You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NamePipotiazine
Accession NumberDB01621
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Pipotiazine has actions similar to those of other phenothiazines. Among the different phenothiazine derivatives, it appears to be less sedating and to have a weak propensity for causing hypotension or potentiating the effects of CNS depressants and anesthetics. However, it produces a high incidence of extra pyramidal reactions. It is used for the maintenance treatment of chronic non-agitated schizophrenic patients. Symptoms of overdose include severe extrapyramidal manifestations, hypotension, lethargy and sedation.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Piportil
Pipothiazine
Pipotiazina
Pipotiazinum
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Piportil L4solution50 mgintramuscularSanofi Aventis Canada Inc1980-12-31Not applicableCanada
Piportil L4solution25 mgintramuscularSanofi Aventis Canada Inc1980-12-31Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Pipotiazine palmitate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001196
Categories
UNIIL903J9JPYV
CAS number39860-99-6
WeightAverage: 475.667
Monoisotopic: 475.196333317
Chemical FormulaC24H33N3O3S2
InChI KeyInChIKey=JOMHSQGEWSNUKU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C24H33N3O3S2/c1-25(2)32(29,30)20-8-9-24-22(18-20)27(21-6-3-4-7-23(21)31-24)14-5-13-26-15-10-19(11-16-26)12-17-28/h3-4,6-9,18-19,28H,5,10-17H2,1-2H3
IUPAC Name
10-{3-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperidin-1-yl]propyl}-N,N-dimethyl-10H-phenothiazine-2-sulfonamide
SMILES
CN(C)S(=O)(=O)C1=CC2=C(SC3=CC=CC=C3N2CCCN2CCC(CCO)CC2)C=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenothiazines. These are polycyclic aromatic compounds containing a phenothiazine moiety, which is a linear tricyclic system that consists of a two benzene rings joined by a para-thiazine ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBenzothiazines
Sub ClassPhenothiazines
Direct ParentPhenothiazines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenothiazine
  • Alkyldiarylamine
  • Diarylthioether
  • Benzenesulfonamide
  • Benzenoid
  • Piperidine
  • Para-thiazine
  • Aminosulfonyl compound
  • Sulfonyl
  • Sulfonic acid derivative
  • Sulfonamide
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Azacycle
  • Thioether
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the maintenance treatment of chronic non-agitated schizophrenic patients.
PharmacodynamicsPipotiazine has actions similar to those of other phenothiazines. Among the different phenothiazine derivatives, it appears to be less sedating and to have a weak propensity for causing hypotension or potentiating the effects of CNS depressants and anesthetics. However, it produces a high incidence of extra pyramidal reactions. It reduces activity of dopamine receptors in the limbic system. Its 5-HT antagonism helps normalize dopamine activity in the cortical regions.
Mechanism of actionPipotiazine acts as an antagonist (blocking agent) on different postsysnaptic receptors -on dopaminergic-receptors (subtypes D1, D2, D3 and D4 - different antipsychotic properties on productive and unproductive symptoms), on serotonergic-receptors (5-HT1 and 5-HT2, with anxiolytic, antidepressive and antiaggressive properties as well as an attenuation of extrapypramidal side-effects, but also leading to weight gain, fall in blood pressure, sedation and ejaculation difficulties), on histaminergic-receptors (H1-receptors, sedation, antiemesis, vertigo, fall in blood pressure and weight gain), alpha1/alpha2-receptors (antisympathomimetic properties, lowering of blood pressure, reflex tachycardia, vertigo, sedation, hypersalivation and incontinence as well as sexual dysfunction, but may also attenuate pseudoparkinsonism - controversial) and finally on muscarinic (cholinergic) M1/M2-receptors (causing anticholinergic symptoms like dry mouth, blurred vision, obstipation, difficulty/inability to urinate, sinus tachycardia, ECG-changes and loss of memory, but the anticholinergic action may attenuate extrapyramidal side-effects).
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySymptoms of overdose include severe extrapyramidal manifestations, hypotension, lethargy and sedation.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9896
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9461
Caco-2 permeable-0.6479
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7257
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.774
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.5492
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6426
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.6896
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.747
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5077
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8021
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8585
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.764
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6829
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.5623
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6904
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6482
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7615
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9723
Rat acute toxicity2.5406 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8642
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.5429
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Solutionintramuscular25 mg
Solutionintramuscular50 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Piportil L4 50 mg/ml56.19USD ml
Piportil L4 25 mg/ml17.45USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0127 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.94ALOGPS
logP3.13ChemAxon
logS-4.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)17.09ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.86ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area64.09 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity134.12 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability53.17 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesN05AC04
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Pipotiazine can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
AcetohexamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acetohexamide can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
AlogliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Alogliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
Aluminum hydroxideAluminum hydroxide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Pipotiazine resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Pipotiazine can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.
AzelastinePipotiazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Pipotiazine.
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Pipotiazine can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.
BosentanThe serum concentration of Pipotiazine can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Pipotiazine.
BuprenorphinePipotiazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.
Calcium carbonateCalcium carbonate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Pipotiazine resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CanagliflozinThe therapeutic efficacy of Canagliflozin can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
ChlorpropamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorpropamide can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Pipotiazine can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Pipotiazine can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Pipotiazine can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Pipotiazine can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Pipotiazine.
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Pipotiazine.
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Pipotiazine.
EthanolPipotiazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Pipotiazine can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Pipotiazine can be decreased when combined with Fluoxetine.
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Pipotiazine can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Pipotiazine can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.
GliclazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Gliclazide can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
GlimepirideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glimepiride can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
GliquidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Gliquidone can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
GlyburideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glyburide can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
HydrocodonePipotiazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Pipotiazine.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Pipotiazine can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.
Insulin AspartThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
Insulin DetemirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
Insulin GlargineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glargine can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
Insulin GlulisineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
Insulin HumanThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
Insulin LisproThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Lispro can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Pipotiazine can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.
LinagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Pipotiazine.
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Pipotiazine can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.
Magnesium oxideMagnesium oxide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Pipotiazine resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Pipotiazine.
MetforminThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
MethotrimeprazinePipotiazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.
MetyrosinePipotiazine may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Pipotiazine can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Pipotiazine.
MirtazapinePipotiazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Pipotiazine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.
MorphinePipotiazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Morphine.
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Pipotiazine.
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Pipotiazine can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Pipotiazine can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.
OrphenadrinePipotiazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Pipotiazine can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.
PanobinostatThe serum concentration of Pipotiazine can be increased when it is combined with Panobinostat.
ParaldehydePipotiazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pipotiazine is combined with Paroxetine.
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Pipotiazine can be decreased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Pipotiazine.
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Pipotiazine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
PorfimerPipotiazine may increase the photosensitizing activities of Porfimer.
PramipexolePipotiazine may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.
PyrimethamineThe serum concentration of Pipotiazine can be increased when it is combined with Pyrimethamine.
RepaglinideThe therapeutic efficacy of Repaglinide can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
RitonavirThe metabolism of Pipotiazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
RopinirolePipotiazine may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.
RotigotinePipotiazine may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Pipotiazine.
SaxagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Saxagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Pipotiazine can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Pipotiazine can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Pipotiazine.
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Pipotiazine can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Pipotiazine can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.
SuvorexantPipotiazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Pipotiazine.
ThalidomidePipotiazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pipotiazine is combined with Thiopental.
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Pipotiazine can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Pipotiazine can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.
TolbutamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolbutamide can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pipotiazine is combined with Trazodone.
VerteporfinPipotiazine may increase the photosensitizing activities of Verteporfin.
VildagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Vildagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
ZolpidemPipotiazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol
  • Take with food to decrease irritation

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular Weight:
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Oades RD, Rao ML, Bender S, Sartory G, Muller BW: Neuropsychological and conditioned blocking performance in patients with schizophrenia: assessment of the contribution of neuroleptic dose, serum levels and dopamine D2-receptor occupancy. Behav Pharmacol. 2000 Jun;11(3-4):317-30. [PubMed:11103886 ]
  2. Seeman P: Atypical antipsychotics: mechanism of action. Can J Psychiatry. 2002 Feb;47(1):27-38. [PubMed:11873706 ]
  3. Wu S, Xing Q, Gao R, Li X, Gu N, Feng G, He L: Response to chlorpromazine treatment may be associated with polymorphisms of the DRD2 gene in Chinese schizophrenic patients. Neurosci Lett. 2005 Mar 7;376(1):1-4. Epub 2004 Dec 2. [PubMed:15694263 ]
  4. Wu SN, Gao R, Xing QH, Li HF, Shen YF, Gu NF, Feng GY, He L: Association of DRD2 polymorphisms and chlorpromazine-induced extrapyramidal syndrome in Chinese schizophrenic patients. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2006 Aug;27(8):966-70. [PubMed:16867246 ]
  5. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  6. Seeman P: Dopamine D2 receptors as treatment targets in schizophrenia. Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses. 2010 Apr;4(1):56-73. doi: 10.3371/CSRP.4.1.5. [PubMed:20643630 ]
  7. Boireau A, Chambry J, Dubedat P, Farges G, Carruette AM, Zundel JL, Blanchard JC: Enhancing effect of dopamine blockers on evoked acetylcholine release in rat striatal slices: a classical D-2 antagonist response? Eur J Pharmacol. 1986 Aug 22;128(1-2):93-8. [PubMed:2875894 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD1
Uniprot ID:
P21728
Molecular Weight:
49292.765 Da
References
  1. Kanba S, Suzuki E, Nomura S, Nakaki T, Yagi G, Asai M, Richelson E: Affinity of neuroleptics for D1 receptor of human brain striatum. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 1994 Jul;19(4):265-9. [PubMed:7918347 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates...
Gene Name:
HTR2A
Uniprot ID:
P28223
Molecular Weight:
52602.58 Da
References
  1. Kusumi I, Takahashi Y, Suzuki K, Kameda K, Koyama T: Differential effects of subchronic treatments with atypical antipsychotic drugs on dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in the rat brain. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2000;107(3):295-302. [PubMed:10821438 ]
  2. Yamada J, Sugimoto Y, Horisaka K: Serotonin2 (5-HT2) receptor agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) inhibits chlorpromazine- and haloperidol-induced hypothermia in mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 1995 Nov;18(11):1580-3. [PubMed:8593484 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G pro...
Gene Name:
HTR1A
Uniprot ID:
P08908
Molecular Weight:
46106.335 Da
References
  1. Cosi C, Koek W: Agonist, antagonist, and inverse agonist properties of antipsychotics at human recombinant 5-HT(1A) receptors expressed in HeLa cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001 Dec 14;433(1):55-62. [PubMed:11755134 ]
  2. Newman-Tancredi A, Gavaudan S, Conte C, Chaput C, Touzard M, Verriele L, Audinot V, Millan MJ: Agonist and antagonist actions of antipsychotic agents at 5-HT1A receptors: a [35S]GTPgammaS binding study. Eur J Pharmacol. 1998 Aug 21;355(2-3):245-56. [PubMed:9760039 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF: Polymorphism of human cytochrome P450 2D6 and its clinical significance: part II. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2009;48(12):761-804. doi: 10.2165/11318070-000000000-00000. [PubMed:19902987 ]
  2. Bhoopathy S, Xin B, Unger SE, Karnes HT: A novel incubation direct injection LC/MS/MS technique for in vitro drug metabolism screening studies involving the CYP 2D6 and the CYP 3A4 isozymes. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2005 Apr 1;37(4):739-49. Epub 2004 Dec 30. [PubMed:15797796 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Wojcikowski J, Boksa J, Daniel WA: Main contribution of the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 1A2 (CYP1A2) to N-demethylation and 5-sulfoxidation of the phenothiazine neuroleptic chlorpromazine in human liver--A comparison with other phenothiazines. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010 Oct 15;80(8):1252-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2010.06.045. Epub 2010 Jul 6. [PubMed:20615392 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Wojcikowski J, Boksa J, Daniel WA: Main contribution of the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 1A2 (CYP1A2) to N-demethylation and 5-sulfoxidation of the phenothiazine neuroleptic chlorpromazine in human liver--A comparison with other phenothiazines. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010 Oct 15;80(8):1252-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2010.06.045. Epub 2010 Jul 6. [PubMed:20615392 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Wojcikowski J, Boksa J, Daniel WA: Main contribution of the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 1A2 (CYP1A2) to N-demethylation and 5-sulfoxidation of the phenothiazine neuroleptic chlorpromazine in human liver--A comparison with other phenothiazines. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010 Oct 15;80(8):1252-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2010.06.045. Epub 2010 Jul 6. [PubMed:20615392 ]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Molecular Weight:
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Kitamura K, Omran AA, Nagata C, Kamijima Y, Tanaka R, Takegami S, Kitade T: Effects of inorganic ions on the binding of triflupromazine and chlorpromazine to bovine serum albumin studied by spectrometric methods. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2006 Jul;54(7):972-6. [PubMed:16819214 ]
  2. Rukhadze MD, Bezarashvili GS, Sidamonidze NS, Tsagareli SK: Investigation of binding process of chlorpromazine to bovine serum albumin by means of passive and active experiments. Biomed Chromatogr. 2001 Oct;15(6):365-73. [PubMed:11559920 ]
  3. Silva D, Cortez CM, Louro SR: Quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of bovine serum albumin by chlorpromazine and hemin. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2004 Jul;37(7):963-8. Epub 2004 Jun 22. [PubMed:15264002 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine...
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular Weight:
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Bednarczyk D, Ekins S, Wikel JH, Wright SH: Influence of molecular structure on substrate binding to the human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Mar;63(3):489-98. [PubMed:12606755 ]
Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on August 29, 2007 14:16 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23