Thyroxine-binding globulin substrates

DrugDrug NameDrug Indication
DB00279LiothyronineLiothyronine is officially approved for the following indications: - Replacement therapy in primary (thyroidal), secondary (pituitary) and tertiary (hypothalamic) congenital or acquired hypothyroidism. - As an adjunct therapy to surgery and radioiodine in the management of thyroid cancer. - As a diagnostic agent in suppression tests for mild hyperthyroidism or thyroid gland autonomy.[FDA label] In general terms, exogenous liothyronine is used to replace insufficient hormonal production and restore T3 plasma levels.[T457] The lack of liothyronine can be presented as a pale and puffy face, coarse, brittle hair, dry skin, croaky voice and constipation as well as irregular periods, drowsiness, and lethargy.[T457] Liothyronine should never be used in the suppression of benign nodules and nontoxic diffuse goiter in iodine-sufficient patients nor in the treatment of hyperthyroidism during the recovery phase of subacute thyroiditis.[FDA label]
DB12425Liothyronine I-131Not Available
DB01583LiotrixMay be used to treat primary, secondary or tertiary hypothyroidism. May also be used to suppress thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion in patients with simple (nontoxic) goiter, subacute or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis multinodular goiter, and in the management of thyroid cancer. May be used in conjunction with other antithyroid agents to treat thyrotoxicosis to prevent goitrogenesis and hypothyroidism. May also be used for differential diagnosis of suspected mild hyperthyroidism or thyroid gland autonomy.
DB00451LevothyroxineLevothyroxine is indicated as replacement therapy in primary (thyroidal), secondary (pituitary) and tertiary (hypothalamic) congenital or acquired hypothyroidism. It is also indicated as an adjunct to surgery and radioiodine therapy in the management of thyrotropin-dependent well-differentiated thyroid cancer.
DB00695FurosemideFor the treatment of edema associated with congestive heart failure, cirrhosis of the liver, and renal disease, including the nephrotic syndrome. Also for the treatment of hypertension alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents.
DB00532MephenytoinFor the treatment of refractory partial epilepsy.
DB01320FosphenytoinFor the control of generalized convulsive status epilepticus and prevention and treatment of seizures occurring during neurosurgery. It can also be substituted, short-term, for oral phenytoin.
DB00252PhenytoinFor the control of generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) and complex partial (psychomotor, temporal lobe) seizures and prevention and treatment of seizures occurring during or following neurosurgery.
DB00564CarbamazepineCarbamazepine is indicated for the treatment of epilepsy and pain associated with true trigeminal neuralgia.[L1335] In particular, carbamazepine has shown efficacy in treating mixed seizures, partial seizures with complex symptoms, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures.[A180301,L1335] Carbamazepine is also indicated for the treatment of manic episodes and mixed manic-depressive episodes caused by bipolar I disorder.[L1335] Some off-label, unapproved uses of carbamazepine include the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and restless leg syndrome.[A180415,A180421]
DB01109HeparinUnfractionated heparin is indicated for prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, prevention of post-operative deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism and prevention of clotting in arterial and cardiac surgery. In cardiology, it is used to prevent embolisms in patients with atrial fibrillation and as an adjunct antithrombin therapy in patients with unstable angina and/or non-Q wave myocardial infarctions (i.e. non-ST elevated acute coronary artery syndrome) who are on platelet glycoprotein (IIb/IIIa) receptor inhibitors. Additionally, it is used to prevent clotting during dialysis and surgical procedures, maintain the patency of intravenous injection devices and prevent in vitro coagulation of blood transfusions and in blood samples drawn for laboratory values.
DB00698NitrofurantoinNitrofurantoin is indicated to treat acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections.[L6856,L6859,L6862]
DB11100AllantoinAllantoin is commonly applied in a variety of topical vehicles or applications such as cosmetic creams, toothpastes, mouthwashes, shampoos, lipsticks, anti-acne products, and lotions [A32213] for the purpose of moisturizing skin, enhancing the smoothness of skin, stimulating the healing of wounds, and soothing irritated skin [A32213, FDA Label].
DB01219DantroleneFor use, along with appropriate supportive measures, for the management of the fulminant hypermetabolism of skeletal muscle characteristic of malignant hyperthermia crises in patients of all ages. Also used preoperatively, and sometimes postoperatively, to prevent or attenuate the development of clinical and laboratory signs of malignant hyperthermia in individuals judged to be malignant hyperthermia susceptible.
DB08899EnzalutamideEnzalutamide is indicated for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who have previously received docetaxel.
DB00754EthotoinFor the control of tonic-clonic (grand mal) and complex partial (psychomotor) seizures.
DB13396NeocitrullamonNot Available
DB08984EtofenamateNot Available
DB00939Meclofenamic acidFor the relief of mild to moderate pain, for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea and for the treatment of idiopathic heavy menstrual blood loss. Also for relief of the signs and symptoms of acute and chronic rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00279LiothyronineThyroid hormone receptor betatarget
DB00279LiothyronineThyroid hormone receptor alphatarget
DB00279LiothyronineThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB00279LiothyronineTransthyretincarrier
DB00279LiothyronineSerum albumincarrier
DB00279LiothyronineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00279LiothyronineSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00279LiothyronineMonocarboxylate transporter 10transporter
DB00279LiothyronineSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4A1transporter
DB00279LiothyronineSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1transporter
DB00279LiothyronineSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB00279LiothyronineSodium/bile acid cotransportertransporter
DB00279LiothyronineSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4C1transporter
DB00279LiothyronineSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
DB00279LiothyronineSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB00279LiothyronineLarge neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1transporter
DB00279LiothyronineProliferating cell nuclear antigentarget
DB00279LiothyronineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB12425Liothyronine I-131Thyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB01583LiotrixThyroid hormone receptor alphatarget
DB01583LiotrixThyroid hormone receptor betatarget
DB01583LiotrixCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB01583LiotrixSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB01583LiotrixSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB01583LiotrixSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
DB01583LiotrixSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4C1transporter
DB01583LiotrixSodium/bile acid cotransportertransporter
DB01583LiotrixSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1transporter
DB01583LiotrixSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4A1transporter
DB01583LiotrixSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB01583LiotrixMonocarboxylate transporter 8transporter
DB01583LiotrixMonocarboxylate transporter 10transporter
DB01583LiotrixMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01583LiotrixTransthyretincarrier
DB01583LiotrixThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB01583LiotrixSerum albumincarrier
DB01583LiotrixCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00451LevothyroxineThyroid hormone receptor alphatarget
DB00451LevothyroxineThyroid hormone receptor betatarget
DB00451LevothyroxineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00451LevothyroxineTransthyretincarrier
DB00451LevothyroxineSerum albumincarrier
DB00451LevothyroxineThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB00451LevothyroxineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00451LevothyroxineMonocarboxylate transporter 8transporter
DB00451LevothyroxineSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1transporter
DB00451LevothyroxineSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB00451LevothyroxineSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB00451LevothyroxineSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
DB00451LevothyroxineSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4A1transporter
DB00451LevothyroxineSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4C1transporter
DB00451LevothyroxineLarge neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1transporter
DB00451LevothyroxineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00451LevothyroxineSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1transporter
DB00451LevothyroxineIntegrin alpha-Vtarget
DB00451LevothyroxineIntegrin beta-3target
DB00451LevothyroxineMultidrug resistance protein 1enzyme
DB00695FurosemideSolute carrier family 12 member 1target
DB00695FurosemideSerum albumincarrier
DB00695FurosemideSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00695FurosemideSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB00695FurosemideSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00695FurosemideCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00695FurosemideSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1transporter
DB00695FurosemideSolute carrier family 22 member 11transporter
DB00695Furosemide6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, decarboxylatingenzyme
DB00695FurosemideCarbonic anhydrase 2target
DB00695FurosemideUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00695FurosemideThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB00532MephenytoinSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
DB00532MephenytoinCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00532MephenytoinCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00532MephenytoinCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00532MephenytoinCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00532MephenytoinCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00532MephenytoinCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00532MephenytoinNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DB00532MephenytoinThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB01320FosphenytoinSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
DB01320FosphenytoinCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01320FosphenytoinCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01320FosphenytoinCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01320FosphenytoinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01320FosphenytoinSerum albumincarrier
DB01320FosphenytoinCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01320FosphenytoinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6enzyme
DB01320FosphenytoinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB01320FosphenytoinCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01320FosphenytoinThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB00252PhenytoinSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
DB00252PhenytoinSodium channel protein type 1 subunit alphatarget
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinSerum albumincarrier
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1transporter
DB00252PhenytoinMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00252PhenytoinCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrialenzyme
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DB00252PhenytoinSodium channel subunit beta-1target
DB00252PhenytoinSodium channel protein type 3 subunit alphatarget
DB00252PhenytoinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB00564CarbamazepineVoltage gated sodium channeltarget
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineRalA-binding protein 1transporter
DB00564CarbamazepineCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00564CarbamazepineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00564CarbamazepineNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DB00564CarbamazepineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-7enzyme
DB01109HeparinAntithrombin-IIItarget
DB01109HeparinCoagulation factor Xtarget
DB01109HeparinP-selectintarget
DB01109HeparinHeparanaseenzyme
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor receptor 4target
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor 4target
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor 19target
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor receptor 1target
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor 1target
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor receptor 2target
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor 2target
DB01109HeparinPlatelet factor 4target
DB01109HeparinHepatocyte growth factortarget
DB01109HeparinThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB00698Nitrofurantoin30S ribosomal protein S10target
DB00698NitrofurantoinOxygen-insensitive NADPH nitroreductasetarget
DB00698NitrofurantoinProbable pyruvate-flavodoxin oxidoreductasetarget
DB00698NitrofurantoinATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB00698NitrofurantoinNADPH--cytochrome P450 reductaseenzyme
DB00698NitrofurantoinBile salt export pumptransporter
DB00698NitrofurantoinMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00698NitrofurantoinCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB11100AllantoinThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB01219DantroleneRyanodine receptor 1target
DB01219DantroleneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01219DantroleneThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB08899EnzalutamideSerum albumincarrier
DB08899EnzalutamideCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB08899EnzalutamideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB08899EnzalutamideAndrogen receptortarget
DB08899EnzalutamideCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB08899EnzalutamideCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB08899EnzalutamideCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB08899EnzalutamideCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB08899EnzalutamideCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB08899EnzalutamideMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB08899EnzalutamideThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB00754EthotoinSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
DB00754EthotoinNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DB00754EthotoinThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB13396NeocitrullamonThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB08984EtofenamateThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB00939Meclofenamic acidProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
DB00939Meclofenamic acidProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB00939Meclofenamic acidArachidonate 5-lipoxygenasetarget
DB00939Meclofenamic acidSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00939Meclofenamic acidSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1transporter
DB00939Meclofenamic acidPotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 2target
DB00939Meclofenamic acidPotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 3target
DB00939Meclofenamic acidThyroxine-binding globulincarrier