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Identification
NameColchicine
Accession NumberDB01394
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (periodic disease). [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
ColchicinNot AvailableNot Available
ColchicinaNot AvailableNot Available
ColchicinumNot AvailableNot Available
SID26747941Not AvailableNot Available
SID49671357Not AvailableNot Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Colchicinecapsule.6 mgoralWest ward Pharmaceutical Corp2014-10-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Colcrystablet, film coated.6 mgoralAR Scientific Inc.2009-09-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Colcrystablet, film coated.6 mgoralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2009-09-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Colcrystablet, film coated.6 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-02-21Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Colcrystablet, film coated.6 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-03Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Colcrystablet, film coated.6 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2011-10-19Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Colcrystablet, film coated.6 mgoralCardinal Health2009-09-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Mitigarecapsule.6 mgoralHikma Americas, Inc.2014-10-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Colcrystablet, film coated.6 mgoralTakeda Pharmaceuticals America, Inc.2009-09-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Colchicinetablet, film coated.6 mgoralPrasco Laboratories2015-01-12Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Colchicinetablet.6 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2010-11-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Colchicinetablet0.6 mgoralEuro Pharm International Canada IncNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixtures
Brand NameIngredients
Arnix GelColchicine + Hahnemann's Causticum + Ivy + Ledum Palustre + Poison Ivy + Propolis + Rhododendron Chrysanthemum + Thuja Occidentalis
Arnix HPApis Mellifica + Bryonia + Colchicine + Hahnemann's Causticum + Ivy + Ledum Palustre + Poison Ivy + Pulsatilla + Rhododendron Chrysanthemum
Art HPApis Mellifica + Bryonia + Colchicine + Hahnemann's Causticum + Ivy + Ledum Palustre + Poison Ivy + Pulsatilla + Rhododendron Chrysanthemum
ColBenemidColchicine + Probenecid
DB HPColchicine + Eugenia Jambolana + Lactic Acid + Lycopodium Clavatum + Phosphoric Acid + Phosphorus + Uranium Nitrate
Edemnix HPApis Mellifica + Cinchona Officinalis + Colchicine + Ledum Palustre + Lycopodium Clavatum + Poison Ivy + Sambucus Nigra + Strophanthus Hispidus
Edma HPApis Mellifica + Cinchona Officinalis + Colchicine + Ledum Palustre + Lycopodium Clavatum + Poison Ivy + Sambucus Nigra + Strophanthus Hispidus
Jnt-Nix HPBryonia + Colchicine + Kalmia Latifolia + Ledum Palustre + Lycopodium Clavatum + Poison Ivy + Rhododendron Chrysanthemum
Sciat HPAconitinum + Arnica Montana + Colchicine + Esculin + Hypericum Perforatum + Magnesium Phosphate Dibasic + Plumbum Metallicum + Poison Ivy
Sciatinix HPAconitinum + Arnica Montana + Colchicine + Esculin + Hypericum Perforatum + Magnesium Phosphate Dibasic + Plumbum Metallicum + Poison Ivy
Sucurnix HPColchicine + Eugenia Jambolana + Lactic Acid + Lycopodium Clavatum + Phosphoric Acid + Phosphorus + Uranium Nitrate
SaltsNot Available
Categories
CAS number64-86-8
WeightAverage: 399.437
Monoisotopic: 399.168187537
Chemical FormulaC22H25NO6
InChI KeyIAKHMKGGTNLKSZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C22H25NO6/c1-12(24)23-16-8-6-13-10-19(27-3)21(28-4)22(29-5)20(13)14-7-9-18(26-2)17(25)11-15(14)16/h7,9-11,16H,6,8H2,1-5H3,(H,23,24)
IUPAC Name
N-{3,4,5,14-tetramethoxy-13-oxotricyclo[9.5.0.0²,⁷]hexadeca-1(16),2(7),3,5,11,14-hexaen-10-yl}acetamide
SMILES
COC1=CC2=C(C(OC)=C1OC)C1=CC=C(OC)C(=O)C=C1C(CC2)NC(C)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tropones. These are compounds containing a tropone ring, which is a cycloheptatrienone ring bearing a ketone group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassHydrocarbon derivatives
ClassTropones
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentTropones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Tropone
  • Anisole
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Acetamide
  • Cyclic ketone
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor treatment and relief of pain in attacks of acute gouty arthritis.
PharmacodynamicsColchicine is a highly poisonous alkaloid, originally extracted from plants of the genus Colchicum (Autumn crocus, also known as the "Meadow saffron"). Originally used to treat rheumatic complaints and especially gout, it was also prescribed for its cathartic and emetic effects. Its present medicinal use is mainly in the treatment of gout; as well, it is being investigated for its potential use as an anti-cancer drug. It can also be used as initial treatment for pericarditis and preventing recurrences of the condition.
Mechanism of actionThe precise mechanism of action has not been completely established. In patients with gout, colchicine apparently interrupts the cycle of monosodium urate crystal deposition in joint tissues and the resultant inflammatory response that initiates and sustains an acute attack. Colchicine decreases leukocyte chemotaxis and phagocytosis and inhibits the formation and release of a chemotactic glycoprotein that is produced during phagocytosis of urate crystals. Colchicine also inhibits urate crystal deposition, which is enhanced by a low pH in the tissues, probably by inhibiting oxidation of glucose and subsequent lactic acid production in leukocytes. Colchicine has no analgesic or antihyperuricemic activity. Colchicine inhibits microtubule assembly in various cells, including leukocytes, probably by binding to and interfering with polymerization of the microtubule subunit tubulin. Although some studies have found that this action probably does not contribute significantly to colchicine's antigout action, a recent in vitro study has shown that it may be at least partially involved.
AbsorptionColchicine is rapidly absorbed after oral administration, probably from the jejunum and ileum. However, the rate and extent of absorption are variable, depending on the tablet dissolution rate; variability in gastric emptying, intestinal motility, and pH at the absorption site; and the extent to which colchicine is bound to microtubules in gastrointestinal mucosal cells.
Volume of distribution
  • 5 to 8 L/kg [healthy young volunteers]
Protein bindingLow to moderate (30 to 50%).
Metabolism

Probably hepatic. Although colchicine metabolites have not been identified in humans, metabolism by mammalian hepatic microsomes has been demonstrated in vitro.

Route of eliminationIn healthy volunteers (n=12) 40 – 65% of 1 mg orally administered colchicine was recovered unchanged in urine. Enterohepatic recirculation and biliary excretion are also postulated to play a role in colchicine elimination.
Half lifeElimination half-life is approximately 1 hour in healthy subjects, although a study with an extended sampling time reported mean terminal elimination half-life values of approximately 9 to 10.5 hours. Other studies have reported half-life values of approximately 2 hours in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and approximately 2.5 hours in patients with familial Mediterranean fever.
Clearance
  • 0.17 L/hr/kg [familial Mediterranean fever patients with end-stage renal disease]
  • 0.73 L/hr/kg [familial Mediterranean fever patients with normal renal function]
ToxicityThe onset of toxic effects is usually delayed for several hours or more after the ingestion of an acute overdose. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea occur first. The diarrhea may be bloody due to hemorrhagic gastroenteritis. Burning sensations of the throat, stomach, and skin may be prominent symptoms. Extensive vascular damage may result in shock. Kidney damage, evidenced by hematuria and oliguria, may occur. Muscular weakness may be marked, and ascending paralysis of the central nervous system may develop; the patient usually remains conscious. Delirium and convulsions may occur. Death due to respiratory arrest may result. Although death from the ingestion of as little as 7 mg has been reported, much larger doses have been survived .
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9856
Blood Brain Barrier+0.7865
Caco-2 permeable+0.5119
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.594
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8007
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.6956
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8997
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8042
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7359
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-inhibitor0.831
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7959
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9208
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.6489
Rat acute toxicity2.3748 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9877
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7394
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsuleoral.6 mg
Tabletoral.6 mg
Tabletoral0.6 mg
Tablet, film coatedoral.6 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Colchicine powder306.6USD g
Colcrys 0.6 mg tablet5.82USD tablet
Colchicine 0.6 mg tablet0.58USD tablet
Colchicine 1 mg Tablet0.55USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
United States76017582009-02-102029-02-10
United States76190042008-12-032028-12-03
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point156 °CPhysProp
water solubility4.5E+004 mg/L (at 25 °C)SEIDELL,A (1941)
logP1.30HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa1.85SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0276 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.59ALOGPS
logP1.46ChemAxon
logS-4.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.06ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.038ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area83.09 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity111.38 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability42.41 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (2.96 KB)
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Christian Wehrey, “Colchicine derivatives, process for preparing them, products obtained therefrom and use thereof.” U.S. Patent US20040138182, issued July 15, 2004.

US20040138182
General ReferenceNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesM04AC01
AHFS Codes
  • 92:00.00
  • 92:02.00*
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (74.9 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbirateroneCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
AmiodaroneP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Colchicine distribution into certain tissues (e.g., brain) may also be increased.
AprepitantCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
AtazanavirCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
AtorvastatinMay enhance the myopathic (rhabdomyolysis) effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Colchicine may increase the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors.
BezafibrateFibric Acid Derivatives may enhance the myopathic (rhabdomyolysis) effect of Colchicine.
BicalutamideCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
BiotinCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
BoceprevirCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
CarvedilolP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Colchicine distribution into certain tissues (e.g., brain) may also be increased.
CholineFibric Acid Derivatives may enhance the myopathic (rhabdomyolysis) effect of Colchicine.
CimetidineCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
ClarithromycinCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
ClotrimazoleCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
ConivaptanMay increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates.
CrizotinibCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
CyanocobalaminMay decrease the serum concentration of Cyanocobalamin.
DarunavirCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
DasatinibMay increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates.
DelavirdineCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
DesipramineCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
DigoxinDigoxin may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
DiltiazemCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
DipyridamoleP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Colchicine distribution into certain tissues (e.g., brain) may also be increased.
DronedaroneCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
EliglustatP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Colchicine distribution into certain tissues (e.g., brain) may also be increased.
FenofibrateFibric Acid Derivatives may enhance the myopathic (rhabdomyolysis) effect of Colchicine.
FluconazoleCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
FluvastatinMay enhance the myopathic (rhabdomyolysis) effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Colchicine may increase the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors.
FosamprenavirFosamprenavir may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
FosaprepitantCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
GemfibrozilFibric Acid Derivatives may enhance the myopathic (rhabdomyolysis) effect of Colchicine.
IndinavirCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
IsavuconazoniumCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
ItraconazoleCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
IvacaftorP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Colchicine distribution into certain tissues (e.g., brain) may also be increased.
LapatinibP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Colchicine distribution into certain tissues (e.g., brain) may also be increased.
LedipasvirP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Colchicine distribution into certain tissues (e.g., brain) may also be increased.
LomitapideCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
LopinavirCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
LovastatinMay enhance the myopathic (rhabdomyolysis) effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Colchicine may increase the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors.
LULICONAZOLEMay increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates.
MefloquineP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Colchicine distribution into certain tissues (e.g., brain) may also be increased.
MifepristoneMay increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates.
NefazodoneCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
NelfinavirCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
NilotinibCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
NorfloxacinCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
PitavastatinMay enhance the myopathic (rhabdomyolysis) effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Colchicine may increase the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors.
PosaconazoleCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
PravastatinMay enhance the myopathic (rhabdomyolysis) effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Colchicine may increase the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors.
ProgesteroneP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Colchicine distribution into certain tissues (e.g., brain) may also be increased.
PropranololP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Colchicine distribution into certain tissues (e.g., brain) may also be increased.
QuinidineP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Colchicine distribution into certain tissues (e.g., brain) may also be increased.
QuinineP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Colchicine distribution into certain tissues (e.g., brain) may also be increased.
RanolazineP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Colchicine distribution into certain tissues (e.g., brain) may also be increased.
ReserpineP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Colchicine distribution into certain tissues (e.g., brain) may also be increased.
RitonavirCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
RosuvastatinMay enhance the myopathic (rhabdomyolysis) effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Colchicine may increase the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors.
SaquinavirCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
SimeprevirP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Colchicine distribution into certain tissues (e.g., brain) may also be increased.
SimvastatinMay enhance the myopathic (rhabdomyolysis) effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Colchicine may increase the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors.
SulfisoxazoleCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
SunitinibP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Colchicine distribution into certain tissues (e.g., brain) may also be increased.
TamoxifenP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Colchicine distribution into certain tissues (e.g., brain) may also be increased.
TelaprevirMay increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
TelithromycinCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
TetracyclineCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
TipranavirTipranavir may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
VandetanibP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Colchicine distribution into certain tissues (e.g., brain) may also be increased.
VemurafenibP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Colchicine distribution into certain tissues (e.g., brain) may also be increased.
VoriconazoleCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol since it increases uric acid levels.
  • Drink liberally.
  • Take without regard to meals.

Targets

1. Tubulin beta-1 chain

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Tubulin beta-1 chain Q9H4B7 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Acharya BR, Choudhury D, Das A, Chakrabarti G: Vitamin K3 disrupts the microtubule networks by binding to tubulin: a novel mechanism of its antiproliferative activity. Biochemistry. 2009 Jul 28;48(29):6963-74. Pubmed
  4. Li CM, Lu Y, Ahn S, Narayanan R, Miller DD, Dalton JT: Competitive mass spectrometry binding assay for characterization of three binding sites of tubulin. J Mass Spectrom. 2010 Sep 1. Pubmed
  5. Finkelstein Y, Aks SE, Hutson JR, Juurlink DN, Nguyen P, Dubnov-Raz G, Pollak U, Koren G, Bentur Y: Colchicine poisoning: the dark side of an ancient drug. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2010 Jun;48(5):407-14. Pubmed
  6. Cerquaglia C, Diaco M, Nucera G, La Regina M, Montalto M, Manna R: Pharmacological and clinical basis of treatment of Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) with colchicine or analogues: an update. Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy. 2005 Feb;4(1):117-24. Pubmed

2. Tubulin beta chain

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Tubulin beta chain P07437 Details

References:

  1. Yee KW, Hagey A, Verstovsek S, Cortes J, Garcia-Manero G, O’Brien SM, Faderl S, Thomas D, Wierda W, Kornblau S, Ferrajoli A, Albitar M, McKeegan E, Grimm DR, Mueller T, Holley-Shanks RR, Sahelijo L, Gordon GB, Kantarjian HM, Giles FJ: Phase 1 study of ABT-751, a novel microtubule inhibitor, in patients with refractory hematologic malignancies. Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Sep 15;11(18):6615-24. Pubmed
  2. Acharya BR, Choudhury D, Das A, Chakrabarti G: Vitamin K3 disrupts the microtubule networks by binding to tubulin: a novel mechanism of its antiproliferative activity. Biochemistry. 2009 Jul 28;48(29):6963-74. Pubmed
  3. Li CM, Lu Y, Ahn S, Narayanan R, Miller DD, Dalton JT: Competitive mass spectrometry binding assay for characterization of three binding sites of tubulin. J Mass Spectrom. 2010 Sep 1. Pubmed
  4. Cerquaglia C, Diaco M, Nucera G, La Regina M, Montalto M, Manna R: Pharmacological and clinical basis of treatment of Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) with colchicine or analogues: an update. Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy. 2005 Feb;4(1):117-24. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 2B6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2B6 P20813 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

3. Cytochrome P450 2C8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C8 P10632 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

4. Cytochrome P450 2C9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

5. Cytochrome P450 2E1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2E1 P05181 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Multidrug resistance protein 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance protein 3 P21439 Details

References:

  1. Vollrath V, Wielandt AM, Acuna C, Duarte I, Andrade L, Chianale J: Effect of colchicine and heat shock on multidrug resistance gene and P-glycoprotein expression in rat liver. J Hepatol. 1994 Nov;21(5):754-63. Pubmed

2. Solute carrier family 22 member 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 3 O75751 Details

References:

  1. Grundemann D, Schechinger B, Rappold GA, Schomig E: Molecular identification of the corticosterone-sensitive extraneuronal catecholamine transporter. Nat Neurosci. 1998 Sep;1(5):349-51. Pubmed

3. Multidrug resistance protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

References:

  1. Polli JW, Wring SA, Humphreys JE, Huang L, Morgan JB, Webster LO, Serabjit-Singh CS: Rational use of in vitro P-glycoprotein assays in drug discovery. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Nov;299(2):620-8. Pubmed
  2. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. Pubmed
  3. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. Pubmed
  4. Troutman MD, Thakker DR: Novel experimental parameters to quantify the modulation of absorptive and secretory transport of compounds by P-glycoprotein in cell culture models of intestinal epithelium. Pharm Res. 2003 Aug;20(8):1210-24. Pubmed
  5. Ambudkar SV, Lelong IH, Zhang J, Cardarelli CO, Gottesman MM, Pastan I: Partial purification and reconstitution of the human multidrug-resistance pump: characterization of the drug-stimulatable ATP hydrolysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Sep 15;89(18):8472-6. Pubmed
  6. Bebawy M, Morris MB, Roufogalis BD: A continuous fluorescence assay for the study of P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux using inside-out membrane vesicles. Anal Biochem. 1999 Mar 15;268(2):270-7. Pubmed
  7. Kuo CC, Hsieh HP, Pan WY, Chen CP, Liou JP, Lee SJ, Chang YL, Chen LT, Chen CT, Chang JY: BPR0L075, a novel synthetic indole compound with antimitotic activity in human cancer cells, exerts effective antitumoral activity in vivo. Cancer Res. 2004 Jul 1;64(13):4621-8. Pubmed
  8. Tiwari AK, Sodani K, Wang SR, Kuang YH, Ashby CR Jr, Chen X, Chen ZS: Nilotinib (AMN107, Tasigna) reverses multidrug resistance by inhibiting the activity of the ABCB1/Pgp and ABCG2/BCRP/MXR transporters. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009 Jul 15;78(2):153-61. Epub 2009 Apr 11. Pubmed

4. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 P33527 Details

References:

  1. Stride BD, Grant CE, Loe DW, Hipfner DR, Cole SP, Deeley RG: Pharmacological characterization of the murine and human orthologs of multidrug-resistance protein in transfected human embryonic kidney cells. Mol Pharmacol. 1997 Sep;52(3):344-53. Pubmed

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Drug created on July 08, 2007 11:02 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:14