synonyms
Insulin Glulisine (recombinant DNA origin)
Insulin glulisine recombinant
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apidrainjection, solution100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc2009-02-24Not applicableUs
Apidra (10ml Vial)solution100 unitsubcutaneousSanofi Aventis Canada Inc2008-09-22Not applicableCanada
Apidra (3ml Cartridge)solution100 unitsubcutaneousSanofi Aventis Canada Inc2009-10-01Not applicableCanada
Apidra (3ml Optiset Presentation)solution100 unitsubcutaneousSanofi Aventis Canada IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Apidra (3ml Solostar Disposable Prefilled Pen)solution100 unitsubcutaneousSanofi Aventis Canada Inc2008-09-22Not applicableCanada
Apidra Solostarinjection, solution100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc2009-02-24Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII7XIY785AZD
CAS number207748-29-6
Taxonomy
DescriptionNot Available
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of Type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Should be used in regimens including a long-acting or basal insulin analogue unless it is used in a continuous infusion pump. May be used with oral antidiabetic agents.
PharmacodynamicsInsulin is a natural hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreas. In non-diabetic individuals, a basal level of insulin is supplemented with insulin spikes following meals. Postprandial insulin spikes are responsible for the metabolic changes that occur as the body transitions from a postabsorptive to absorptive state. Insulin promotes cellular uptake of glucose, particularly in muscle and adipose tissues, promotes energy storage via glycogenesis, opposes catabolism of energy stores, increases DNA replication and protein synthesis by stimulating amino acid uptake by liver, muscle and adipose tissue, and modifies the activity of numerous enzymes involved in glycogen synthesis and glycolysis. Insulin also promotes growth and is required for the actions of growth hormone (e.g. protein synthesis, cell division, DNA synthesis). Insulin glulisine is a rapid-acting insulin analogue used to mimic postprandial insulin spikes in diabetic individuals. The onset of action of insulin glulisine is approximately 15 minutes. Its activity peaks 60 minutes following subcutaneous injection and its duration of action is 2-4 hours.
Mechanism of actionInsulin glulisine binds to the insulin receptor (IR), a heterotetrameric protein consisting of two extracellular alpha units and two transmembrane beta units. The binding of insulin to the alpha subunit of IR stimulates the tyrosine kinase activity intrinsic to the beta subunit of the receptor. The bound receptor autophosphorylates and phosphorylates numerous intracellular substrates such as insulin receptor substrates (IRS) proteins, Cbl, APS, Shc and Gab 1. Activation of these proteins leads to the activation of downstream signaling molecules including PI3 kinase and Akt. Akt regulates the activity of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and protein kinase C (PKC), both of which play critical roles in metabolism and catabolism. In humans, insulin is stored in the form of hexamers; however, only insulin monomers are able to interact with IR. Substitution of the arginine at position B3 for lysine and replacement of the B29 lysine with glutamic acid decreases the propensity to form hexamers, stabilizes the hormone in monomeric form and results in a rapid rate of absorption and short duration of action.
Related Articles
AbsorptionCompared to regular human insulin, insulin glulisine is faster absorbed. When 0.15 units/kg was subcutaneously administered to type 1 diabetes patients, the pharmacokinetic parameters are as follows: Tmax = 60 minutes (range of 40 - 120 minutes); Cmax = 83 microUnits/mL (range of 40 - 131 microUnits/mL). Absolute bioavailability following subcutaneous administration is approximately 70%, regardless of site of injection.
Volume of distribution

13 L

Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeElimination half life= 42 minutes (following subcutaneous injection)
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityInappropriately high dosages relative to food intake and/or energy expenditure may result in severe and sometimes prolonged and life-threatening hypoglycemia. Neurogenic (autonomic) signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia include trembling, palpitations, sweating, anxiety, hunger, nausea and tingling. Neuroglycopenic signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia include difficulty concentrating, lethargy/weakness, confusion, drowsiness, vision changes, difficulty speaking, headache, and dizziness. Mild hypoglycemia is characterized by the presence of autonomic symptoms. Moderate hypoglycemia is characterized by the presence of autonomic and neuroglycopenic symptoms. Individuals may become unconscious in severe cases of hypoglycemia.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionsubcutaneous100 [iU]/mL
Solutionsubcutaneous100 unit
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Apidra 100 unit/ml cartridge13.3USD ml
Apidra 100 unit/ml Cartridge3.56USD cartridge
Apidra 100 unit/ml Syringe3.56USD syringe
Apidra 100 unit/ml2.67USD cartridge
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6221633 No1998-06-182018-06-18Us
US6960561 No2003-01-252023-01-25Us
US7452860 No2002-03-222022-03-22Us
US7696162 No2002-03-222022-03-22Us
US7918833 No2007-09-232027-09-23Us
US8512297 No2004-09-152024-09-15Us
US8556864 No2004-03-032024-03-03Us
US8603044 No2004-03-022024-03-02Us
US8679069 No2005-04-122025-04-12Us
US8992486 No2004-06-052024-06-05Us
US9011391 No2004-03-262024-03-26Us
US9233211 No2004-03-022024-03-02Us
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Arnolds S, Rave K, Hovelmann U, Fischer A, Sert-Langeron C, Heise T: Insulin glulisine has a faster onset of action compared with insulin aspart in healthy volunteers. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2010 Oct;118(9):662-4. doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1252067. Epub 2010 Apr 28. [PubMed:20429049 ]
  2. Becker RH: Insulin glulisine complementing basal insulins: a review of structure and activity. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2007 Feb;9(1):109-21. [PubMed:17316105 ]
  3. Becker RH, Frick AD: Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of insulin glulisine. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2008;47(1):7-20. [PubMed:18076215 ]
  4. Cox SL: Insulin glulisine. Drugs Today (Barc). 2005 Jul;41(7):433-40. [PubMed:16193096 ]
  5. Garnock-Jones KP, Plosker GL: Insulin glulisine: a review of its use in the management of diabetes mellitus. Drugs. 2009 May 29;69(8):1035-57. doi: 10.2165/00003495-200969080-00006. [PubMed:19496630 ]
  6. Horvath K, Bock G, Regittnig W, Bodenlenz M, Wutte A, Plank J, Magnes C, Sinner F, Furst-Recktenwald S, Theobald K, Pieber TR: Insulin glulisine, insulin lispro and regular human insulin show comparable end-organ metabolic effects: an exploratory study. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2008 Jun;10(6):484-91. Epub 2007 Aug 30. [PubMed:17764465 ]
  7. Authors unspecified: Insuline glusine (Apidra): a new rapid-acting insulin. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2006 Apr 24;48(1233):33-4. [PubMed:16625142 ]
  8. Robinson DM, Wellington K: Insulin glulisine. Drugs. 2006;66(6):861-9. [PubMed:16706558 ]
  9. Ulrich H, Snyder B, Garg SK: Combining insulins for optimal blood glucose control in type I and 2 diabetes: focus on insulin glulisine. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2007;3(3):245-54. [PubMed:17703632 ]
External Links
ATC CodesA10AB06
AHFS Codes
  • 68:20.08
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (1.67 MB)
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcetohexamideAcetohexamide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
AlogliptinAlogliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
AripiprazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Aripiprazole.
Arsenic trioxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Arsenic trioxide.
ArticaineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Articaine.
AsenapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
AtazanavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Atazanavir.
BendroflumethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Bendroflumethiazide.
BetamethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Betamethasone.
BrexpiprazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Brexpiprazole.
BumetanideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Bumetanide.
BuserelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Buserelin.
CanagliflozinCanagliflozin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
CeritinibThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Ceritinib.
ChlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorothiazide.
ChlorpropamideInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Chlorpropamide.
ChlorthalidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorthalidone.
ClozapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Clozapine.
CorticotropinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.
Cortisone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Cortisone acetate.
Cyproterone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Cyproterone acetate.
DabrafenibThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Dabrafenib.
DanazolThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Danazol.
DarunavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Darunavir.
DesogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Desogestrel.
DexamethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Dexamethasone.
DiazoxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Diazoxide.
DienogestThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Dienogest.
DihydrotestosteroneDihydrotestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
DisopyramideInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Disopyramide.
DrospirenoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Drospirenone.
Edetic AcidEdetic Acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
EpinephrineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Epinephrine.
ErythromycinInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Erythromycin.
EstradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.
Estrone sulfateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
Etacrynic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Ethacrynic acid.
Ethinyl EstradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.
Ethynodiol diacetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Ethynodiol.
EtonogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Etonogestrel.
EverolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Everolimus.
ExenatideExenatide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
FludrocortisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Fludrocortisone.
FosamprenavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Fosamprenavir.
FurosemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Furosemide.
GliclazideInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Gliclazide.
GlimepirideInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glimepiride.
GlipizideInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glipizide.
GliquidoneGliquidone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
GlyburideInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glyburide.
GoserelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Goserelin.
HistrelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Histrelin.
HydrochlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Hydrochlorothiazide.
HydrocortisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Hydrocortisone.
Hydroxyprogesterone caproateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Hydroxyprogesterone caproate.
IloperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Iloperidone.
IndapamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Indapamide.
IndinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Indinavir.
Insulin AspartInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
Insulin DegludecInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin degludec.
Insulin DetemirInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
Insulin GlargineInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glargine.
Insulin HumanInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Insulin LisproInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Lispro.
LanreotideInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Lanreotide.
LeuprolideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Leuprolide.
LevonorgestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Levonorgestrel.
LinagliptinLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
Lipoic AcidLipoic Acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
LiraglutideLiraglutide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
LopinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Lopinavir.
LurasidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Lurasidone.
MecaserminInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Mecasermin.
Medroxyprogesterone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Medroxyprogesterone Acetate.
Megestrol acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Megestrol acetate.
MestranolThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Mestranol.
MetforminMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
MethotrimeprazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Methotrimeprazine.
MethyclothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Methyclothiazide.
MethylprednisoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Methylprednisolone.
MetolazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Metolazone.
MetreleptinMetreleptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
MifepristoneInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Mifepristone.
NadololNadolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
NateglinideInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Nateglinide.
NelfinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Nelfinavir.
NiacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.
NilotinibThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Nilotinib.
NorethisteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Norethindrone.
NorgestimateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Norgestimate.
OctreotideInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Octreotide.
OlanzapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Olanzapine.
OxandroloneOxandrolone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
PaliperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Paliperidone.
ParoxetineParoxetine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
PasireotideInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pasireotide.
PegvisomantPegvisomant may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
PentamidineInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pentamidine.
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
PioglitazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pioglitazone is combined with Insulin Glulisine.
PipotiazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
PramlintidePramlintide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
PrednisoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Prednisolone.
PrednisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Prednisone.
ProgesteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Progesterone.
QuetiapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Quetiapine.
QuinineInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
RepaglinideInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Repaglinide.
Repository corticotropinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Repository corticotropin.
RisperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Risperidone.
RitonavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
RosiglitazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Insulin Glulisine is combined with Rosiglitazone.
SaquinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
SaxagliptinSaxagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
SirolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Sirolimus.
SitagliptinSitagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
SparfloxacinSparfloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
SulfadiazineInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfadiazine.
SulfamethoxazoleInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
SulfisoxazoleInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfisoxazole.
SunitinibInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sunitinib.
TacrolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrolimus.
TemsirolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Temsirolimus.
TestosteroneTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
TipranavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Tipranavir.
TolazamideInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolazamide.
TolbutamideInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolbutamide.
TorasemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Torasemide.
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
TriamcinoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Triamcinolone.
TrichlormethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Trichlormethiazide.
TrimethoprimInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Trimethoprim.
TriptorelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Triptorelin.
VildagliptinVildagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
VorinostatThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Vorinostat.
ZiprasidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Ziprasidone.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Receptor signaling protein tyrosine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Receptor tyrosine kinase which mediates the pleiotropic actions of insulin. Binding of insulin leads to phosphorylation of several intracellular substrates, including, insulin receptor substrates (IRS1, 2, 3, 4), SHC, GAB1, CBL and other signaling intermediates. Each of these phosphorylated proteins serve as docking proteins for other signaling proteins that contain Src-homology-2 domains (SH2 ...
Gene Name:
INSR
Uniprot ID:
P06213
Molecular Weight:
156331.465 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Sciacca L, Cassarino MF, Genua M, Pandini G, Le Moli R, Squatrito S, Vigneri R: Insulin analogues differently activate insulin receptor isoforms and post-receptor signalling. Diabetologia. 2010 Aug;53(8):1743-53. doi: 10.1007/s00125-010-1760-6. Epub 2010 Apr 28. [PubMed:20424816 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Comments
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Drug created on June 30, 2007 08:46 / Updated on August 24, 2016 01:52