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Identification
NameNiclosamide
Accession NumberDB06803
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Vet Approved
Description

Niclosamide is used for the treatment of most tapeworm infections. Helminths (worms) are multicellular organisms that infect very large numbers of humans and cause a broad range of diseases. Over 1 billion people are infected with intestinal nematodes, and many millions are infected with filarial nematodes, flukes, and tapeworms. They are an even greater problem in domestic animals.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Niclocide
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
NiclocideNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII8KK8CQ2K8G
CAS number50-65-7
WeightAverage: 327.12
Monoisotopic: 325.986112168
Chemical FormulaC13H8Cl2N2O4
InChI KeyInChIKey=RJMUSRYZPJIFPJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C13H8Cl2N2O4/c14-7-1-4-12(18)9(5-7)13(19)16-11-3-2-8(17(20)21)6-10(11)15/h1-6,18H,(H,16,19)
IUPAC Name
5-chloro-N-(2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl)-2-hydroxybenzamide
SMILES
OC1=C(C=C(Cl)C=C1)C(=O)NC1=C(Cl)C=C(C=C1)[N+]([O-])=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as n-phenylbenzamides. These are benzamides that are N-linked to a phenyl group via the carboxamide group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzamides
Direct ParentN-phenylbenzamides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • N-phenylbenzamide
  • N-arylamide
  • 3-halobenzoic acid or derivatives
  • Salicylic acid or derivatives
  • Salicylamide
  • Nitrobenzene
  • Benzoic acid or derivatives
  • 4-chlorophenol
  • 4-halophenol
  • Benzoyl
  • Phenol
  • Halobenzene
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Vinylogous acid
  • Organic nitro compound
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Organic nitrite
  • C-nitro compound
  • Carboxamide group
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Allyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Organic oxoazanium
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic salt
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic zwitterion
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of tapeworm and intestinal fluke infections: Taenia saginata (Beef Tapeworm), Taenia solium (Pork Tapeworm), Diphyllobothrium latum (Fish Tapeworm), Fasciolopsis buski (large intestinal fluke). Niclosamide is also used as a molluscicide in the control of schistosomiasis.
PharmacodynamicsNiclosamide is an antihelminth used against tapeworm infections. It may act by the uncoupling of the electron transport chain to ATP synthase. The disturbance of this crucial metabolic pathway prevents creation of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), an essential molecule that supplies energy for metabolism.
Mechanism of actionNiclosamide works by killing tapeworms on contact. Adult worms (but not ova) are rapidly killed, presumably due to uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation or stimulation of ATPase activity. The killed worms are then passed in the stool or sometimes destroyed in the intestine. Niclosamide may work as a molluscicide by binding to and damaging DNA.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNiclosamide appears to be minimally absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract—neither the drug nor its metabolites have been recovered from the blood or urine.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityInfrequent, mild, and transitory adverse events include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort.
Affected organisms
  • Helminthic Microorganisms
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.7721
Blood Brain Barrier+0.7259
Caco-2 permeable+0.5
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7857
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8671
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9349
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9267
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.721
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8519
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5187
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.8948
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.6943
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8442
Ames testAMES toxic0.9107
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.5513
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9803
Rat acute toxicity2.2390 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.914
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8434
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point230 °CPhysProp
water solubility1.6 mg/L (at 20 °C)TOMLIN,C (1997)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00799 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.49ALOGPS
logP3.91ChemAxon
logS-4.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)6.89ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area95.15 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity80.51 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability28.47 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

DrugSyn.org

US3079297
General References
  1. Thomson Micromedex (2007). Advice for the Patient Volume II (27th ed.). PDR Network, LLC. [ISBN:1-56363-575-5 ]
External Links
ATC CodesP02DA01
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. DNA
Kind
Nucleotide
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. Abreu FC, Goulart MO, Brett AM: Detection of the damage caused to DNA by niclosamide using an electrochemical DNA-biosensor. Biosens Bioelectron. 2002 Dec;17(11-12):913-9. [PubMed:12392939 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Bapiro TE, Egnell AC, Hasler JA, Masimirembwa CM: Application of higher throughput screening (HTS) inhibition assays to evaluate the interaction of antiparasitic drugs with cytochrome P450s. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001 Jan;29(1):30-5. [PubMed:11124226 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Bapiro TE, Egnell AC, Hasler JA, Masimirembwa CM: Application of higher throughput screening (HTS) inhibition assays to evaluate the interaction of antiparasitic drugs with cytochrome P450s. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001 Jan;29(1):30-5. [PubMed:11124226 ]
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Drug created on September 14, 2010 10:21 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:24