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Identification
NameZimelidine
Accession NumberDB04832
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsWithdrawn
Description

Zimelidine has been banned worldwide due to serious, sometimes fatal, cases of central and/or peripheral neuropathy known as Guillain-Barré syndrome and due to a peculiar hypersensitivity reaction involving many organs including skin exanthema, flu-like symptoms, arthralgias, and sometimes eosinophilia. Additionally, zimelidine was charged to cause an increase in suicidal ideation and/or attempts among depressive patients. After its ban, it was succeeded by fluvoxamine and fluoxetine (derived from the antihistamine diphenhydramine) in that order, and the other SSRIs.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(Z)-3-(4'-Bromophenyl)-3-(3''-pyridyl)dimethylallylamine
(Z)-3-[1-(p-Bromophenyl)-3-(dimethylamino)propenyl]pyridine
(z)-zimelidine
Cis-zimelidine
Zimeldine
External Identifiers Not Available
Prescription ProductsNot Available
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII3J928617DW
CAS number56775-88-3
WeightAverage: 317.224
Monoisotopic: 316.057511201
Chemical FormulaC16H17BrN2
InChI KeyInChIKey=OYPPVKRFBIWMSX-SXGWCWSVSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C16H17BrN2/c1-19(2)11-9-16(14-4-3-10-18-12-14)13-5-7-15(17)8-6-13/h3-10,12H,11H2,1-2H3/b16-9-
IUPAC Name
[3-(4-bromophenyl)-3-(pyridin-3-yl)prop-2-en-1-yl]dimethylamine
SMILES
CN(C)CC=C(C1=CC=C(Br)C=C1)C1=CN=CC=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylpropenes. These are compounds containing a phenylpropene moiety, which consists of a propene substituent bound to a phenyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenylpropenes
Direct ParentPhenylpropenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylpropene
  • Styrene
  • Halobenzene
  • Bromobenzene
  • Pyridine
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl bromide
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organobromide
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of depression.
PharmacodynamicsZimelidine was the first marketed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant. It is a pyridylallylamine, structurally different from other antidepressants.
Mechanism of actionThe antidepressant actions of zimelidine are presumed to be linked to its inhibition of CNS neuronal uptake of serotonin. Zimelidine blocks the reuptake of serotonin at the serotonin reuptake pump of the neuronal membrane, enhancing the actions of serotonin on 5HT1A autoreceptors. SSRIs bind with significantly less affinity to histamine, acetylcholine, and norepinephrine receptors than tricyclic antidepressant drugs.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life8.4 +/- 2.0 hours for the parent compound and 19.4 +/- 3.6 hours for norzimelidine.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.972
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9382
Caco-2 permeable+0.7284
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6049
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8435
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8382
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.5919
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8893
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.6656
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5541
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.8949
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8932
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.796
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8185
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8077
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.807
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9964
Rat acute toxicity2.5787 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8348
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.6614
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0239 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.39ALOGPS
logP3.51ChemAxon
logS-4.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.62ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area16.13 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity93.94 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability30.96 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Caille G, Kouassi E, de Montigny C: Pharmacokinetic study of zimelidine using a new GLC method. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1983 Nov-Dec;8(6):530-40. [PubMed:6228368 ]
  2. Godbout R, Montplaisir J: The effect of zimelidine, a serotonin-reuptake blocker, on cataplexy and daytime sleepiness of narcoleptic patients. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1986;9(1):46-51. [PubMed:2950994 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN06AB02
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic terminal for re-utilization. Plays a key role in mediating regulation of the availability of serotonin to other receptors of serotonergic systems. Terminates the action of serotonin an...
Gene Name:
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID:
P31645
Molecular Weight:
70324.165 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [PubMed:9537821 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Primary amine oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOB preferentially degrades benzylamine and phenylethylamine.
Gene Name:
MAOB
Uniprot ID:
P27338
Molecular Weight:
58762.475 Da
References
  1. Egashira T, Takayama F, Yamanaka Y: The inhibition of monoamine oxidase activity by various antidepressants: differences found in various mammalian species. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1999 Sep;81(1):115-21. [PubMed:10580379 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Serotonin binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Gene Name:
MAOA
Uniprot ID:
P21397
Molecular Weight:
59681.27 Da
References
  1. Egashira T, Takayama F, Yamanaka Y: Effects of long-term treatment with dicyclic, tricyclic, tetracyclic, and noncyclic antidepressant drugs on monoamine oxidase activity in mouse brain. Gen Pharmacol. 1996 Jul;27(5):773-8. [PubMed:8842678 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Mahar Doan KM, Humphreys JE, Webster LO, Wring SA, Shampine LJ, Serabjit-Singh CJ, Adkison KK, Polli JW: Passive permeability and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux differentiate central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS marketed drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):1029-37. [PubMed:12438524 ]
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Drug created on September 11, 2007 15:01 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:25