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Identification
NameAmantadine
Accession NumberDB00915  (APRD00787)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
1-adamantanamine
1-adamantylamine
1-aminoadamantane
Amantadina
Amantadine
Amantadinum
Amantidine
Aminoadamantane
Tricyclo[3.3.1.1(3,7)]decan-1-amine
Tricyclo[3.3.1.1(3,7)]decan-1-ylamine
Tricyclo[3.3.1.1(3,7)]decane-1-amine
Viregyt
Virosol
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Dom-amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules-100mgcapsule100 mgoralDominion Pharmacal1998-03-20Not applicableCanada
Endantadinecapsule100 mgoralBristol Myers Squibb Canada1993-12-312008-04-25Canada
Endantadine Cap 100mgcapsule100 mgoralDupont Merck Pharma Inc.1993-12-311999-07-20Canada
Med-amantidine - Cap 100mgcapsule100 mgoralMedican Pharma Incorporated1996-07-302011-03-29Canada
Mylan-amantadinecapsule100 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc1994-12-31Not applicableCanada
PHL-amantadinecapsule100 mgoralPharmel Inc1998-09-032009-10-26Canada
PHL-amantadine Syrup 10mg/mlsyrup10 mgoralPharmel Inc2005-03-23Not applicableCanada
PMS-amantadine Hydrochloride Cap 100mgcapsule100 mgoralPharmascience Inc1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
PMS-amantadine Hydrochloride Syrup 10mg/mlsyrup10 mgoralPharmascience Inc1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
Symmetrel Capsules 100mgcapsule100 mgoralBristol Myers Squibb Canada1993-12-312008-09-04Canada
Symmetrel Syrup 10mg/mlsyrup10 mgoralBristol Myers Squibb Canada1973-12-312008-11-03Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Amantadine HClcapsule, liquid filled100 mg/1oralBanner Life Sciences Llc.2015-09-07Not applicableUs
Amantadine HClcapsule, liquid filled100 mg/1oralBanner Pharmacaps Inc2012-11-01Not applicableUs
Amantadine HClcapsule, liquid filled100 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2013-12-20Not applicableUs
Amantadine HClcapsule, liquid filled100 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Amantadine HClcapsule, liquid filled100 mg/1oralAv Kare, Inc.2013-08-07Not applicableUs
Amantadine HClcapsule100 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2008-11-01Not applicableUs
Amantadine HClcapsule100 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp.2008-11-01Not applicableUs
Amantadine HClcapsule, liquid filled100 mg/1oralAv Pak2014-03-28Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC1987-02-18Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC1987-02-18Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridesolution50 mg/5mLoralPharmaceutical Associates, Inc.1995-07-17Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridesolution50 mg/5mLoralCarilion Materials Management1995-07-17Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridesolution50 mg/5mLoralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2006-12-122015-12-29Us
Amantadine Hydrochloridesolution50 mg/5mLoralCardinal Health1995-07-17Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc1987-02-18Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridesolution50 mg/5mLoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-02-23Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-04-20Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1993-01-06Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridesyrup50 mg/5mLoralMikart, Inc.1993-06-28Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.1987-02-18Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridesolution50 mg/5mLoralCarolina Medical Products Company2002-09-11Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule, gelatin coated100 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc2011-09-15Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralCarilion Materials Management1987-02-18Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc1987-02-18Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc1987-02-18Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridetablet100 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc2011-12-15Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2013-02-14Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralSandoz Inc1987-02-18Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2012-12-28Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC1987-02-18Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs1987-02-18Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridesolution50 mg/5mLoralMorton Grove Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1998-12-24Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridesolution50 mg/5mLoralHi Tech Pharmacal Co., Inc.1994-10-28Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralLannett Company, Inc.2008-11-01Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule, gelatin coated100 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-15Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
PK-MerzNot Available
SymadineNot Available
SymmetrelEndo Pharmaceuticals
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Gapeam BudibacAlvix Laboratories, LLC
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Amantadine hydrochloride
665-66-7
Thumb
  • InChI Key: WOLHOYHSEKDWQH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 187.112777288
  • Average Mass: 187.71
DBSALT000203
Amantadine sulfate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT000830
Categories
UNIIBF4C9Z1J53
CAS number768-94-5
WeightAverage: 151.2487
Monoisotopic: 151.136099549
Chemical FormulaC10H17N
InChI KeyInChIKey=DKNWSYNQZKUICI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C10H17N/c11-10-4-7-1-8(5-10)3-9(2-7)6-10/h7-9H,1-6,11H2
IUPAC Name
adamantan-1-amine
SMILES
NC12CC3CC(CC(C3)C1)C2
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cyclohexylamines. These are organic compounds containing a cyclohexylamine moiety, which consist of a cyclohexane ring attached to an amine group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganonitrogen compounds
ClassCyclohexylamines
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentCyclohexylamines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Cyclohexylamine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the chemoprophylaxis, prophylaxis, and treatment of signs and symptoms of infection caused by various strains of influenza A virus. Also for the treatment of parkinsonism and drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions.
PharmacodynamicsAmantadine is an antiviral drug which also acts as an antiparkinson agent, for which it is usually combined with L-DOPA when L-DOPA responses decline (probably due to tolerance). It is a derivate of adamantane, like a similar drug rimantadine. The mechanism of action of amantadine in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions is not known. It has been shown to cause an increase in dopamine release in the animal brain, and does not possess anticholinergic activity.
Mechanism of actionThe mechanism of its antiparkinsonic effect is not fully understood, but it appears to be releasing dopamine from the nerve endings of the brain cells, together with stimulation of norepinephrine response. It also has NMDA receptor antagonistic effects. The antiviral mechanism seems to be unrelated. The drug interferes with a viral protein, M2 (an ion channel), which is needed for the viral particle to become "uncoated" once it is taken inside the cell by endocytosis.
Related Articles
AbsorptionAmantadine is well absorbed orally from the gastrointestinal tract.
Volume of distribution
  • 3 to 8 L/kg [healthy subjects]
Protein bindingApproximately 67% bound to plasma proteins over a concentration range of 0.1 to 2.0 µg/mL.
Metabolism

No appreciable metabolism, although negligible amounts of an acetyl metabolite have been identified.

Route of eliminationIt is primarily excreted unchanged in the urine by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion.
Half lifeMean half-lives ranged from 10 to 14 hours, however renal function impairment causes a severe increase in half life to 7 to 10 days.
Clearance
  • 0.2 – 0.3 L/hr/kg
  • 0.10 +/- 0.04 L/hr/kg [healthy, elderly male]
ToxicityDeaths have been reported from overdose with amantadine. The lowest reported acute lethal dose was 2 grams. Drug overdose has resulted in cardiac, respiratory, renal or central nervous system toxicity. Cardiac dysfunction includes arrhythmia, tachycardia and hypertension. Pulmonary edema and respiratory distress (including ARDS) have been reported. Renal dysfunction including increased BUN, decreased creatinine clearance and renal insufficiency can occur. Central nervous system effects that have been reported include insomnia, anxiety, aggressive behavior, hypertonia, hyperkinesia, tremor, confusion, disorientation, depersonalization, fear, delirium, hallucination, psychotic reactions, lethargy, somnolence and coma. Seizures may be exacerbated in patients with prior history of seizure disorders. Hyperthermia has also been observed in cases where a drug overdose has occurred.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
  • Various viruses
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9903
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9769
Caco-2 permeable+0.6248
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7275
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9277
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8549
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7474
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8306
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7092
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6561
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.831
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5886
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7836
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7647
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9456
Rat acute toxicity2.2564 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9779
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8695
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Actavis totowa llc
  • Banner pharmacaps inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Solvay pharmaceuticals
  • Endo pharmaceuticals inc
  • Actavis mid atlantic llc
  • Carolina medical products co
  • Hi tech pharmacal co inc
  • Mikart inc
  • Pharmaceutical assoc inc div beach products
  • Silarx pharmaceuticals inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
  • Wockhardt eu operations (swiss) ag
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsule, liquid filledoral100 mg/1
Capsuleoral100 mg/1
Capsule, gelatin coatedoral100 mg/1
Solutionoral50 mg/5mL
Syruporal50 mg/5mL
Tabletoral100 mg/1
Kittopical
Capsuleoral100 mg
Syruporal10 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Symmetrel 50 mg/5ml Syrup 480ml Bottle151.46USD bottle
Amantadine hcl powder6.7USD g
Symmetrel 100 mg tablet1.45USD tablet
Amantadine HCl 100 mg tablet1.37USD tablet
Amantadine 100 mg tablet1.32USD tablet
Amantadine HCl 100 mg capsule0.78USD capsule
Mylan-Amantadine 100 mg Capsule0.54USD capsule
Pms-Amantadine Hydrochloride 100 mg Capsule0.54USD capsule
Amantadine HCl 50 mg/5ml Syrup0.16USD ml
Pms-Amantadine Hydrochloride 10 mg/ml Syrup0.09USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point180-192Haaf, W.; U.S. Patent 3,152,180; October 6, 1964; assigned to Studiengesellschaft Kohle mbH, Germany.
water solubility6290 mg/L (freely soluble)Not Available
logP2.44HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0846 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.53ALOGPS
logP1.47ChemAxon
logS-3.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.71ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area26.02 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity45.54 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability17.92 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (7.71 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9100000000-44ff981fd5fa6c48df97View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Haaf, W.; U.S. Patent 3,152,180; October 6, 1964; assigned to Studiengesellschaft Kohle mbH, Germany.

General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesN04BB01
AHFS Codes
  • 08:18.04
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (197 KB)
MSDSDownload (73.9 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AmisulprideThe therapeutic efficacy of Amisulpride can be decreased when used in combination with Amantadine.
BupropionThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amantadine is combined with Bupropion.
CitalopramAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Citalopram.
DofetilideAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dofetilide.
EthanolEthanol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Amantadine.
GlycopyrroniumAmantadine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Glycopyrrolate.
GoserelinAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Goserelin.
LeuprolideAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Leuprolide.
LoxapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Loxapine can be decreased when used in combination with Amantadine.
MemantineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amantadine is combined with Memantine.
MethylphenidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylphenidate is combined with Amantadine.
MetoclopramideThe therapeutic efficacy of Amantadine can be decreased when used in combination with Metoclopramide.
MifepristoneMifepristone may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Amantadine.
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Amantadine.
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Amantadine.
TrimethoprimThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trimethoprim is combined with Amantadine.
ZiprasidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Amantadine can be decreased when used in combination with Ziprasidone.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take without regard to meals.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Influenza A virus (strain A/Ann Arbor/6/1960 H2N2)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Forms a proton-selective ion channel that is necessary for the efficient release of the viral genome during virus entry. After attaching to the cell surface, the virion enters the cell by endocytosis. Acidification of the endosome triggers M2 ion channel activity. The influx of protons into virion interior is believed to disrupt interactions between the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP), matrix pro...
Gene Name:
M
Uniprot ID:
P21430
Molecular Weight:
11165.62 Da
References
  1. Wang C, Takeuchi K, Pinto LH, Lamb RA: Ion channel activity of influenza A virus M2 protein: characterization of the amantadine block. J Virol. 1993 Sep;67(9):5585-94. [PubMed:7688826 ]
  2. Jing X, Ma C, Ohigashi Y, Oliveira FA, Jardetzky TS, Pinto LH, Lamb RA: Functional studies indicate amantadine binds to the pore of the influenza A virus M2 proton-selective ion channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Aug 5;105(31):10967-72. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0804958105. Epub 2008 Jul 31. [PubMed:18669647 ]
  3. Wang J, Cady SD, Balannik V, Pinto LH, DeGrado WF, Hong M: Discovery of spiro-piperidine inhibitors and their modulation of the dynamics of the M2 proton channel from influenza A virus. J Am Chem Soc. 2009 Jun 17;131(23):8066-76. doi: 10.1021/ja900063s. [PubMed:19469531 ]
  4. Beigel J, Bray M: Current and future antiviral therapy of severe seasonal and avian influenza. Antiviral Res. 2008 Apr;78(1):91-102. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2008.01.003. Epub 2008 Feb 4. [PubMed:18328578 ]
  5. Lear JD: Proton conduction through the M2 protein of the influenza A virus; a quantitative, mechanistic analysis of experimental data. FEBS Lett. 2003 Sep 18;552(1):17-22. [PubMed:12972146 ]
  6. Salom D, Hill BR, Lear JD, DeGrado WF: pH-dependent tetramerization and amantadine binding of the transmembrane helix of M2 from the influenza A virus. Biochemistry. 2000 Nov 21;39(46):14160-70. [PubMed:11087364 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Protein phosphatase 2a binding
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. May play a role in the development of dendritic spines. May play a role in PPP2CB-NMDAR mediated signaling mechanism (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GRIN3A
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCU5
Molecular Weight:
125464.07 Da
References
  1. Blanpied TA, Clarke RJ, Johnson JW: Amantadine inhibits NMDA receptors by accelerating channel closure during channel block. J Neurosci. 2005 Mar 30;25(13):3312-22. [PubMed:15800186 ]
  2. Hesselink MB, De Boer AG, Breimer DD, Danysz W: Adaptations of NMDA and dopamine D2, but not of muscarinic receptors following 14 days administration of uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 1999;106(5-6):409-21. [PubMed:10443547 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular Weight:
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Tomitaka S, Hashimoto K, Narita N, Minabe Y, Tamura A: Amantadine induces c-fos in rat striatum: reversal with dopamine D1 and NMDA receptor antagonists. Eur J Pharmacol. 1995 Oct 16;285(2):207-11. [PubMed:8566141 ]
  2. Ameri A: Effects of the Aconitum alkaloid songorine on synaptic transmission and paired-pulse facilitation of CA1 pyramidal cells in rat hippocampal slices. Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Oct;125(3):461-8. [PubMed:9806328 ]
  3. Hesselink MB, De Boer AG, Breimer DD, Danysz W: Adaptations of NMDA and dopamine D2, but not of muscarinic receptors following 14 days administration of uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 1999;106(5-6):409-21. [PubMed:10443547 ]
  4. Cousins MS, Carriero DL, Salamone JD: Tremulous jaw movements induced by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor tacrine: effects of antiparkinsonian drugs. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Mar 19;322(2-3):137-45. [PubMed:9098680 ]
  5. doi:10.1007/s00415-006-3004-8 [Link]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin and L-tryptophan to tryptamine.
Gene Name:
DDC
Uniprot ID:
P20711
Molecular Weight:
53925.815 Da
References
  1. Li XM, Juorio AV, Qi J, Boulton AA: Amantadine increases aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase mRNA in PC12 cells. J Neurosci Res. 1998 Aug 15;53(4):490-3. [PubMed:9710269 ]
  2. Fisher A, Biggs CS, Starr MS: Effects of glutamate antagonists on the activity of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase. Amino Acids. 1998;14(1-3):43-9. [PubMed:9871440 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Primary amine oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOB preferentially degrades benzylamine and phenylethylamine.
Gene Name:
MAOB
Uniprot ID:
P27338
Molecular Weight:
58762.475 Da
References
  1. Wesemann W, Ekenna O: Effect of 1-aminoadamantanes on the MAO activity in brain, liver, and kidney of the rat. Arzneimittelforschung. 1982;32(10):1241-3. [PubMed:6891223 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creatinine, amantadine, memantine, acriflavine, 4-[4-(dimethylamino)-styryl]-N-methylpyridinium ASP, amiloride, metformin, N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridiniu...
Gene Name:
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID:
O15244
Molecular Weight:
62579.99 Da
References
  1. Urakami Y, Akazawa M, Saito H, Okuda M, Inui K: cDNA cloning, functional characterization, and tissue distribution of an alternatively spliced variant of organic cation transporter hOCT2 predominantly expressed in the human kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Jul;13(7):1703-10. [PubMed:12089365 ]
  2. Busch AE, Karbach U, Miska D, Gorboulev V, Akhoundova A, Volk C, Arndt P, Ulzheimer JC, Sonders MS, Baumann C, Waldegger S, Lang F, Koepsell H: Human neurons express the polyspecific cation transporter hOCT2, which translocates monoamine neurotransmitters, amantadine, and memantine. Mol Pharmacol. 1998 Aug;54(2):342-52. [PubMed:9687576 ]
  3. Goralski KB, Lou G, Prowse MT, Gorboulev V, Volk C, Koepsell H, Sitar DS: The cation transporters rOCT1 and rOCT2 interact with bicarbonate but play only a minor role for amantadine uptake into rat renal proximal tubules. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):959-68. [PubMed:12438515 ]
  4. Ishiguro N, Saito A, Yokoyama K, Morikawa M, Igarashi T, Tamai I: Transport of the dopamine D2 agonist pramipexole by rat organic cation transporters OCT1 and OCT2 in kidney. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Apr;33(4):495-9. Epub 2005 Jan 7. [PubMed:15640376 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine...
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular Weight:
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Bednarczyk D, Ekins S, Wikel JH, Wright SH: Influence of molecular structure on substrate binding to the human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Mar;63(3):489-98. [PubMed:12606755 ]
  2. Zhang L, Schaner ME, Giacomini KM: Functional characterization of an organic cation transporter (hOCT1) in a transiently transfected human cell line (HeLa). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Jul;286(1):354-61. [PubMed:9655880 ]
  3. Goralski KB, Lou G, Prowse MT, Gorboulev V, Volk C, Koepsell H, Sitar DS: The cation transporters rOCT1 and rOCT2 interact with bicarbonate but play only a minor role for amantadine uptake into rat renal proximal tubules. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):959-68. [PubMed:12438515 ]
  4. Ishiguro N, Saito A, Yokoyama K, Morikawa M, Igarashi T, Tamai I: Transport of the dopamine D2 agonist pramipexole by rat organic cation transporters OCT1 and OCT2 in kidney. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Apr;33(4):495-9. Epub 2005 Jan 7. [PubMed:15640376 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Mahar Doan KM, Humphreys JE, Webster LO, Wring SA, Shampine LJ, Serabjit-Singh CJ, Adkison KK, Polli JW: Passive permeability and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux differentiate central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS marketed drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):1029-37. [PubMed:12438524 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on March 27, 2014 13:51