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Accession NumberDB01362
TypeSmall Molecule
DescriptionIohexol is an effective non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiographic procedures. Its low systemic toxicity is the combined result of low chemotoxicity and low osmolality. [PubChem]
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Omnipaqueinjection140 mg/mLintravenousGE Healthcare Inc.2004-05-25Not applicableUs
Omnipaqueinjection, solution350 mg/mLintravenousGE Healthcare Inc.1985-12-26Not applicableUs
Omnipaqueinjection180 mg/mLintravenousGE Healthcare Inc.2004-07-15Not applicableUs
Omnipaqueinjection518 mg/mLintrathecal; intravascular; intravenous; oralGE Healthcare Inc.1985-12-26Not applicableUs
Omnipaqueinjection, solution300 mg/mLintravenousGE Healthcare Inc.1985-12-26Not applicableUs
Omnipaque 180solution388 mgsubarachnoidalGe Healthcare Canada Inc1998-03-08Not applicableCanada
Omnipaque 240solution518 mgsubarachnoidal; intravascularGe Healthcare Canada Inc1998-05-26Not applicableCanada
Omnipaque 300solution647 mgsubarachnoidal; intravascularGe Healthcare Canada Inc1998-03-05Not applicableCanada
Omnipaque 350solution755 mgintravascularGe Healthcare Canada Inc1998-03-05Not applicableCanada
Oraltagfor solution4.5 g/1oralInterpharma Praha, a.s.2016-07-01Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NycodenzNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
CAS number66108-95-0
WeightAverage: 821.1379
Monoisotopic: 820.880309705
Chemical FormulaC19H26I3N3O9
IndicationIohexol ia used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiographic procedures.
Structured Indications Not Available
PharmacodynamicsIohexol is an effective non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiographic procedures. Its low systemic toxicity is the combined result of low chemotoxicity and low osmolality.
Mechanism of actionOrganic iodine compounds block x-rays as they pass through the body, thereby allowing body structures containing iodine to be delineated in contrast to those structures that do not contain iodine. The degree of opacity produced by these compounds is directly proportional to the total amount (concentration and volume) of the iodinated contrast agent in the path of the x-rays. After intrathecal administration into the subarachnoid space, diffusion of iohexol in the CSF allows the visualization of the subarachnoid spaces of the head and spinal canal. After intravascular administration, iohexol makes opaque those vessels in its path of flow, allowing visualization of the internal structures until significant hemodilution occurs.
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AbsorptionSmall amounts are absorbed through the bladder via intravesical instillation. Following intrauterine instillation, the majority of the medium within the uterine cavity is discharged into the vagina immediately upon termination of procedure. However, any medium retained in the uterine or peritoneal cavity is absorbed systemically within 60 minutes. May not be absorbed for up to 24 hours if tubes are obstructed and dilated.
Volume of distribution
  • 350-849 mL/kg
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationIohexol is absorbed from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into the bloodstream and is eliminated by renal excretion. No significant metabolism, deiodination, or biotransformation occurs.
Half lifeIntrathecal half-life is 3.4 hours (mean). Intravascular is approximately 2 hours (with normal renal function).
  • 109 mL/min [Adult patients receiving 16-18 ml of iohexol (180 mgI/mL) by lumbar intrathecal injection]
ToxicityNon-ionic radiocontrast agents like iohexol are cytotoxic to renal cells. The toxic effects include apoptosis, cellular energy failure, disruption of calcium homeostasis, and disturbance of tubular cell polarity, and are thought to be linked to oxidative stress.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Drug Interactions
AldesleukinThe risk of a hypersensitivity reaction to Iohexol is increased when it is combined with Aldesleukin.
MetforminThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iohexol is combined with Metformin.
Food InteractionsNot Available
Synthesis Reference

Xiu C. Wang, Steve A. Chamberlin, Ashok V. Bhatia, Gregg E. Robinson, John Hufnagel, “Process for the preparation of iohexol.” U.S. Patent US5705692, issued December, 1985.

General References
  1. Kawada TK: Iohexol and iopamidol: second-generation nonionic radiographic contrast media. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 1985 Jul-Aug;19(7-8):525-9. [PubMed:3896713 ]
  2. Shaw DD, Potts DG: Toxicology of iohexol. Invest Radiol. 1985 Jan-Feb;20(1 Suppl):S10-3. [PubMed:3882609 ]
External Links
ATC CodesV08AB02
AHFS Codes
  • 36:68.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Predicted ADMET features
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.8406
Blood Brain Barrier-0.5082
Caco-2 permeable-0.6474
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8375
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8629
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9534
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7747
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8175
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6895
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.919
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9303
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.971
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7514
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9035
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9937
Rat acute toxicity1.6446 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9895
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7193
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
ManufacturersNot Available
Dosage forms
Injectionintrathecal; intravascular; intravenous; oral518 mg/mL
Injectionintravenous140 mg/mL
Injectionintravenous180 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintravenous300 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintravenous350 mg/mL
Solutionsubarachnoidal388 mg
Solutionsubarachnoidal; intravascular518 mg
Solutionsubarachnoidal; intravascular647 mg
Solutionintravascular755 mg
For solutionoral4.5 g/1
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Myelo-kit 180 mg/ml62.19USD each
Omnipaque 240 mg/ml vial5.34USD ml
Omnipaque 180 mg/ml vial4.92USD ml
Omnipaque 300 mg/ml vial4.82USD ml
Omnipaque 210 mg/ml vial3.53USD ml
Omnipaque 350 mg/ml cartridge2.29USD ml
Omnipaque 300 mg/ml cartridge2.17USD ml
Omnipaque 240 mg/ml cartridge1.77USD ml
Omnipaque 300 mg/ml syringe1.08USD ml
Omnipaque 350 mg/ml infu btl1.08USD ml
Omnipaque 140 mg/ml vial0.78USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Experimental Properties
melting point174-180 °CPhysProp
logP-3.05HANSCH,C & LEO,AJ (1985)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.796 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.73ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count9ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count8ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area199.89 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count12ChemAxon
Refractivity148.84 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability60.37 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aminobenzoic acids and derivatives. These are benzoic acids (or derivative thereof) containing an amine group attached to the benzene moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzoic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentAminobenzoic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Halobenzoic acid or derivatives
  • 4-halobenzoic acid or derivatives
  • 2-halobenzoic acid or derivatives
  • Acetanilide
  • Aminobenzoic acid or derivatives
  • Benzamide
  • Aminobenzamide
  • Benzoyl
  • Iodobenzene
  • Halobenzene
  • Aryl iodide
  • Aryl halide
  • Acetamide
  • Vinylogous halide
  • Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
  • Tertiary amine
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxamide group
  • 1,2-diol
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organoiodide
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
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Drug created on July 06, 2007 13:54 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23