Identification

Name
Inosine
Accession Number
DB04335  (EXPT02378)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • beta-Inosine
  • Hypoxanthosine
  • INO
  • Inosina
  • Inosinum
  • Oxiamin
  • Ribonosine
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
RejuvesolInosine (1.34 g/50mL) + Adenine (0.034 g/50mL) + Sodium pyruvate (0.55 g/50mL) + Sodium phosphate, dibasic, unspecified form (0.73 g/50mL) + Sodium phosphate, monobasic, monohydrate (0.311 g/50mL)SolutionExtracorporealCitra Labs1997-02-26Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Catacol (Alcon) / Lumiclar (Valeant)
Categories
UNII
5A614L51CT
CAS number
58-63-9
Weight
Average: 268.2261
Monoisotopic: 268.080769514
Chemical Formula
C10H12N4O5
InChI Key
UGQMRVRMYYASKQ-KQYNXXCUSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C10H12N4O5/c15-1-4-6(16)7(17)10(19-4)14-3-13-5-8(14)11-2-12-9(5)18/h2-4,6-7,10,15-17H,1H2,(H,11,12,18)/t4-,6-,7-,10-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
9-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]-6,9-dihydro-3H-purin-6-one
SMILES
OC[C@H]1O[C@H]([C@H](O)[C@@H]1O)N1C=NC2=C1NC=NC2=O

Pharmacology

Indication

The primary popular claim made for inosine, that it enhances exercise and athletic performance, is refuted by the available research data. There is some preliminary evidence that inosine may have some neurorestorative, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and cardioprotective effects.

Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

Inosine may have neuroprotective, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities.

Mechanism of action

Inosine has been found to have potent axon-promoting effects in vivo following unilateral transection of the corticospinal tract of rats. The mechanism of this action is unclear. Possibilities include serving as an agonist of a nerve growth factor-activated protein kinase (N-Kinase), conversion to cyclic nucleotides that enable advancing nerve endings to overcome the inhibitory effects of myelin, stimulation of differentiation in rat sympathetic neurons, augmentation of nerve growth factor-induced neuritogenesis and promotion of the survival of astrocytes, among others. The mechanism of inosine's possible cardioprotective effect is similarly unclear. Inosine has been reported to have a positive inotropic effect and also to have mild coronary vasodilation activity. Exogenous inosine may contribute to the high-energy phosphate pool of cardiac muscle cells and favorably affect bioenergetics generally. Inosine has also been reported to enhance the myocardial uptake of carbohydrates relative to free fatty acids as well as glycolysis. In cell culture studies, inosine has been found to inhibit the production, in immunostimulated macrophages and spleen cells, of the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1, interleukin (IL)-12, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1 alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma. It also suppressed proinflammatory cytokine production and mortality in a mouse endotoxemic model. These actions might account for the possible immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-ischemic actions of inosine.

TargetActionsOrganism
UIAG-nucleoside hydrolaseNot AvailableTrypanosoma vivax
UPurine nucleoside phosphorylaseNot AvailableHuman
UPurine nucleoside phosphorylase DeoD-typeNot AvailableEscherichia coli (strain K12)
Absorption

Ingested inosine is absorbed from the small intestine.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

In the liver, inosine may be catabolized by a series of reactions culminating in the production of uric acid and also may be metabolized to adenine- and guanine-containing nucleotides. Inosine not metabolized in the liver is transported via the systemic circulation and distributed to various tissues of the body, where it is metabolized in similar fashion as in the liver. Uric acid, the purine end-product of inosine catabolism, is excreted in the urine.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Thioguanine Action PathwayDrug action
AMP Degradation (Hypoxanthine Route)Metabolic
Purine MetabolismMetabolic
AICA-RibosiduriaDisease
Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)Disease
Azathioprine Action PathwayDrug action
Adenine and Adenosine Salvage IIMetabolic
Adenosine Deaminase DeficiencyDisease
Molybdenum Cofactor DeficiencyDisease
Xanthinuria Type IDisease
Xanthinuria Type IIDisease
Purine MetabolismMetabolic
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase DeficiencyDisease
Mercaptopurine Action PathwayDrug action
Adenine Phosphoribosyltransferase Deficiency (APRT)Disease
Adenylosuccinate Lyase DeficiencyDisease
Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS)Disease
Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller SyndromeDisease
Mitochondrial DNA Depletion SyndromeDisease
Myoadenylate Deaminase DeficiencyDisease
Adenine and Adenosine Salvage IMetabolic
Purine Ribonucleosides DegradationMetabolic
Adenosine Nucleotides Degradation Metabolic
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

U.S. Patent 3,049,536 U.S. Patent 3,111,459

General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0000195
KEGG Drug
D00054
KEGG Compound
C00294
PubChem Compound
6021
PubChem Substance
175426857
ChemSpider
5799
BindingDB
22104
ChEBI
17596
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1556
PharmGKB
PA130230922
HET
NOS
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Inosine
ATC Codes
G01AX02 — InosineS01XA10 — InosineD06BB05 — Inosine
PDB Entries
1a9s / 1kic / 1pr0 / 1rct / 1z38 / 2bsx / 2fqw / 3b1p / 3b1q / 3b9x
show 4 more

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0TerminatedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) / Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
1CompletedTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF)1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingPreventionChronic Lung Disease of Prematurity / Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnemias1
2CompletedBasic ScienceBlood Transfusions / Endothelial Physiopathology / Hemoglobins / Inflammatory Reaction / Nitric Oxide1
2CompletedPreventionChronic Lung Disease of Prematurity1
2CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2CompletedTreatmentRelapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS)1
2Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Cardiovascular Risk Factors / Endothelial Dysfunction / Hemolysis Intravascular1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPulmonary Fibrosis / Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) / Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary1
2RecruitingBasic ScienceStrokes1
2RecruitingTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
2RecruitingTreatmentHeart Arrest, Out-Of-Hospital1
2RecruitingTreatmentPulmonary Fibrosis / Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingPreventionChronic Lung Disease of Prematurity / Infants, Premature / Intraventricular Hemorrhage / Periventricular Leukomalacia1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentLiver Injury / Reperfusion Injury1
2, 3TerminatedPreventionChronic Lung Disease of Prematurity1
3Active Not RecruitingOtherParkinson's Disease (PD)1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentJaundice, Obstructive1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentJaundice; Malignant1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)2
3CompletedPreventionChronic Lung Disease of Prematurity / Chronic Lung Diseases1
3WithdrawnTreatmentPulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)1
4CompletedOtherSickle Cell Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentInfants / Persistent foetal circulation disorders / Respiratory Failure1
4Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceHeart Defects,Congenital1
4RecruitingOtherHeart Transplant Surgery / Lung Transplant Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionRespiratory Distress Syndrome In Premature Infants / Very Low Birth Weight Baby1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPulmonary Hypertension (PH)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionExtracorporeal
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)218 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility1.58E+004 mg/L (at 20 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-2.10HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-1.23ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility14.3 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.7ALOGPS
logP-2ChemAxon
logS-1.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)6.94ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.74ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count8ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area129.2 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity60.9 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability24.6 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9523
Blood Brain Barrier+0.7979
Caco-2 permeable-0.907
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6601
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9717
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8979
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9422
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8063
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8396
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.558
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8425
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9637
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9629
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9607
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9825
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.954
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9354
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.922
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7774
Rat acute toxicity2.0115 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9855
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.908
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)GC-MSsplash10-0frt-0890000000-c0c5ebc2bbf12c1a7edf
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00di-9440000000-566aadb777ee03fb22fb
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0fsi-1690000000-364bf8794afeeff6ba51
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0frt-0890000000-c0c5ebc2bbf12c1a7edf
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00di-9440000000-566aadb777ee03fb22fb
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-0fsi-1690000000-364bf8794afeeff6ba51
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-012b2024bf3b3837c54c
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-08a2204bd9dd4d300b73
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-2900000000-8da9aa27b202f672fb83
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0930000000-ee37a7516ef378cd665d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-e0575da4ae91163a2a90
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-379f5383e1bd290db9b6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-cd539725f09d01a39e25
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uxr-0930000000-b69310182305cd88dbc5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00l2-9300000000-65a24aadb3a2b262cacf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-9c77149cd916c0340573
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-e8f9aac2c9bfc820dc7d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014r-0490020000-6eeacbf0ca8726ed8542
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9100000000-cdcc2e477ba37ca8f07a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-f96733a8f63a90d3644d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-b9b05cbee9a42ce87c0f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-015i-0696011000-c836d8cd13395c898ae1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9100000000-d8c6fdb9231ac2c6e939
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-632ba91cd477e5aaf9e5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0910000000-fc11279b73334e4ea0a8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-00981efb4a9571473866
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0390000000-989ff580a7b60b151996
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0920000000-b78cba83cbf8f1ae48f3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0910000000-505a6507fcb525fe9a14
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-052r-2900000000-33d1372d34f6b06e3a2f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-a0601a44cbbc12888cc2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-650dd5a1118bbbfcf6bf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0930000000-9285a36e16cdf00b3f71
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-00981efb4a9571473866
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0390000000-989ff580a7b60b151996
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0920000000-b78cba83cbf8f1ae48f3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0910000000-c6d9b3470f4bf20f2031
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-052r-2900000000-33d1372d34f6b06e3a2f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-cb192ec0941c4e4f04b1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9100000000-1b4c3c2319fbba7de36b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-cc8e5ee2239e2de92705
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9100000000-d8c6fdb9231ac2c6e939
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-632ba91cd477e5aaf9e5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0930000000-6d3be934cd4b9ed750dd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-379f5383e1bd290db9b6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00l2-9300000000-65a24aadb3a2b262cacf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-e8f9aac2c9bfc820dc7d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-a0601a44cbbc12888cc2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-650dd5a1118bbbfcf6bf
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as purine nucleosides. These are compounds comprising a purine base attached to a ribosyl or deoxyribosyl moiety.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Nucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
Class
Purine nucleosides
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Purine nucleosides
Alternative Parents
Glycosylamines / 6-oxopurines / Pentoses / Hypoxanthines / Pyrimidones / N-substituted imidazoles / Vinylogous amides / Tetrahydrofurans / Heteroaromatic compounds / Secondary alcohols
show 7 more
Substituents
Purine nucleoside / Glycosyl compound / N-glycosyl compound / 6-oxopurine / Hypoxanthine / Pentose monosaccharide / Purinone / Imidazopyrimidine / Purine / Pyrimidone
show 22 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
inosines (CHEBI:17596)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Trypanosoma vivax
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
Not Available
Uniprot ID
Q9GPQ4
Uniprot Name
IAG-nucleoside hydrolase
Molecular Weight
36330.44 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Purine-nucleoside phosphorylase activity
Specific Function
The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy)ribonucleoside molecules, with the formation of the corresponding free purine ...
Gene Name
PNP
Uniprot ID
P00491
Uniprot Name
Purine nucleoside phosphorylase
Molecular Weight
32117.69 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Purine-nucleoside phosphorylase activity
Specific Function
Cleavage of guanosine or inosine to respective bases and sugar-1-phosphate molecules.
Gene Name
deoD
Uniprot ID
P0ABP8
Uniprot Name
Purine nucleoside phosphorylase DeoD-type
Molecular Weight
25949.68 Da

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Xanthine oxidase activity
Specific Function
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Ha...
Gene Name
XDH
Uniprot ID
P47989
Uniprot Name
Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase
Molecular Weight
146422.99 Da
References
  1. STIRPE F, DELLACORTE E: REGULATION OF XANTHINE DEHYDROGENASE IN CHICK LIVER. EFFECT OF STARVATION AND OF ADMINISTRATION OF PURINES AND PURINE NUCLEOSIDES. Biochem J. 1965 Feb;94:309-13. [PubMed:14348191]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyrimidine- and adenine-specific:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-dependent, pyrimidine- and purine-selective. Involved in the homeostasis of endogenous nucleosides. Exhibits the transport characteristics of the nucleoside transport system cib or N3 subtyp...
Gene Name
SLC28A3
Uniprot ID
Q9HAS3
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 28 member 3
Molecular Weight
76929.61 Da
References
  1. Badagnani I, Chan W, Castro RA, Brett CM, Huang CC, Stryke D, Kawamoto M, Johns SJ, Ferrin TE, Carlson EJ, Burchard EG, Giacomini KM: Functional analysis of genetic variants in the human concentrative nucleoside transporter 3 (CNT3; SLC28A3). Pharmacogenomics J. 2005;5(3):157-65. [PubMed:15738947]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 02, 2018 05:55