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Identification
NameAmantadine
Accession NumberDB00915  (APRD00787)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionAn antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
1-adamantanamine
1-adamantylamine
1-aminoadamantane
Amantadina
Amantadine
Amantadinum
Amantidine
Aminoadamantane
Tricyclo[3.3.1.1(3,7)]decan-1-amine
Tricyclo[3.3.1.1(3,7)]decan-1-ylamine
Tricyclo[3.3.1.1(3,7)]decane-1-amine
Viregyt
Virosol
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Dom-amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules-100mgcapsule100 mgoralDominion Pharmacal1998-03-20Not applicableCanada
Endantadinecapsule100 mgoralBristol Myers Squibb Canada1993-12-312008-04-25Canada
Endantadine Cap 100mgcapsule100 mgoralDupont Merck Pharma Inc.1993-12-311999-07-20Canada
Med-amantidine - Cap 100mgcapsule100 mgoralMedican Pharma Incorporated1996-07-302011-03-29Canada
Mylan-amantadinecapsule100 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc1994-12-312016-06-28Canada
PHL-amantadinecapsule100 mgoralPharmel Inc1998-09-032009-10-26Canada
PHL-amantadine Syrup 10mg/mlsyrup10 mgoralPharmel Inc2005-03-23Not applicableCanada
PMS-amantadine Hydrochloride Cap 100mgcapsule100 mgoralPharmascience Inc1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
PMS-amantadine Hydrochloride Syrup 10mg/mlsyrup10 mgoralPharmascience Inc1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
Symmetrel Capsules 100mgcapsule100 mgoralBristol Myers Squibb Canada1993-12-312008-09-04Canada
Symmetrel Syrup 10mg/mlsyrup10 mgoralBristol Myers Squibb Canada1973-12-312008-11-03Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Amantadine HClcapsule, liquid filled100 mg/1oralBanner Pharmacaps Inc2012-11-01Not applicableUs
Amantadine HClcapsule, liquid filled100 mg/1oralAv Kare, Inc.2013-08-07Not applicableUs
Amantadine HClcapsule, liquid filled100 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2013-12-20Not applicableUs
Amantadine HClcapsule100 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp.2008-11-01Not applicableUs
Amantadine HClcapsule, liquid filled100 mg/1oralBanner Life Sciences Llc.2015-09-07Not applicableUs
Amantadine HClcapsule100 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2008-11-01Not applicableUs
Amantadine HClcapsule, liquid filled100 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Amantadine HClcapsule, liquid filled100 mg/1oralAv Pak2014-03-28Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc1987-02-18Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridesolution50 mg/5mLoralPharmaceutical Associates, Inc.1995-07-17Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-04-20Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralCarilion Materials Management1987-02-18Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule, gelatin coated100 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-15Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridetablet100 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc2011-12-15Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridesolution50 mg/5mLoralHi Tech Pharmacal Co., Inc.1994-10-28Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridesolution50 mg/5mLoralCarilion Materials Management1995-07-17Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC1987-02-18Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1993-01-06Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralLannett Company, Inc.2008-11-01Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC1987-02-18Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc1987-02-18Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridesolution50 mg/5mLoralMorton Grove Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1998-12-24Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule, gelatin coated100 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc2011-09-15Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2012-12-28Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridesolution50 mg/5mLoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-02-23Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs1987-02-18Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc1987-02-18Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridesolution50 mg/5mLoralCarolina Medical Products Company2002-09-11Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.1987-02-18Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC1987-02-18Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridesolution50 mg/5mLoralCardinal Health1995-07-17Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralSandoz Inc1987-02-18Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridesolution50 mg/5mLoralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2006-12-122015-12-29Us
Amantadine Hydrochloridecapsule100 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2013-02-14Not applicableUs
Amantadine Hydrochloridesyrup50 mg/5mLoralMikart, Inc.1993-06-28Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
PK-MerzNot Available
SymadineNot Available
SymmetrelEndo Pharmaceuticals
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Gapeam BudibacAlvix Laboratories, LLC
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Amantadine hydrochloride
665-66-7
Thumb
  • InChI Key: WOLHOYHSEKDWQH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 187.112777288
  • Average Mass: 187.71
DBSALT000203
Amantadine sulfate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT000830
Categories
UNIIBF4C9Z1J53
CAS number768-94-5
WeightAverage: 151.2487
Monoisotopic: 151.136099549
Chemical FormulaC10H17N
InChI KeyInChIKey=DKNWSYNQZKUICI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C10H17N/c11-10-4-7-1-8(5-10)3-9(2-7)6-10/h7-9H,1-6,11H2
IUPAC Name
adamantan-1-amine
SMILES
NC12CC3CC(CC(C3)C1)C2
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cyclohexylamines. These are organic compounds containing a cyclohexylamine moiety, which consist of a cyclohexane ring attached to an amine group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganonitrogen compounds
ClassCyclohexylamines
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentCyclohexylamines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Cyclohexylamine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the chemoprophylaxis, prophylaxis, and treatment of signs and symptoms of infection caused by various strains of influenza A virus. Also for the treatment of parkinsonism and drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions.
PharmacodynamicsAmantadine is an antiviral drug which also acts as an antiparkinson agent, for which it is usually combined with L-DOPA when L-DOPA responses decline (probably due to tolerance). It is a derivate of adamantane, like a similar drug rimantadine. The mechanism of action of amantadine in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions is not known. It has been shown to cause an increase in dopamine release in the animal brain, and does not possess anticholinergic activity.
Mechanism of actionThe mechanism of its antiparkinsonic effect is not fully understood, but it appears to be releasing dopamine from the nerve endings of the brain cells, together with stimulation of norepinephrine response. It also has NMDA receptor antagonistic effects. The antiviral mechanism seems to be unrelated. The drug interferes with a viral protein, M2 (an ion channel), which is needed for the viral particle to become "uncoated" once it is taken inside the cell by endocytosis.
Related Articles
AbsorptionAmantadine is well absorbed orally from the gastrointestinal tract.
Volume of distribution
  • 3 to 8 L/kg [healthy subjects]
Protein bindingApproximately 67% bound to plasma proteins over a concentration range of 0.1 to 2.0 µg/mL.
Metabolism

No appreciable metabolism, although negligible amounts of an acetyl metabolite have been identified.

Route of eliminationIt is primarily excreted unchanged in the urine by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion.
Half lifeMean half-lives ranged from 10 to 14 hours, however renal function impairment causes a severe increase in half life to 7 to 10 days.
Clearance
  • 0.2 – 0.3 L/hr/kg
  • 0.10 +/- 0.04 L/hr/kg [healthy, elderly male]
ToxicityDeaths have been reported from overdose with amantadine. The lowest reported acute lethal dose was 2 grams. Drug overdose has resulted in cardiac, respiratory, renal or central nervous system toxicity. Cardiac dysfunction includes arrhythmia, tachycardia and hypertension. Pulmonary edema and respiratory distress (including ARDS) have been reported. Renal dysfunction including increased BUN, decreased creatinine clearance and renal insufficiency can occur. Central nervous system effects that have been reported include insomnia, anxiety, aggressive behavior, hypertonia, hyperkinesia, tremor, confusion, disorientation, depersonalization, fear, delirium, hallucination, psychotic reactions, lethargy, somnolence and coma. Seizures may be exacerbated in patients with prior history of seizure disorders. Hyperthermia has also been observed in cases where a drug overdose has occurred.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
  • Various viruses
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9903
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9769
Caco-2 permeable+0.6248
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7275
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9277
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8549
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7474
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8306
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7092
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6561
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.831
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5886
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7836
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7647
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9456
Rat acute toxicity2.2564 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9779
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8695
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Actavis totowa llc
  • Banner pharmacaps inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Solvay pharmaceuticals
  • Endo pharmaceuticals inc
  • Actavis mid atlantic llc
  • Carolina medical products co
  • Hi tech pharmacal co inc
  • Mikart inc
  • Pharmaceutical assoc inc div beach products
  • Silarx pharmaceuticals inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
  • Wockhardt eu operations (swiss) ag
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsule, liquid filledoral100 mg/1
Capsuleoral100 mg/1
Capsule, gelatin coatedoral100 mg/1
Solutionoral50 mg/5mL
Syruporal50 mg/5mL
Tabletoral100 mg/1
Kittopical
Capsuleoral100 mg
Syruporal10 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Symmetrel 50 mg/5ml Syrup 480ml Bottle151.46USD bottle
Amantadine hcl powder6.7USD g
Symmetrel 100 mg tablet1.45USD tablet
Amantadine HCl 100 mg tablet1.37USD tablet
Amantadine 100 mg tablet1.32USD tablet
Amantadine HCl 100 mg capsule0.78USD capsule
Mylan-Amantadine 100 mg Capsule0.54USD capsule
Pms-Amantadine Hydrochloride 100 mg Capsule0.54USD capsule
Amantadine HCl 50 mg/5ml Syrup0.16USD ml
Pms-Amantadine Hydrochloride 10 mg/ml Syrup0.09USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point180-192Haaf, W.; U.S. Patent 3,152,180; October 6, 1964; assigned to Studiengesellschaft Kohle mbH, Germany.
water solubility6290 mg/L (freely soluble)Not Available
logP2.44HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0846 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.53ALOGPS
logP1.47ChemAxon
logS-3.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.71ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area26.02 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity45.54 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability17.92 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (7.71 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9100000000-44ff981fd5fa6c48df97View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Haaf, W.; U.S. Patent 3,152,180; October 6, 1964; assigned to Studiengesellschaft Kohle mbH, Germany.

General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesN04BB01
AHFS Codes
  • 08:18.04
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (197 KB)
MSDSDownload (73.9 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcebutololThe serum concentration of Acebutolol can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
AcetaminophenThe serum concentration of Acetaminophen can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe serum concentration of Acetylsalicylic acid can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Afatinib can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
AldosteroneThe serum concentration of Aldosterone can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
AlitretinoinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
AmbrisentanThe serum concentration of Ambrisentan can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
AmiodaroneAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Amiodarone.
AmitriptylineThe serum concentration of Amitriptyline can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
AnagrelideAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Anagrelide.
ApixabanThe serum concentration of Apixaban can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
Arsenic trioxideThe serum concentration of Arsenic trioxide can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
ArtemetherAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Artemether.
AsenapineAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Asenapine.
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Atazanavir can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
AtenololThe serum concentration of Atenolol can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
AxitinibThe serum concentration of Axitinib can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
AzithromycinAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Azithromycin.
BedaquilineAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Bedaquiline.
BetamethasoneThe serum concentration of Betamethasone can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Boceprevir can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Bosutinib can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
Brentuximab vedotinThe serum concentration of Brentuximab vedotin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
BromocriptineThe serum concentration of Bromocriptine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
CabazitaxelThe serum concentration of Cabazitaxel can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
CaffeineThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
CamptothecinThe serum concentration of Camptothecin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
CanagliflozinThe serum concentration of Canagliflozin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of Carbamazepine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
CarfilzomibThe serum concentration of Carfilzomib can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
CeritinibAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ceritinib.
CerivastatinThe serum concentration of Cerivastatin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
ChloroquineAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Chloroquine.
ChlorpromazineAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Chlorpromazine.
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Cimetidine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
CiprofloxacinAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ciprofloxacin.
CisaprideAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Cisapride.
CisplatinThe serum concentration of Cisplatin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
CitalopramThe serum concentration of Citalopram can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
ClarithromycinAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Clarithromycin.
ClobazamThe serum concentration of Clobazam can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
ClomifeneThe serum concentration of Clomifene can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
ClonidineThe serum concentration of Clonidine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
ClopidogrelThe serum concentration of Clopidogrel can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
ClozapineAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Clozapine.
CobimetinibThe serum concentration of Cobimetinib can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Colchicine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
Conjugated Equine EstrogensThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
CrizotinibAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Crizotinib.
CyclosporineThe serum concentration of Cyclosporine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of Dabigatran etexilate can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Dabrafenib can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
DactinomycinThe serum concentration of Dactinomycin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
DapagliflozinThe serum concentration of Dapagliflozin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Dasatinib can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
DaunorubicinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
DebrisoquinThe serum concentration of Debrisoquin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Dexamethasone can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
DiazepamThe serum concentration of Diazepam can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
DiethylstilbestrolThe serum concentration of Diethylstilbestrol can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
DigitoxinThe serum concentration of Digitoxin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Digoxin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
DihydrotestosteroneThe serum concentration of Dihydrotestosterone can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
DiltiazemThe serum concentration of Diltiazem can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
DipyridamoleThe serum concentration of Dipyridamole can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
DisopyramideAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Disopyramide.
DocetaxelThe serum concentration of Docetaxel can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
DofetilideAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dofetilide.
DolasetronAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dolasetron.
DomperidoneThe serum concentration of Domperidone can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
DronedaroneAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dronedarone.
DroperidolAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Droperidol.
EdoxabanThe serum concentration of Edoxaban can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
EletriptanThe serum concentration of Eletriptan can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
EliglustatAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Eliglustat.
EpinastineThe serum concentration of Epinastine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
ErlotinibThe serum concentration of Erlotinib can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
ErythromycinAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Erythromycin.
EscitalopramAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Escitalopram.
EstradiolThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
EstriolThe serum concentration of Estriol can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
EstroneThe serum concentration of Estrone can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
EthanolEthanol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Amantadine.
Ethinyl EstradiolThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
EtoposideThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
EverolimusThe serum concentration of Everolimus can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
EzetimibeThe serum concentration of Ezetimibe can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
FesoterodineThe serum concentration of Fesoterodine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
FexofenadineThe serum concentration of Fexofenadine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
FidaxomicinThe serum concentration of Fidaxomicin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
FlecainideAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Flecainide.
FluoxetineAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Fluoxetine.
FlupentixolAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Flupentixol.
Fluticasone furoateThe serum concentration of Fluticasone furoate can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
Gadobenic acidAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Gadobenic acid.
GefitinibThe serum concentration of Gefitinib can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
GemcitabineThe serum concentration of Gemcitabine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
GemifloxacinAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Gemifloxacin.
GlycopyrroniumAmantadine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Glycopyrronium.
GoserelinAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Goserelin.
GranisetronAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Granisetron.
GrazoprevirThe serum concentration of Grazoprevir can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
GrepafloxacinThe serum concentration of Grepafloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
HaloperidolAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Haloperidol.
HydrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Hydrocortisone can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
IbuprofenThe serum concentration of Ibuprofen can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
IbutilideAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ibutilide.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Idelalisib can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
IloperidoneAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Iloperidone.
ImatinibThe serum concentration of Imatinib can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
ImipramineThe serum concentration of Imipramine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
IndacaterolThe serum concentration of Indacaterol can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
IndinavirThe serum concentration of Indinavir can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
IndomethacinThe serum concentration of Indomethacin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
IrinotecanThe serum concentration of Irinotecan can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
IvermectinThe serum concentration of Ivermectin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
KetazolamThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
KetoconazoleThe serum concentration of Ketoconazole can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
LamivudineThe serum concentration of Lamivudine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
LamotrigineThe serum concentration of Lamotrigine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
LansoprazoleThe serum concentration of Lansoprazole can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
LedipasvirThe serum concentration of Ledipasvir can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
LenalidomideThe serum concentration of Lenalidomide can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
LenvatinibAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Lenvatinib.
LeuprolideAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Leuprolide.
LevetiracetamThe serum concentration of Levetiracetam can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
LevofloxacinAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Levofloxacin.
LevomilnacipranThe serum concentration of Levomilnacipran can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
LinagliptinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
LoperamideThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
LopinavirAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Lopinavir.
LosartanThe serum concentration of Losartan can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
LumefantrineAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Lumefantrine.
MannitolThe serum concentration of Mannitol can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
MemantineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amantadine is combined with Memantine.
MethadoneAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Methadone.
MethotrexateThe serum concentration of Methotrexate can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
MethylprednisoloneThe serum concentration of Methylprednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Metoprolol can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
MidazolamThe serum concentration of Midazolam can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
MifepristoneMifepristone may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Amantadine.
MirabegronThe serum concentration of Mirabegron can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
MitoxantroneThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
MorphineThe serum concentration of Morphine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
MoxifloxacinAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Moxifloxacin.
Mycophenolate mofetilThe serum concentration of Mycophenolate mofetil can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
NadololThe serum concentration of Nadolol can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
NaloxegolThe serum concentration of Naloxegol can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
NaloxoneThe serum concentration of Naloxone can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
NelfinavirThe serum concentration of Nelfinavir can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
NicardipineThe serum concentration of Nicardipine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
NifedipineThe serum concentration of Nifedipine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
NilotinibThe serum concentration of Nilotinib can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
NintedanibThe serum concentration of Nintedanib can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
NizatidineThe serum concentration of Nizatidine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
OfloxacinAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ofloxacin.
OlanzapineThe serum concentration of Olanzapine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
OmbitasvirThe serum concentration of Ombitasvir can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
OndansetronAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ondansetron.
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Osimertinib can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
PaclitaxelThe serum concentration of Paclitaxel can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
PaliperidoneAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Paliperidone.
PanobinostatAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Panobinostat.
PazopanibThe serum concentration of Pazopanib can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
PentamidineAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Pentamidine.
PerflutrenAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Perflutren.
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
PimozideAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Pimozide.
PitavastatinThe serum concentration of Pitavastatin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
PomalidomideThe serum concentration of Pomalidomide can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
PonatinibThe serum concentration of Ponatinib can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
PravastatinThe serum concentration of Pravastatin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
PrazosinThe serum concentration of Prazosin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
PrednisoloneThe serum concentration of Prednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
PrednisoneThe serum concentration of Prednisone can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
PrimaquineAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Primaquine.
ProcainamideAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Procainamide.
ProgesteroneThe serum concentration of Progesterone can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
PromazineAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Promazine.
PropafenoneAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Propafenone.
PropranololThe serum concentration of Propranolol can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
PrucaloprideThe serum concentration of Prucalopride can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
QuetiapineThe serum concentration of Quetiapine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
QuinidineThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
QuinineThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
RanitidineThe serum concentration of Ranitidine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Ranolazine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
ReserpineThe serum concentration of Reserpine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Rifampicin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
RifaximinThe serum concentration of Rifaximin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
RisperidoneThe serum concentration of Risperidone can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
RivaroxabanThe serum concentration of Rivaroxaban can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
RomidepsinThe serum concentration of Romidepsin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
Salicylic acidThe serum concentration of Salicylic acid can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
SaquinavirAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Saquinavir.
SelexipagThe serum concentration of Selexipag can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
SilodosinThe serum concentration of Silodosin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Simeprevir can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
SitagliptinThe serum concentration of Sitagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
SofosbuvirThe serum concentration of Sofosbuvir can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
SorafenibThe serum concentration of Sorafenib can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
SotalolAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Sotalol.
SparfloxacinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
SphingosineThe serum concentration of Sphingosine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
SulfisoxazoleAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Sulfisoxazole.
TacrolimusThe serum concentration of Tacrolimus can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
TamoxifenThe serum concentration of Tamoxifen can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
Taurocholic AcidThe serum concentration of Taurocholic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
Technetium Tc-99m sestamibiThe serum concentration of Technetium Tc-99m sestamibi can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Telaprevir can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
TelavancinAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Telavancin.
TelithromycinAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Telithromycin.
TemsirolimusThe serum concentration of Temsirolimus can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
TetrabenazineAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Tetrabenazine.
ThioridazineAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Thioridazine.
TicagrelorThe serum concentration of Ticagrelor can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
TimololThe serum concentration of Timolol can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
TolvaptanThe serum concentration of Tolvaptan can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
TopotecanThe serum concentration of Topotecan can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
ToremifeneThe serum concentration of Toremifene can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
Trastuzumab emtansineThe serum concentration of Trastuzumab emtansine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
TrimethoprimThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trimethoprim is combined with Amantadine.
UlipristalThe serum concentration of Ulipristal can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
UmeclidiniumThe serum concentration of Umeclidinium can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
VandetanibAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Vandetanib.
VecuroniumThe serum concentration of Vecuronium can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
VemurafenibAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Vemurafenib.
VenlafaxineThe serum concentration of Venlafaxine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
VerapamilThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
VinblastineThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
VincristineThe serum concentration of Vincristine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
VismodegibThe serum concentration of Vismodegib can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
ZidovudineThe serum concentration of Zidovudine can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
ZiprasidoneAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ziprasidone.
ZuclopenthixolAmantadine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Zuclopenthixol.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take without regard to meals.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Influenza A virus (strain A/Ann Arbor/6/1960 H2N2)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Forms a proton-selective ion channel that is necessary for the efficient release of the viral genome during virus entry. After attaching to the cell surface, the virion enters the cell by endocytosis. Acidification of the endosome triggers M2 ion channel activity. The influx of protons into virion interior is believed to disrupt interactions between the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP), matrix pro...
Gene Name:
M
Uniprot ID:
P21430
Molecular Weight:
11165.62 Da
References
  1. Wang C, Takeuchi K, Pinto LH, Lamb RA: Ion channel activity of influenza A virus M2 protein: characterization of the amantadine block. J Virol. 1993 Sep;67(9):5585-94. [PubMed:7688826 ]
  2. Jing X, Ma C, Ohigashi Y, Oliveira FA, Jardetzky TS, Pinto LH, Lamb RA: Functional studies indicate amantadine binds to the pore of the influenza A virus M2 proton-selective ion channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Aug 5;105(31):10967-72. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0804958105. Epub 2008 Jul 31. [PubMed:18669647 ]
  3. Wang J, Cady SD, Balannik V, Pinto LH, DeGrado WF, Hong M: Discovery of spiro-piperidine inhibitors and their modulation of the dynamics of the M2 proton channel from influenza A virus. J Am Chem Soc. 2009 Jun 17;131(23):8066-76. doi: 10.1021/ja900063s. [PubMed:19469531 ]
  4. Beigel J, Bray M: Current and future antiviral therapy of severe seasonal and avian influenza. Antiviral Res. 2008 Apr;78(1):91-102. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2008.01.003. Epub 2008 Feb 4. [PubMed:18328578 ]
  5. Lear JD: Proton conduction through the M2 protein of the influenza A virus; a quantitative, mechanistic analysis of experimental data. FEBS Lett. 2003 Sep 18;552(1):17-22. [PubMed:12972146 ]
  6. Salom D, Hill BR, Lear JD, DeGrado WF: pH-dependent tetramerization and amantadine binding of the transmembrane helix of M2 from the influenza A virus. Biochemistry. 2000 Nov 21;39(46):14160-70. [PubMed:11087364 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Protein phosphatase 2a binding
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. May play a role in the development of dendritic spines. May play a role in PPP2CB-NMDAR mediated signaling mechanism (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GRIN3A
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCU5
Molecular Weight:
125464.07 Da
References
  1. Blanpied TA, Clarke RJ, Johnson JW: Amantadine inhibits NMDA receptors by accelerating channel closure during channel block. J Neurosci. 2005 Mar 30;25(13):3312-22. [PubMed:15800186 ]
  2. Hesselink MB, De Boer AG, Breimer DD, Danysz W: Adaptations of NMDA and dopamine D2, but not of muscarinic receptors following 14 days administration of uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 1999;106(5-6):409-21. [PubMed:10443547 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular Weight:
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Tomitaka S, Hashimoto K, Narita N, Minabe Y, Tamura A: Amantadine induces c-fos in rat striatum: reversal with dopamine D1 and NMDA receptor antagonists. Eur J Pharmacol. 1995 Oct 16;285(2):207-11. [PubMed:8566141 ]
  2. Ameri A: Effects of the Aconitum alkaloid songorine on synaptic transmission and paired-pulse facilitation of CA1 pyramidal cells in rat hippocampal slices. Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Oct;125(3):461-8. [PubMed:9806328 ]
  3. Hesselink MB, De Boer AG, Breimer DD, Danysz W: Adaptations of NMDA and dopamine D2, but not of muscarinic receptors following 14 days administration of uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 1999;106(5-6):409-21. [PubMed:10443547 ]
  4. Cousins MS, Carriero DL, Salamone JD: Tremulous jaw movements induced by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor tacrine: effects of antiparkinsonian drugs. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Mar 19;322(2-3):137-45. [PubMed:9098680 ]
  5. doi:10.1007/s00415-006-3004-8 [Link]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin and L-tryptophan to tryptamine.
Gene Name:
DDC
Uniprot ID:
P20711
Molecular Weight:
53925.815 Da
References
  1. Li XM, Juorio AV, Qi J, Boulton AA: Amantadine increases aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase mRNA in PC12 cells. J Neurosci Res. 1998 Aug 15;53(4):490-3. [PubMed:9710269 ]
  2. Fisher A, Biggs CS, Starr MS: Effects of glutamate antagonists on the activity of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase. Amino Acids. 1998;14(1-3):43-9. [PubMed:9871440 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Primary amine oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOB preferentially degrades benzylamine and phenylethylamine.
Gene Name:
MAOB
Uniprot ID:
P27338
Molecular Weight:
58762.475 Da
References
  1. Wesemann W, Ekenna O: Effect of 1-aminoadamantanes on the MAO activity in brain, liver, and kidney of the rat. Arzneimittelforschung. 1982;32(10):1241-3. [PubMed:6891223 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creatinine, amantadine, memantine, acriflavine, 4-[4-(dimethylamino)-styryl]-N-methylpyridinium ASP, amiloride, metformin, N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridiniu...
Gene Name:
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID:
O15244
Molecular Weight:
62579.99 Da
References
  1. Urakami Y, Akazawa M, Saito H, Okuda M, Inui K: cDNA cloning, functional characterization, and tissue distribution of an alternatively spliced variant of organic cation transporter hOCT2 predominantly expressed in the human kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Jul;13(7):1703-10. [PubMed:12089365 ]
  2. Busch AE, Karbach U, Miska D, Gorboulev V, Akhoundova A, Volk C, Arndt P, Ulzheimer JC, Sonders MS, Baumann C, Waldegger S, Lang F, Koepsell H: Human neurons express the polyspecific cation transporter hOCT2, which translocates monoamine neurotransmitters, amantadine, and memantine. Mol Pharmacol. 1998 Aug;54(2):342-52. [PubMed:9687576 ]
  3. Goralski KB, Lou G, Prowse MT, Gorboulev V, Volk C, Koepsell H, Sitar DS: The cation transporters rOCT1 and rOCT2 interact with bicarbonate but play only a minor role for amantadine uptake into rat renal proximal tubules. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):959-68. [PubMed:12438515 ]
  4. Ishiguro N, Saito A, Yokoyama K, Morikawa M, Igarashi T, Tamai I: Transport of the dopamine D2 agonist pramipexole by rat organic cation transporters OCT1 and OCT2 in kidney. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Apr;33(4):495-9. Epub 2005 Jan 7. [PubMed:15640376 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine...
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular Weight:
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Bednarczyk D, Ekins S, Wikel JH, Wright SH: Influence of molecular structure on substrate binding to the human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Mar;63(3):489-98. [PubMed:12606755 ]
  2. Zhang L, Schaner ME, Giacomini KM: Functional characterization of an organic cation transporter (hOCT1) in a transiently transfected human cell line (HeLa). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Jul;286(1):354-61. [PubMed:9655880 ]
  3. Goralski KB, Lou G, Prowse MT, Gorboulev V, Volk C, Koepsell H, Sitar DS: The cation transporters rOCT1 and rOCT2 interact with bicarbonate but play only a minor role for amantadine uptake into rat renal proximal tubules. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):959-68. [PubMed:12438515 ]
  4. Ishiguro N, Saito A, Yokoyama K, Morikawa M, Igarashi T, Tamai I: Transport of the dopamine D2 agonist pramipexole by rat organic cation transporters OCT1 and OCT2 in kidney. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Apr;33(4):495-9. Epub 2005 Jan 7. [PubMed:15640376 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Mahar Doan KM, Humphreys JE, Webster LO, Wring SA, Shampine LJ, Serabjit-Singh CJ, Adkison KK, Polli JW: Passive permeability and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux differentiate central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS marketed drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):1029-37. [PubMed:12438524 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23