Pyruvic acid

Identification

Name
Pyruvic acid
Accession Number
DB00119  (NUTR00050, DB11194)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
Description

An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 2-ketopropionic acid
  • 2-oxopropanoic acid
  • 2-Oxopropansäure
  • 2-Oxopropionsäure
  • a-Ketopropionic acid
  • Acetylformic acid
  • acide pyruvique
  • alpha-ketopropionic acid
  • Brenztraubensäure
  • BTS
  • Pyroracemic acid
  • α-ketopropionic acid
  • α-Oxopropionsäure
External IDs
FEMA NO. 2970 / NSC-179
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Calcium pyruvate9V2CQZ19N4 Not AvailableNot applicable
Sodium pyruvatePOD38AIF08 113-24-6DAEPDZWVDSPTHF-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Approved Prescription Products
Not Available
Approved Generic Prescription Products
Not Available
Approved Over the Counter Products
Not Available
Unapproved/Other Products
Not Available
International/Other Brands
Not Available
Brand mixtures
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
RejuvesolSolutionExtracorporealCitra Labs1997-02-26Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
8558G7RUTR
CAS number
127-17-3
Weight
Average: 88.0621
Monoisotopic: 88.016043994
Chemical Formula
C3H4O3
InChI Key
LCTONWCANYUPML-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C3H4O3/c1-2(4)3(5)6/h1H3,(H,5,6)
IUPAC Name
2-oxopropanoic acid
SMILES
CC(=O)C(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

For nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

Pyruvic acid or pyruvate is a key intermediate in the glycolytic and pyruvate dehydrogenase pathways, which are involved in biological energy production. Pyruvate is widely found in living organisms. It is not an essential nutrient since it can be synthesized in the cells of the body. Certain fruits and vegetables are rich in pyruvate. For example, an average-size red apple contains approximately 450 milligrams. Dark beer and red wine are also rich sources of pyruvate. Recent research suggests that pyruvate in high concentrations may have a role in cardiovascular therapy, as an inotropic agent. Supplements of this dietary substance may also have bariatric and ergogenic applications.

Mechanism of action

Pyruvate serves as a biological fuel by being converted to acetyl coenzyme A, which enters the tricarboxylic acid or Krebs cycle where it is metabolized to produce ATP aerobically. Energy can also be obtained anaerobically from pyruvate via its conversion to lactate. Pyruvate injections or perfusions increase contractile function of hearts when metabolizing glucose or fatty acids. This inotropic effect is striking in hearts stunned by ischemia/reperfusion. The inotropic effect of pyruvate requires intracoronary infusion. Among possible mechanisms for this effect are increased generation of ATP and an increase in ATP phosphorylation potential. Another is activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase, promoting its own oxidation by inhibiting pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. Pyruvate dehydrogenase is inactivated in ischemia myocardium. Yet another is reduction of cytosolic inorganic phosphate concentration. Pyruvate, as an antioxidant, is known to scavenge such reactive oxygen species as hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxides. Indirectly, supraphysiological levels of pyruvate may increase cellular reduced glutathione.

TargetActionsOrganism
UMonocarboxylate transporter 4Not AvailableHuman
UMonocarboxylate transporter 8Not AvailableHuman
UAlanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UMonocarboxylate transporter 6Not AvailableHuman
UPyruvate kinase PKLRNot AvailableHuman
UMonocarboxylate transporter 7Not AvailableHuman
UMonocarboxylate transporter 2Not AvailableHuman
UPyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UPyruvate kinase PKMNot AvailableHuman
U4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial
inhibitor
Human
UMonocarboxylate transporter 5Not AvailableHuman
UMonocarboxylate transporter 3Not AvailableHuman
UMonocarboxylate transporter 1Not AvailableHuman
UPyruvate carboxylase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
Absorption

Pyruvate is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract from whence it is transported to the liver via the portal circulation.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

In the liver, pyruvate is metabolized via several pathways.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Those taking large doses of supplemental pyruvate—usually greater than 5 grams daily—have reported gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal discomfort and bloating, gas and diarrhea. One child receiving pyruvate intravenously for restrictive cardiomyopathy died.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Cysteine MetabolismMetabolic
Sialuria or French Type SialuriaDisease
Pyruvate Carboxylase DeficiencyDisease
Pyruvaldehyde DegradationMetabolic
Primary hyperoxaluria II, PH2Disease
Fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiencyDisease
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiencyDisease
Fanconi-bickel syndromeDisease
3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiencyDisease
Cystinosis, ocular nonnephropathicDisease
The oncogenic action of FumarateDisease
Citrullinemia Type IDisease
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase DeficiencyDisease
Amino Sugar MetabolismMetabolic
Alanine MetabolismMetabolic
Glutamate MetabolismMetabolic
Glucose-Alanine CycleMetabolic
Lactic AcidemiaDisease
Pyruvate Decarboxylase E1 Component Deficiency (PDHE1 Deficiency)Disease
HomocarnosinosisDisease
Tay-Sachs DiseaseDisease
2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiencyDisease
Warburg EffectMetabolic
Argininosuccinic AciduriaDisease
GlycolysisMetabolic
Citric Acid CycleMetabolic
2-Hydroxyglutric Aciduria (D And L Form)Disease
Leigh SyndromeDisease
Sialuria or French Type SialuriaDisease
4-Hydroxybutyric Aciduria/Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDisease
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Tadamitsu Kiyoura, "Process for producing salts of pyruvic acid." U.S. Patent US4242525, issued December, 1965.

US4242525
General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB00243
KEGG Compound
C00022
PubChem Compound
1060
PubChem Substance
46505692
ChemSpider
1031
BindingDB
19473
ChEBI
32816
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1162144
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000543
PharmGKB
PA164778686
HET
PYR
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Pyruvic_acid
ATC Codes
Not Available
AHFS Codes
Not Available
PDB Entries
FDA label
Not Available
MSDS
Download (72 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0RecruitingDiagnosticProstate Cancer1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchHealthy Volunteers1
1RecruitingDiagnosticProstate Cancer1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentModerate Asthma1
2Active Not RecruitingDiagnosticProstate Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) / Heart Failure, Unspecified / Shock, Cardiogenic1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentPlantar Warts1
4Not Yet RecruitingNot AvailableSickle Cell Disorders1
4Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceHeart Defects,Congenital1
Not AvailableRecruitingDiagnosticProstate Cancer1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionExtracorporeal
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)13.8 °CPhysProp
boiling point (°C)54 °C at 1.00E+01 mm HgPhysProp
water solubility1E+006 mg/L (at 20 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-0.5Not Available
pKa2.45 (at 25 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility134.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.38ALOGPS
logP0.066ChemAxon
logS0.18ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.93ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-9.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area54.37 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity17.99 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability7.31 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9753
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9401
Caco-2 permeable-0.6934
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8153
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9498
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9514
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.949
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7951
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9402
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7806
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.98
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9608
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9697
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9834
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9882
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9932
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8578
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.5171
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9262
Rat acute toxicity1.7859 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9883
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9801
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (7.4 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)GC-MSsplash10-00dr-4900000000-f26ef76666e40ab9fe61
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00di-5900000000-b8e81f82572d4796e944
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-014i-5970000000-154bf9ad168a12593fcc
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-a2cf85a5e1d2379d26df
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00dr-4900000000-f26ef76666e40ab9fe61
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-00di-5900000000-b8e81f82572d4796e944
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-014i-5970000000-154bf9ad168a12593fcc
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00dr-5900000000-5b1f470d4ff91420618c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80B) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-a2cf85a5e1d2379d26df
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-dd49835da8355fb6e625
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-f09d8e3d7a774b255d89
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-7d91f6f626cab1a366fd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-8ae98cdb3e142034e52a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-e04e6c68013983e1b6dc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-dd49835da8355fb6e625
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-f09d8e3d7a774b255d89
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-7d91f6f626cab1a366fd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-8ae98cdb3e142034e52a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-e04e6c68013983e1b6dc
Predicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositivePredicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositivePredicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositivePredicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativePredicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativePredicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativePredicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-f315d0752893e7d0c657
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha-keto acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing an aldehyde substituted with a keto group on the adjacent carbon.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Keto acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Alpha-keto acids and derivatives
Direct Parent
Alpha-keto acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Alpha-hydroxy ketones / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Alpha-keto acid / Alpha-hydroxy ketone / Ketone / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid / Carboxylic acid derivative / Organic oxygen compound / Organic oxide / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organooxygen compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
2-oxo monocarboxylic acid (CHEBI:32816 ) / Oxo fatty acids (LMFA01060077 )

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine...
Gene Name
SLC16A3
Uniprot ID
O15427
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 4
Molecular Weight
49468.9 Da
References
  1. Shimada A, Nakagawa Y, Morishige H, Yamamoto A, Fujita T: Functional characteristics of H+ -dependent nicotinate transport in primary cultures of astrocytes from rat cerebral cortex. Neurosci Lett. 2006 Jan 16;392(3):207-12. Epub 2005 Oct 5. [PubMed:16213084 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Very active and specific thyroid hormone transporter. Stimulates cellular uptake of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) and diidothyronine. Does not transport Leu,...
Gene Name
SLC16A2
Uniprot ID
P36021
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 8
Molecular Weight
59510.86 Da
References
  1. Bonen A, Heynen M, Hatta H: Distribution of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1-MCT8 in rat tissues and human skeletal muscle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006 Feb;31(1):31-9. [PubMed:16604139 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Can metabolize asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) via transamination to alpha-keto-delta-(NN-dimethylguanidino) valeric acid (DMGV). ADMA is a potent inhibitor of nitric-oxide (NO) synthase, and th...
Gene Name
AGXT2
Uniprot ID
Q9BYV1
Uniprot Name
Alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
57155.905 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Tamaki N, Fujimoto S, Mizota C, Kaneko M, Kikugawa M: Inhibitory effect of 6-azauracil on beta-alanine metabolism in rat. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1989 Oct;35(5):451-61. [PubMed:2632679 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine...
Gene Name
SLC16A5
Uniprot ID
O15375
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 6
Molecular Weight
54993.04 Da
References
  1. Bonen A, Heynen M, Hatta H: Distribution of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1-MCT8 in rat tissues and human skeletal muscle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006 Feb;31(1):31-9. [PubMed:16604139 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyruvate kinase activity
Specific Function
Plays a key role in glycolysis.
Gene Name
PKLR
Uniprot ID
P30613
Uniprot Name
Pyruvate kinase PKLR
Molecular Weight
61829.575 Da
References
  1. Percy MJ, van Wijk R, Haggan S, Savage GA, Boyd K, Dempsey S, Hamilton J, Kettle P, Kyle A, Shepherd CW, van Solinge WW, Lappin TR, McMullin MF: Pyruvate kinase deficient hemolytic anemia in the Northern Irish population. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2007 Sep-Oct;39(2):189-94. Epub 2007 Jun 15. [PubMed:17574881 ]
  2. Meza NW, Quintana-Bustamante O, Puyet A, Rio P, Navarro S, Diez A, Bueren JA, Bautista JM, Segovia JC: In vitro and in vivo expression of human erythrocyte pyruvate kinase in erythroid cells: a gene therapy approach. Hum Gene Ther. 2007 Jun;18(6):502-14. [PubMed:17547515 ]
  3. Rajaseger G, Lim CL, Lee KW, Arjunan P, Jia L, Moochhala S: Profiling of hepatocellular proteins by 1D PAGE-MALDI/MS/MS in a rat heat stress model. Front Biosci. 2006 Sep 1;11:2924-8. [PubMed:16720364 ]
  4. Xu J, Christian B, Jump DB: Regulation of rat hepatic L-pyruvate kinase promoter composition and activity by glucose, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha agonist. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jul 7;281(27):18351-62. Epub 2006 Apr 27. [PubMed:16644726 ]
  5. Suzuki T, Kawamoto M, Murai A, Muramatsu T: Identification of the regulatory region of the L-type pyruvate kinase gene in mouse liver by hydrodynamics-based gene transfection. J Nutr. 2006 Jan;136(1):16-20. [PubMed:16365052 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine...
Gene Name
SLC16A6
Uniprot ID
O15403
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 7
Molecular Weight
57392.83 Da
References
  1. Bonen A, Heynen M, Hatta H: Distribution of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1-MCT8 in rat tissues and human skeletal muscle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006 Feb;31(1):31-9. [PubMed:16604139 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucin...
Gene Name
SLC16A7
Uniprot ID
O60669
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 2
Molecular Weight
52199.745 Da
References
  1. Bonen A, Heynen M, Hatta H: Distribution of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1-MCT8 in rat tissues and human skeletal muscle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006 Feb;31(1):31-9. [PubMed:16604139 ]
  2. Hinoi E, Takarada T, Tsuchihashi Y, Fujimori S, Moriguchi N, Wang L, Uno K, Yoneda Y: A molecular mechanism of pyruvate protection against cytotoxicity of reactive oxygen species in osteoblasts. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Sep;70(3):925-35. Epub 2006 Jun 9. [PubMed:16766717 ]
  3. Yoshida Y, Holloway GP, Ljubicic V, Hatta H, Spriet LL, Hood DA, Bonen A: Negligible direct lactate oxidation in subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria obtained from red and white rat skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 2007 Aug 1;582(Pt 3):1317-35. Epub 2007 Jun 7. [PubMed:17556391 ]
  4. de Laplanche E, Gouget K, Cleris G, Dragounoff F, Demont J, Morales A, Bezin L, Godinot C, Perriere G, Mouchiroud D, Simonnet H: Physiological oxygenation status is required for fully differentiated phenotype in kidney cortex proximal tubules. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006 Oct;291(4):F750-60. Epub 2006 Apr 4. [PubMed:16597615 ]
  5. Pierre K, Pellerin L: Monocarboxylate transporters in the central nervous system: distribution, regulation and function. J Neurochem. 2005 Jul;94(1):1-14. [PubMed:15953344 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name
PDHB
Uniprot ID
P11177
Uniprot Name
Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
39233.1 Da
References
  1. Kumar V, Rangaraj N, Shivaji S: Activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase A (PDHA) in hamster spermatozoa correlates positively with hyperactivation and is associated with sperm capacitation. Biol Reprod. 2006 Nov;75(5):767-77. Epub 2006 Jul 19. [PubMed:16855207 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyruvate kinase activity
Specific Function
Glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP, generating ATP. Stimulates POU5F1-mediated transcriptional activation. Plays a general rol...
Gene Name
PKM
Uniprot ID
P14618
Uniprot Name
Pyruvate kinase PKM
Molecular Weight
57936.38 Da
References
  1. Li Y, Chang Y, Zhang L, Feng Q, Liu Z, Zhang Y, Zuo J, Meng Y, Fang F: High glucose upregulates pantothenate kinase 4 (PanK4) and thus affects M2-type pyruvate kinase (Pkm2). Mol Cell Biochem. 2005 Sep;277(1-2):117-25. [PubMed:16132722 ]
  2. Stetak A, Veress R, Ovadi J, Csermely P, Keri G, Ullrich A: Nuclear translocation of the tumor marker pyruvate kinase M2 induces programmed cell death. Cancer Res. 2007 Feb 15;67(4):1602-8. [PubMed:17308100 ]
  3. Vlaeminck-Guillem V, Safi R, Guillem P, Leteurtre E, Duterque-Coquillaud M, Laudet V: Thyroid hormone receptor expression in the obligatory paedomorphic salamander Necturus maculosus. Int J Dev Biol. 2006;50(6):553-60. [PubMed:16741870 ]
  4. Weinberger R, Appel B, Stein A, Metz Y, Neheman A, Barak M: The pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 (Tu M2-PK) as a tumour marker for renal cell carcinoma. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2007 Jul;16(4):333-7. [PubMed:17587357 ]
  5. Staib P, Hoffmann M, Schinkothe T: Plasma levels of tumor M2-pyruvate kinase should not be used as a tumor marker for hematological malignancies and solid tumors. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44(1):28-31. [PubMed:16375581 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the conversion of gamma-aminobutyrate and L-beta-aminoisobutyrate to succinate semialdehyde and methylmalonate semialdehyde, respectively. Can also convert delta-aminovalerate and beta-al...
Gene Name
ABAT
Uniprot ID
P80404
Uniprot Name
4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
56438.405 Da
References
  1. Andersen G, Andersen B, Dobritzsch D, Schnackerz KD, Piskur J: A gene duplication led to specialized gamma-aminobutyrate and beta-alanine aminotransferase in yeast. FEBS J. 2007 Apr;274(7):1804-17. Epub 2007 Mar 12. [PubMed:17355287 ]
  2. Schmidt C, Hofmann U, Kohlmuller D, Murdter T, Zanger UM, Schwab M, Hoffmann GF: Comprehensive analysis of pyrimidine metabolism in 450 children with unspecific neurological symptoms using high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2005;28(6):1109-22. [PubMed:16435204 ]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine...
Gene Name
SLC16A4
Uniprot ID
O15374
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 5
Molecular Weight
54021.43 Da
References
  1. Kay HH, Zhu S, Tsoi S: Hypoxia and lactate production in trophoblast cells. Placenta. 2007 Aug-Sep;28(8-9):854-60. Epub 2007 Feb 2. [PubMed:17275903 ]
  2. Han M, Trotta P, Coleman C, Linask KK: MCT-4, A511/Basigin and EF5 expression patterns during early chick cardiomyogenesis indicate cardiac cell differentiation occurs in a hypoxic environment. Dev Dyn. 2006 Jan;235(1):124-31. [PubMed:16110503 ]
  3. Bonen A, Heynen M, Hatta H: Distribution of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1-MCT8 in rat tissues and human skeletal muscle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006 Feb;31(1):31-9. [PubMed:16604139 ]
  4. Pierre K, Pellerin L: Monocarboxylate transporters in the central nervous system: distribution, regulation and function. J Neurochem. 2005 Jul;94(1):1-14. [PubMed:15953344 ]
  5. Shimada A, Nakagawa Y, Morishige H, Yamamoto A, Fujita T: Functional characteristics of H+ -dependent nicotinate transport in primary cultures of astrocytes from rat cerebral cortex. Neurosci Lett. 2006 Jan 16;392(3):207-12. Epub 2005 Oct 5. [PubMed:16213084 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine...
Gene Name
SLC16A8
Uniprot ID
O95907
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 3
Molecular Weight
52318.215 Da
References
  1. Jansen S, Esmaeilpour T, Pantaleon M, Kaye PL: Glucose affects monocarboxylate cotransporter (MCT) 1 expression during mouse preimplantation development. Reproduction. 2006 Mar;131(3):469-79. [PubMed:16514190 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucin...
Gene Name
SLC16A1
Uniprot ID
P53985
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 1
Molecular Weight
53943.685 Da
References
  1. Duerr JM, Tucker K: Pyruvate transport in isolated cardiac mitochondria from two species of amphibian exhibiting dissimilar aerobic scope: Bufo marinus and Rana catesbeiana. J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol. 2007 Aug 1;307(8):425-38. [PubMed:17583564 ]
  2. Han M, Trotta P, Coleman C, Linask KK: MCT-4, A511/Basigin and EF5 expression patterns during early chick cardiomyogenesis indicate cardiac cell differentiation occurs in a hypoxic environment. Dev Dyn. 2006 Jan;235(1):124-31. [PubMed:16110503 ]
  3. Shimoyama Y, Akihara Y, Kirat D, Iwano H, Hirayama K, Kagawa Y, Ohmachi T, Matsuda K, Okamoto M, Kadosawa T, Yokota H, Taniyama H: Expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 in oral and ocular canine melanocytic tumors. Vet Pathol. 2007 Jul;44(4):449-57. [PubMed:17606506 ]
  4. Shimada A, Nakagawa Y, Morishige H, Yamamoto A, Fujita T: Functional characteristics of H+ -dependent nicotinate transport in primary cultures of astrocytes from rat cerebral cortex. Neurosci Lett. 2006 Jan 16;392(3):207-12. Epub 2005 Oct 5. [PubMed:16213084 ]
  5. Philp A, Macdonald AL, Watt PW: Lactate--a signal coordinating cell and systemic function. J Exp Biol. 2005 Dec;208(Pt 24):4561-75. [PubMed:16326938 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyruvate carboxylase activity
Specific Function
Pyruvate carboxylase catalyzes a 2-step reaction, involving the ATP-dependent carboxylation of the covalently attached biotin in the first step and the transfer of the carboxyl group to pyruvate in...
Gene Name
PC
Uniprot ID
P11498
Uniprot Name
Pyruvate carboxylase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
129632.565 Da
References
  1. Jitrapakdee S, Vidal-Puig A, Wallace JC: Anaplerotic roles of pyruvate carboxylase in mammalian tissues. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006 Apr;63(7-8):843-54. [PubMed:16505973 ]
  2. Simpson NE, Khokhlova N, Oca-Cossio JA, Constantinidis I: Insights into the role of anaplerosis in insulin secretion: A 13C NMR study. Diabetologia. 2006 Jun;49(6):1338-48. Epub 2006 Mar 31. [PubMed:16575559 ]
  3. Jensen MV, Joseph JW, Ilkayeva O, Burgess S, Lu D, Ronnebaum SM, Odegaard M, Becker TC, Sherry AD, Newgard CB: Compensatory responses to pyruvate carboxylase suppression in islet beta-cells. Preservation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. J Biol Chem. 2006 Aug 4;281(31):22342-51. Epub 2006 Jun 1. [PubMed:16740637 ]
  4. Ikeda K, Yukihiro Hiraoka B, Iwai H, Matsumoto T, Mineki R, Taka H, Takamori K, Ogawa H, Yamakura F: Detection of 6-nitrotryptophan in proteins by Western blot analysis and its application for peroxynitrite-treated PC12 cells. Nitric Oxide. 2007 Feb;16(1):18-28. Epub 2006 May 4. [PubMed:16765071 ]
  5. Liu L, Li Y, Zhu Y, Du G, Chen J: Redistribution of carbon flux in Torulopsis glabrata by altering vitamin and calcium level. Metab Eng. 2007 Jan;9(1):21-9. Epub 2006 Aug 12. [PubMed:17008113 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucin...
Gene Name
SLC16A7
Uniprot ID
O60669
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 2
Molecular Weight
52199.745 Da
References
  1. Broer S, Broer A, Schneider HP, Stegen C, Halestrap AP, Deitmer JW: Characterization of the high-affinity monocarboxylate transporter MCT2 in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Biochem J. 1999 Aug 1;341 ( Pt 3):529-35. [PubMed:10417314 ]
  2. Lin RY, Vera JC, Chaganti RS, Golde DW: Human monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) is a high affinity pyruvate transporter. J Biol Chem. 1998 Oct 30;273(44):28959-65. [PubMed:9786900 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucin...
Gene Name
SLC16A1
Uniprot ID
P53985
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 1
Molecular Weight
53943.685 Da
References
  1. Broer S, Rahman B, Pellegri G, Pellerin L, Martin JL, Verleysdonk S, Hamprecht B, Magistretti PJ: Comparison of lactate transport in astroglial cells and monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT 1) expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes. Expression of two different monocarboxylate transporters in astroglial cells and neurons. J Biol Chem. 1997 Nov 28;272(48):30096-102. [PubMed:9374487 ]
  2. Broer S, Schneider HP, Broer A, Rahman B, Hamprecht B, Deitmer JW: Characterization of the monocarboxylate transporter 1 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes by changes in cytosolic pH. Biochem J. 1998 Jul 1;333 ( Pt 1):167-74. [PubMed:9639576 ]
  3. Lin RY, Vera JC, Chaganti RS, Golde DW: Human monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) is a high affinity pyruvate transporter. J Biol Chem. 1998 Oct 30;273(44):28959-65. [PubMed:9786900 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID
Q8TF71
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 10
Molecular Weight
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508 ]
  2. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Matsuo H, Kim JY, Chairoungdua A, Kobayashi Y, Enomoto A, Cha SH, Goya T, Endou H: The human T-type amino acid transporter-1: characterization, gene organization, and chromosomal location. Genomics. 2002 Jan;79(1):95-103. [PubMed:11827462 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
May mediate the release of newly synthesized prostaglandins from cells, the transepithelial transport of prostaglandins, and the clearance of prostaglandins from the circulation. Transports PGD2, a...
Gene Name
SLCO2A1
Uniprot ID
Q92959
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1
Molecular Weight
70043.33 Da
References
  1. Chan BS, Endo S, Kanai N, Schuster VL: Identification of lactate as a driving force for prostanoid transport by prostaglandin transporter PGT. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2002 Jun;282(6):F1097-102. [PubMed:11997326 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine...
Gene Name
SLC16A3
Uniprot ID
O15427
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 4
Molecular Weight
49468.9 Da
References
  1. Manning Fox JE, Meredith D, Halestrap AP: Characterisation of human monocarboxylate transporter 4 substantiates its role in lactic acid efflux from skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 2000 Dec 1;529 Pt 2:285-93. [PubMed:11101640 ]
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 01, 2017 10:23