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Identification
NameMethacholine
Accession NumberDB06709
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionMethacholine acts as a non-selective muscarinic receptor agonist to stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system. It is most commonly used for diagnosing bronchial hyperreactivity, using the bronchial challenge test. Through this test, the drug causes bronchoconstriction and people with pre-existing airway hyperreactivity, such as asthmatics, will react to lower doses of drug.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Acetyl-beta-methylcholine
Acetylmethylcholine
MCh
Methacholine
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Methacholine Omegapowder for solution1600 mginhalationOmega Laboratories Ltd2006-07-03Not applicableCanada
Methacholine Omegapowder for solution100 mginhalationOmega Laboratories Ltd2006-03-27Not applicableCanada
Methacholine Omegapowder for solution480 mginhalationOmega Laboratories Ltd2006-03-21Not applicableCanada
Provocholinepowder, for solution100 mg/100mgrespiratory (inhalation)Methapharm Inc.2013-03-27Not applicableUs
Provocholinepowder for solution320 mginhalationMethapharm Inc2003-03-12Not applicableCanada
Provocholinepowder for solution1600 mginhalationMethapharm Inc2008-02-28Not applicableCanada
Provocholinepowder for solution100 mginhalationMethapharm Inc1999-04-01Not applicableCanada
Provocholinepowder for solution1280 mginhalationMethapharm Inc2001-09-24Not applicableCanada
Provocholinepowder for solution160 mginhalationMethapharm Inc2003-03-12Not applicableCanada
Sterile Provocholine Solution 16solution16 mginhalationMethapharm IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Sterile Provocholine SolutionMethapharm Inc
Sterile Provocholine Solution PlusMethapharm Inc
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Methacholine chloride
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001175
Categories
UNII03V657ZD3V
CAS number55-92-5
WeightAverage: 160.234
Monoisotopic: 160.133753825
Chemical FormulaC8H18NO2
InChI KeyInChIKey=NZWOPGCLSHLLPA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C8H18NO2/c1-7(11-8(2)10)6-9(3,4)5/h7H,6H2,1-5H3/q+1
IUPAC Name
[2-(acetyloxy)propyl]trimethylazanium
SMILES
CC(C[N+](C)(C)C)OC(C)=O
Taxonomy
ClassificationNot classified
Pharmacology
IndicationIt is most commonly used for diagnosing bronchial hyperreactivity, using the bronchial challenge test.
PharmacodynamicsMethacholine acts as a non-selective muscarinic receptor agonist to stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system. It is highly active at all of the muscarinic receptors
Mechanism of actionBy agonizing the muscarinic receptors, this drug induces bronchoconstriction. This bronchoconstriction is used as a test in asthmatics and in bronchial hyperreactivity.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organismsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.9196
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9595
Caco-2 permeable+0.6374
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7298
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9567
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8384
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8493
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8521
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8612
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5376
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9459
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9407
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9475
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9383
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8427
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.754
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9303
Rat acute toxicity2.3602 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.944
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8091
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Powder for solutioninhalation1600 mg
Powder for solutioninhalation480 mg
Powder for solutioninhalation100 mg
Powder for solutioninhalation1280 mg
Powder for solutioninhalation160 mg
Powder for solutioninhalation320 mg
Powder, for solutionrespiratory (inhalation)100 mg/100mg
Solutioninhalation
Solutioninhalation16 mg
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0678 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.7ALOGPS
logP-3.8ChemAxon
logS-3.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area26.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity55.76 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability18.43 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
1,10-PhenanthrolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 1,10-Phenanthroline is combined with Methacholine.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acebutolol is combined with Methacholine.
AlprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprenolol is combined with Methacholine.
AmbenoniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ambenonium is combined with Methacholine.
ArotinololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arotinolol is combined with Methacholine.
AtenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atenolol is combined with Methacholine.
BefunololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Befunolol is combined with Methacholine.
BetaxololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Betaxolol is combined with Methacholine.
BevantololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bevantolol is combined with Methacholine.
BisoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bisoprolol is combined with Methacholine.
BopindololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bopindolol is combined with Methacholine.
BufuralolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bufuralol is combined with Methacholine.
BupranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupranolol is combined with Methacholine.
CarteololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carteolol is combined with Methacholine.
CarvedilolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carvedilol is combined with Methacholine.
CeliprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Celiprolol is combined with Methacholine.
CimetropiumMethacholine may decrease the anticholinergic activities of Cimetropium.
CoumaphosThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Coumaphos is combined with Methacholine.
DecamethoniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Decamethonium is combined with Methacholine.
DemecariumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Demecarium is combined with Methacholine.
DichlorvosThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dichlorvos is combined with Methacholine.
DonepezilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Donepezil is combined with Methacholine.
EchothiophateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Echothiophate is combined with Methacholine.
EdrophoniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Edrophonium is combined with Methacholine.
EsmololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Methacholine.
FenthionThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenthion is combined with Methacholine.
GalantamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Galantamine is combined with Methacholine.
Gallamine TriethiodideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gallamine Triethiodide is combined with Methacholine.
Ginkgo bilobaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Methacholine.
Huperzine AThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Huperzine A is combined with Methacholine.
IndenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indenolol is combined with Methacholine.
IsoflurophateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurophate is combined with Methacholine.
LabetalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Labetalol is combined with Methacholine.
LevobunololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Methacholine.
MalathionThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Malathion is combined with Methacholine.
MefloquineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mefloquine is combined with Methacholine.
MemantineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Memantine is combined with Methacholine.
MetipranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metipranolol is combined with Methacholine.
MetoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metoprolol is combined with Methacholine.
MinaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minaprine is combined with Methacholine.
NadololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nadolol is combined with Methacholine.
NeostigmineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Neostigmine is combined with Methacholine.
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxprenolol is combined with Methacholine.
PenbutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Methacholine.
PhysostigmineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Physostigmine is combined with Methacholine.
PindololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pindolol is combined with Methacholine.
PractololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Practolol is combined with Methacholine.
PropranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propranolol is combined with Methacholine.
PyridostigmineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pyridostigmine is combined with Methacholine.
RivastigmineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rivastigmine is combined with Methacholine.
SotalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sotalol is combined with Methacholine.
TacrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tacrine is combined with Methacholine.
TimololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Timolol is combined with Methacholine.
TrichlorfonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trichlorfon is combined with Methacholine.
TubocurarineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tubocurarine is combined with Methacholine.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Receptor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM3
Uniprot ID:
P20309
Molecular Weight:
66127.445 Da
References
  1. Liu PS, Chen YY, Feng CK, Lin YH, Yu TC: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors present in human osteoblast and bone tissue. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011 Jan 10;650(1):34-40. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.09.031. Epub 2010 Oct 1. [PubMed:20888332 ]
  2. Fernandez-Rodriguez S, Broadley KJ, Ford WR, Kidd EJ: Increased muscarinic receptor activity of airway smooth muscle isolated from a mouse model of allergic asthma. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Aug;23(4):300-7. doi: 10.1016/j.pupt.2010.03.001. Epub 2010 Mar 25. [PubMed:20347047 ]
  3. Liu T, Xie C, Chen X, Zhao F, Liu AM, Cho DB, Chong J, Yang PC: Role of muscarinic receptor activation in regulating immune cell activity in nasal mucosa. Allergy. 2010 Aug;65(8):969-77. doi: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2009.02281.x. Epub 2009 Nov 27. [PubMed:19951374 ]
  4. Gosens R, Rieks D, Meurs H, Ninaber DK, Rabe KF, Nanninga J, Kolahian S, Halayko AJ, Hiemstra PS, Zuyderduyn S: Muscarinic M3 receptor stimulation increases cigarette smoke-induced IL-8 secretion by human airway smooth muscle cells. Eur Respir J. 2009 Dec;34(6):1436-43. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00045209. Epub 2009 May 21. [PubMed:19460789 ]
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Drug created on May 16, 2010 09:28 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:24