Identification Name Alcaftadine Accession Number DB06766 Type Small Molecule Groups Approved Description
Alcaftadine is a H1 histamine receptor antagonist indicated for the prevention of itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis. This drug was approved in July 2010.
6,11-Dihydro-11-(1-Methyl-4-piperidinylidene)-5H-iMidazo[2,1-b]benzazepine-3-carboxaldehyde Alcaftadina Alcaftadinum Lastacaft Vilasta External IDs R 89674 / R-89674 Product Ingredients Not Available Approved Prescription Products
Name Dosage Strength Route Labeller Marketing Start Marketing End Lastacaft Solution / drops 2.5 mg/mL Ophthalmic Allergan 2010-11-01 Not applicable US Lastacaft Solution / drops 2.5 mg/mL Ophthalmic Rebel Distributors 2010-11-01 Not applicable US Lastacaft Solution / drops 2.5 mg/mL Ophthalmic Physicians Total Care, Inc. 2011-08-19 Not applicable US Approved Generic Prescription Products Not Available Approved Over the Counter Products Not Available Unapproved/Other Products Not Available International Brands Not Available Brand mixtures Not Available Categories UNII 7Z8O94ECSX CAS number 147084-10-4 Weight Average: 307.3895 Monoisotopic: 307.168462309 Chemical Formula C 19H 21N 3O InChI Key MWTBKTRZPHJQLH-UHFFFAOYSA-N InChI
For the prevention of itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis.
Structured Indications Pharmacodynamics
Following bilateral topical ocular administration of alcaftadine ophthalmic solution, 0.25%, the mean plasma Cmax of alcaftadine was approximately 60 pg/mL and the median Tmax occurred at 15 minutes. Plasma concentrations of alcaftadine were below the lower limit of quantification (10 pg/mL) by 3 hours after dosing. The mean Cmax of the active carboxylic acid metabolite was approximately 3 ng/mL and occurred at 1 hour after dosing. Plasma concentrations of the carboxylic acid metabolite were below the lower limit of quantification (100 pg/mL) by 12 hours after dosing.
Mechanism of action
Alcaftadine is a H1 histamine receptor antagonist and inhibitor of the release of histamine from mast cells. Decreased chemotaxis and inhibition of eosinophil activation has also been demonstrated.
Target Kind Pharmacological action Actions Organism UniProt ID Histamine H1 receptor Protein unknown
Human P35367 details Related Articles Absorption Not Available Volume of distribution Not Available Protein binding
The protein binding of alcaftadine and the active metabolite are 39.2% and 62.7% respectively.
The metabolism of alcaftadine is mediated by non-CYP450 cytosolic enzymes to the active carboxylic acid metabolite.
Route of elimination
Based on data following oral administration of alcaftadine, the carboxylic acid metabolite is primarily eliminated unchanged in the urine.
The elimination half-life of the carboxylic acid metabolite is approximately 2 hours following topical ocular administration.
Clearance Not Available Toxicity Not Available Affected organisms Not Available Pathways Not Available Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs Not Available Interactions Drug Interactions
Drug Interaction Drug group 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Alcaftadine. Experimental, Illicit 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Alcaftadine. Experimental, Illicit 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Alcaftadine. Experimental, Illicit 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Alcaftadine. Experimental, Illicit Amphetamine Amphetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Alcaftadine. Approved, Illicit Benzphetamine Benzphetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Alcaftadine. Approved, Illicit Benzylpenicilloyl Polylysine Alcaftadine may decrease effectiveness of Benzylpenicilloyl Polylysine as a diagnostic agent. Approved Betahistine The therapeutic efficacy of Betahistine can be decreased when used in combination with Alcaftadine. Approved Chlorphentermine Chlorphentermine may decrease the sedative activities of Alcaftadine. Illicit, Withdrawn Dextroamphetamine Dextroamphetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Alcaftadine. Approved, Illicit Diethylpropion Diethylpropion may decrease the sedative activities of Alcaftadine. Approved, Illicit Hyaluronidase The therapeutic efficacy of Hyaluronidase can be decreased when used in combination with Alcaftadine. Approved, Investigational Hydroxyamphetamine Hydroxyamphetamine hydrobromide may decrease the sedative activities of Alcaftadine. Approved Lisdexamfetamine Lisdexamfetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Alcaftadine. Approved, Investigational Mephedrone Mephedrone may decrease the sedative activities of Alcaftadine. Investigational Mephentermine Mephentermine may decrease the sedative activities of Alcaftadine. Approved Methamphetamine Methamphetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Alcaftadine. Approved, Illicit MMDA MMDA may decrease the sedative activities of Alcaftadine. Experimental, Illicit Phentermine Phentermine may decrease the sedative activities of Alcaftadine. Approved, Illicit Pseudoephedrine Pseudoephedrine may decrease the sedative activities of Alcaftadine. Approved Ritobegron Ritobegron may decrease the sedative activities of Alcaftadine. Investigational Food Interactions Not Available References Synthesis Reference Not Available General References Mahvan TD, Buckley WA, Hornecker JR: Alcaftadine for the prevention of itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis. Ann Pharmacother. 2012 Jul-Aug;46(7-8):1025-32. doi: 10.1345/aph.1Q755. Epub 2012 Jul 17. [ PubMed:22811343 ] Simons FE, Simons KJ: Histamine and H1-antihistamines: celebrating a century of progress. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011 Dec;128(6):1139-1150.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2011.09.005. Epub 2011 Oct 27. [ PubMed:22035879 ] Hussar DA, Samuel J: Vilazodone hydrochloride, linagliptin, and alcaftadine. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2011 Jul-Aug;51(4):557-9. doi: 10.1331/JAPhA.2011.11534. [ PubMed:21752782 ] External Links ATC Codes S01GX11 — Alcaftadine AHFS Codes Not Available PDB Entries Not Available FDA label Download (146 KB) MSDS Download (567 KB) Clinical Trials Clinical Trials Pharmacoeconomics Manufacturers Not Available Packagers Not Available Dosage forms
Form Route Strength Solution / drops Ophthalmic 2.5 mg/mL Prices Not Available Patents
Patent Number Pediatric Extension Approved Expires (estimated) US5468743 No 1996-04-20 2016-04-20 US US8664215 No 2007-12-23 2027-12-23 US Properties State Solid Experimental Properties
Property Value Source boiling point (°C) 556.247 °C at 760 mmHg. # http://www.lookchem.com/Product_842767/CasNo_147084-10-4/Alcaftadine.html#.UXtC3Ct5N_k water solubility slightly solubility FDA Label logP 3.202 # http://www.lookchem.com/Product_842767/CasNo_147084-10-4/Alcaftadine.html#.UXtC3Ct5N_k Predicted Properties Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability Human Intestinal Absorption + 1.0 Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9745 Caco-2 permeable + 0.5974 P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.8775 P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Inhibitor 0.8923 P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Inhibitor 0.7024 Renal organic cation transporter Inhibitor 0.7448 CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.7517 CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.7096 CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.613 CYP450 1A2 substrate Inhibitor 0.6525 CYP450 2C9 inhibitor Non-inhibitor 0.6685 CYP450 2D6 inhibitor Non-inhibitor 0.6573 CYP450 2C19 inhibitor Non-inhibitor 0.7002 CYP450 3A4 inhibitor Non-inhibitor 0.8498 CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity High CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.6381 Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.561 Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9681 Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.969 Rat acute toxicity 2.7266 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.6292 hERG inhibition (predictor II) Inhibitor 0.5603
ADMET data is predicted using
, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (
Spectra Mass Spec (NIST) Not Available Spectra Taxonomy Description This compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as benzazepines. These are organic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to an azepine ring (unsaturated seven-membered heterocycle with one nitrogen atom replacing a carbon atom). Kingdom Chemical entities Super Class Organic compounds Class Organoheterocyclic compounds Sub Class Benzazepines Direct Parent Benzazepines Alternative Parents Carbonylimidazoles / Azepines / Aryl-aldehydes / Piperidines / N-substituted imidazoles / Benzenoids / Heteroaromatic compounds / Trialkylamines / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives show 2 more Substituents Benzazepine / Azepine / Imidazole-4-carbonyl group / Aryl-aldehyde / N-substituted imidazole / Piperidine / Benzenoid / Imidazole / Azole / Heteroaromatic compound / Tertiary aliphatic amine / Tertiary amine / Azacycle / Organic oxide / Amine / Organooxygen compound / Organonitrogen compound / Aldehyde / Organopnictogen compound / Organic oxygen compound / Organic nitrogen compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound show 13 more Molecular Framework Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds External Descriptors piperidines, tertiary amino compound, aldehyde, imidazobenzazepine ( CHEBI:71023 )