|DB00007||Leuprolide||For treatment of prostate cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids and premature puberty|
|DB00014||Goserelin||Used to treat hormone-sensitive cancers of the breast (in pre- and peri- menopausal women) and prostate, and some benign gynaecological disorders (endometriosis, uterine fibroids and endometrial thinning). In addition, goserelin is used in assisted reproduction and in the treatment of precocious puberty.|
|DB00017||Salmon Calcitonin||Used in the treatment of symptomatic Paget's disease for patients unresponsive to alternate treatments or intolerant to such treatments. In addition, it is used in emergency situations when serum calcium levels must be decreased quickly until the underlying condition is identified. It can also be added to existing therapeutic regimens for hypercalcemia such as intravenous fluids and furosemide, oral phosphate or corticosteroids, or other agents. Calcitonin can be used in patients with azotemia and cases where intravenous fluids would be contraindicated due to limited cardiac reserves. Also for the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis in women more than 5 years post-menopause. |
|DB00035||Desmopressin||- Indicated for the treatment of nocturia due to nocturnal polyuria in adults who awaken at least 2 times per night to void (intranasal).
- Indicated as antidiuretic replacement therapy in the management of central cranial diabetes insipidus and for management of the temporary polyuria and polydipsia following head trauma or surgery in the pituitary region (intranasal/parenteral).
- Indicated for patients with hemophilia A with factor VIII coagulant activity levels greater than 5% or mild to moderate classic von Willebrand's Disease (Type I) with factor VIII levels greater than 5% during surgical procedures and postoperatively to maintain hemostasis (parenteral).|
|DB00041||Aldesleukin||For treatment of adults with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.|
|DB00080||Daptomycin||For the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by susceptible strains of Gram-positive microorganisms.|
|DB00081||Tositumomab||For treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (CD20 positive, follicular)|
The cyanocobalamin nasal spray is indicated for the maintenance of vitamin B12 concentrations after normalization with intramuscular vitamin B12 therapy in patients with deficiency of this vitamin who have no nervous system involvement [FDA label].
Note: CaloMist [FDA label], the nasal spray form, has not been evaluated for the treatment of newly diagnosed vitamin B12 deficiency.
**Injection forms (subcutaneous, intramuscular)**
These forms are indicated for vitamin B12 deficiencies due to various causes, with or without neurologic manifestations [F3736]. Vitamin B12 deficiency is frequently caused by malabsorption, which is often associated with the following conditions [L5545]:
Addisonian (pernicious) anemia
Gastrointestinal pathology, dysfunction, or surgery, including gluten enteropathy or sprue, small bowel bacterial overgrowth, total or partial gastrectomy
Fish tapeworm infestation
Malignancy of the pancreas or bowel
Folic acid deficiency
Vitamin B12 supplements are widely available and indicated in patients who require supplementation for various reasons. Dose requirements for vitamin B12 which are higher than normal (caused by pregnancy, thyrotoxicosis, hemolytic anemia, hemorrhage, malignancy, hepatic and renal disease) can usually be achieved with oral supplementation [L5545]. Oral products of vitamin B12 are not recommended in patients with malabsorption, as these forms are primarily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract [F3739]. |
|DB00158||Folic Acid||Folic acid is indicated for the treatment of folic acid deficiency, megaloblastic anemia, and in anemias of nutritional origins, pregnancy, infancy, or childhood.|
|DB00165||Pyridoxine||Pyridoxine is indicated for the treatment of vitamin B6 deficiency and for the prophylaxis of [DB00951]-induced peripheral neuropathy. It is also approved by Health Canada for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy in a combination product with [DB00366] (as the commercially available product Diclectin).|
|DB00176||Fluvoxamine||Indicated predominantly for the management of depression and for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) [FDA Label]. Has also been used in the management of bulimia nervosa [A250].|
|DB00181||Baclofen||Baclofen is administered for the relief of signs and symptoms of spasticity resulting from multiple sclerosis, particularly for the relief of flexor spasms and associated pain and clonus, in addition to muscular rigidity [FDA label].
Patients receiving this drug should have reversible spasticity for baclofen to promote the restoration of residual function. This drug is not indicated in the treatment of skeletal muscle spasm caused by rheumatic disorders. The efficacy of baclofen in stroke, cerebral palsy, and Parkinson's disease has not been determined and, therefore, baclofen is not recommended for these conditions [FDA label].
|DB00182||Amphetamine||Amphetamine is indicated for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) as well as for the treatment of central nervous system disorders such as narcolepsy.[A18540]
ADHD is a complex disorder associated with the substantial heterogeneity in etiology, clinical presentation, and treatment outcome. ADHD comes from a complex interplay between interdependent genetic and non-genetic factors which cause complex mental disorders in children and teenagers.[A174271]
On the other hand, narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder typically resenting during adolescence and characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness.[A174274]
Amphetamine is also being used nowadays off-label for the treatment of obesity, depression and chronic pain.[A174268, A174283]|
|DB00185||Cevimeline||For the treatment of symptoms of dry mouth in patients with Sjögren's Syndrome.|
|DB00186||Lorazepam||Lorazepam is FDA-approved for the short-term relief of anxiety symptoms related to anxiety disorders and anxiety associated with depressive symptoms such as anxiety-associated insomnia. It is as well used as an anesthesia premedication in adults to relieve anxiety or to produce sedation/amnesia and for the treatment of status epilepticus.[T385]
Some off-label indications of lorazepam include rapid tranquilization of an agitated patient, alcohol withdrawal delirium, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, muscle spasms, insomnia, panic disorder, delirium, chemotherapy-associated anticipatory nausea and vomiting, and psychogenic catatonia.[T385]|
|DB00193||Tramadol||Tramadol is approved for the management of moderate to severe pain in adults.[FDA label]
As an off-label indication, tramadol has been investigated to be used for the treatment of premature ejaculation.[A173986]|
|DB00196||Fluconazole||**Fluconazole can be administered in the treatment of the following fungal infections**:
Vaginal candidiasis (vaginal yeast infections due to Candida) [FDA label]
Oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis [FDA label]
Candida urinary tract infections, peritonitis, and systemic Candida infections including candidemia, disseminated candidiasis, and pneumonia [FDA label]
Cryptococcal meningitis [FDA label].
**Fungal infection prophylaxis**: this drug can be used in the prophylaxis of candidiasis in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation who receive cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy [FDA label]
**A note on laboratory testing**:
Specimens for fungal culture and other relevant laboratory studies (serology, histopathology) are recommended to be obtained prior to therapy to isolate and identify the causative organism(s). Therapy may be initiated before the results of the cultures and other laboratory studies are returned; however, once these results become available, therapy must be adjusted accordingly [FDA label].
|DB00198||Oseltamivir||In general, oseltamivir is indicated for the treatment of acute, uncomplicated illness due to influenza A and B infection in patients 2 weeks of age and older who have been symptomatic for no more than 48 hours [F3094]. In particular, this agent is indicated in adults and children including full-term neonates who present with symptoms typical of influenza when influenza virus is circulating in the community [F3097]. Efficacy has been demonstrated when treatment is initiated within two days of the first onset of symptoms [F3097].
Oseltamivir is also indicated for the prophylaxis of influenza in patients one year and older [F3094]. Specifically, post-exposure prevention in individuals one year of age or older following contact with a clinically diagnosed influenza case when influenza virus is circulating in the community qualifies for such prophylactic therapy [F3097]. Moreover, oseltamivir would only be indicated for post-exposure prevention of influenza in infants less than 1 year of age during a pandemic influenza outbreak [F3097].|
|DB00200||Hydroxocobalamin||For treatment of pernicious anemia and the prevention and treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency arising from alcoholism, malabsorption, tapeworm infestation, celiac, hyperthyroidism, hepatic-biliary tract disease, persistent diarrhea, ileal resection, pancreatic cancer, renal disease, prolonged stress, vegan diets, macrobiotic diets or other restrictive diets. Also for the treatment of known or suspected cyanide poisoning.|
|DB00206||Reserpine||Foe the treatment of hypertension|
|DB00208||Ticlopidine||Used in patients, who have had a stroke or stroke precursors and who cannot take aspirin or aspirin has not worked, to try to prevent another thrombotic stroke.
**Treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease associated with a history of erosive esophagitis**
Pantoprazole for injection is indicated for short-term treatment (7-10 days) of patients having gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with a history of erosive esophagitis, as an alternative to oral medication in patients who are unable to continue taking pantoprazole delayed-release tablets. _Safety and efficacy of pantoprazole injection as the initial treatment of patients having GERD with a history of erosive esophagitis have not been demonstrated at this time_ [FDA label].
**Pathological Hypersecretion Associated with Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome**
Pantoprazole for injection is indicated for the treatment of pathological hypersecretory conditions associated with Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome or other neoplastic conditions [FDA label].
**Pantoprazole delayed-release oral suspension**:
**Short-Term Treatment of erosive esophagitis associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)**
Indicated in adults and pediatric patients five years of age and above for the short-term treatment (up to 8 weeks) in the healing and symptomatic relief of erosive esophagitis. For adult patients who have not healed after 8 weeks of treatment, an additional 8-week course of pantoprazole may be considered. Safety of treatment beyond 8 weeks in pediatric patients has not been determined [F3202].
**Maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis**
Indicated for maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis and reduction in relapse rates of daytime and nighttime heartburn symptoms in adult patients with GERD [F3202].
**Pathological hypersecretory conditions including Zollinger-Ellison syndrome**
Indicated for the long-term treatment of the above conditions [F3202].|
|DB00225||Gadodiamide||For intravenous use in MRI to visualize lesions with abnormal vascularity (or those thought to cause abnormalities in the blood-brain barrier) in the brain (intracranial lesions), spine, and associated tissues.|
|DB00230||Pregabalin||Pregabalin is used for the management of neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, and as adjunctive therapy for adult patients with partial onset seizures [FDA label]. |
|DB00231||Temazepam||Temazepam is specifically indicated only for the short-term management of insomnia [FDA Label], [L5539]. Furthermore, such management is generally predominantly associated with the symptomatic relief of transient and short-term insomnia characterized by difficulty in falling asleep, frequent nocturnal awakenings and/or early morning awakenings [F3718]. In particular, the official prescribing information for temazepam typically specifies that the instructions issued for dispensed prescriptions of the medication should indicate specifically that patients are only expected to use the therapy for short periods of time - usually 7-10 days in general [FDA Label, F3718]. Subsequently, treatment with temazepam should usually not exceed 7 to 10 consecutive days and nor should it be prescribed in quantities exceeding a one-month supply [F3718].
Some regional prescribing information also notes that temazepam may be used for premedication prior to minor surgery or other related procedures [L5539].|
|DB00235||Milrinone||Indicated for the treatment of congestive heart failure.|
|DB00237||Butabarbital||For short-term treatment of insomnia and anxiety disorders|
|DB00254||Doxycycline||Doxycycline is indicated for the treatment of various infections by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, as well other types of bacteria. A complete list of organisms is available in the FDA label and in the "indications" section of this drug entry [FDA label].
The following are some of the major infections that may be treated with doxycycline [FDA label]:
Rocky mountain spotted fever, typhus fever and the typhus group, Q fever, rickettsialpox, and tick fevers caused by Rickettsiae
Respiratory tract infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
Psittacosis (ornithosis) caused by Chlamydia psittaci
Trachoma caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, although the infectious agent is not always eliminated as judged by immunofluorescence
Inclusion conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
Uncomplicated urethral, endocervical or rectal infections in adults caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
Nongonococcal urethritis caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum
Relapsing fever due to Borrelia recurrentis
**A note regarding anti-microbial resistance**
It is important to note that doxycycline is not the drug of choice in the treatment of any type of staphylococcal infection.
Up to 44 percent of strains of Streptococcus pyogenes and 74 percent of Streptococcus faecalis have been found to be resistant to tetracyclines. Therefore, tetracyclines such as doxycycline should not be used to treat streptococcal infections unless the microorganism has been demonstrated to be susceptible [FDA label].|
|DB00262||Carmustine||For the treatment of brain tumors, multiple myeloma, Hodgkin's disease and Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.|
|DB00270||Isradipine||For the management of mild to moderate essential hypertension. It may be used alone or concurrently with thiazide-type diuretics.|
|DB00271||Diatrizoate||Used, alone or in combination, for a wide variety of diagnostic imaging methods, including angiography, urography, cholangiography, computed tomography, hysterosalpingography, and retrograde pyelography. It can be used for imaging the gastrointestinal tract in patients allergic to barium.|
|DB00273||Topiramate||Topiramate is indicated for the following conditions:
- Monotherapy for partial onset or primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients over 2 years of age.
- Adjunctive therapy for partial onset seizures or primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures for adult and pediatric patients.
- Adjunctive therapy for seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in patients over 2 years of age.
- Prophylaxis of migraine headache in adults.[FDA label]
A seizure is an abnormal, unregulated electrical discharge occurring in the brain's cortical gray matter. This electrical response produces a transient interruption in the normal brain function which in order produces altered awareness, abnormal sensations, focal involuntary movements or convulsions. The type of seizure can be classified according to the type of onset followed by a type of seizure.[L5548]
A migraine headache is a [ulsating or throbbing pain that can be presented in one of both sides of the head and it can be worsened by external stimuli such as physical activity, light, sounds, and odors.[L5551]
Topiramate has been commonly investigated and used off-label for weight reduction in patients with obesity or diabetes.[A175240]|
|DB00280||Disopyramide||For the treatment of documented ventricular arrhythmias, such as sustained ventricular tachycardia, ventricular pre-excitation and cardiac dysrhythmias. It is a Class Ia antiarrhythmic drug.|
|DB00284||Acarbose||For treatment and management of diabetes type II (used in combination therapy as a second or third line agent)|
|DB00285||Venlafaxine||Venlafaxine is indicated in the management of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (social phobia), and panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Venlafaxine is also used off-label for prophylaxis of migraine headaches [A177229], for reduction of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause [A177238], and for management of neuropathic pain (although there is only minimal evidence of efficacy for this condition) [A177232]. It is also considered a second-line option for management of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) [A177226, A177235]. |
|DB00286||Conjugated estrogens||The conjugated estrogens are indicated for several different conditions including:
- Treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms due to menopause.
- Treatment of moderate to severe symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy due to menopause.
- Treatment of hypoestrogenism due to hypogonadism, castration or primary ovarian failure.
- Palliative treatment of breast cancer in appropriately selected patients with metastatic disease.
- Palliative treatment of androgen-dependent carcinoma of the prostate.
- Preventive therapy of postmenopausal osteoporosis.[A38238] |
|DB00290||Bleomycin||For palliative treatment in the management malignant neoplasm (trachea, bronchus, lung), squamous cell carcinoma, and lymphomas.|
|DB00292||Etomidate||Used in the induction of general anesthesia.|
|DB00294||Etonogestrel||Etonogestrel is administered in subdermal implants as long-acting reversible contraception. It is known to be effective in postpartum insertion including breastfeeding women.[A175990]
Etonogestrel is part of the long-acting contraceptive implants that prevent pregnancy. The implant's effect can remain for 5 years.[L5698]|
|DB00296||Ropivacaine||Used in obstetric anesthesia and regional anesthesia for surgery.|
|DB00300||Tenofovir disoproxil||Tenofovir is indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the management of HIV-1 infection in adults and pediatric patients 2 years of age and older. It is also indicated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in adults and pediatric patients 12 years of age and older [FDA label]. This drug is also a component of multiple products used for the management of HIV-1 infection [F3418], [F3421].
Safety and effectiveness of tenofovir disoproxil in pediatric patients younger than 2 years of age has not been established to this date [FDA label].|
|DB00303||Ertapenem||For the treatment the following moderate to severe infections caused by susceptible isolates of the designated microorganisms: (1) complicated intra-abdominal infections due to Escherichia coli, Clostridium clostridioforme, Eubacterium lentum, Peptostreptococcus species, Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides distasonis, Bacteroides ovatus, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, or Bacteroides uniformis, (2) complicated skin and skin structure infections, including diabetic foot infections without osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin susceptible isolates only), Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Bacteroides fragilis, Peptostreptococcus species, Porphyromonas asaccharolytica, or Prevotella bivia, (3) community acquired pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin susceptible isolates only) including cases with concurrent bacteremia, Haemophilus influenzae (beta-lactamase negative isolates only), or Moraxella catarrhalis, (4) complicated urinary tract infections including pyelonephritis due to Escherichia coli, including cases with concurrent bacteremia, or Klebsiella pneumoniae, (5) acute pelvic infections including postpartum endomyometritis, septic abortion and post surgical gynecologic infections due to Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Bacteroides fragilis, Porphyromonas asaccharolytica, Peptostreptococcus species, or Prevotella bivia.|
|DB00308||Ibutilide||Indicated for the rapid conversion of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter of recent onset to sinus rhythm.|
|DB00312||Pentobarbital||For the short-term treatment of insomnia.|
|DB00314||Capreomycin||Used in the treatment of tuberculosis in combination with other drugs.|
|DB00316||Acetaminophen||In general, acetaminophen is used for the treatment of mild to moderate pain and reduction of fever [F4124]. It is available over the counter in various forms, the most common being oral forms.
Acetaminophen _injection_ is indicated for [FDA label]:
• Management of mild to moderate pain
• Management of moderate to severe pain with adjunctive opioid
• Reduction of fever
Because of its low risk of causing allergic reactions, this drug can be administered in patients who are intolerant to salicylates and those with allergic tendencies, including bronchial asthmatics [F4124]. Specific dosing guidelines should be followed when administering acetaminophen to children [L5780]. |
|DB00319||Piperacillin||For the treatment of polymicrobial infections.|
|DB00321||Amitriptyline||This drug in indicated for the following conditions [FDA label]:
Major depressive disorder in adults
Management of neuropathic pain in adults
Prophylactic treatment of chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) in adults
Prophylactic treatment of migraine in adults
Treatment of nocturnal enuresis in children aged 6 years and above when organic pathology, including spina bifida and related disorders, have been excluded and no response has been achieved to all other non-drug and drug treatments, including antispasmodics and vasopressin-related products. This product should only be prescribed by a healthcare professional with expertise in the management of persistent enuresis [FDA label]
Off-label uses: irritable bowel syndrome, sleep disorders, diabetic neuropathy, agitation, fibromyalgia, and insomnia |
|DB00322||Floxuridine||For palliative management of gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma metastatic to the liver, when given by continuous regional intra-arterial infusion in carefully selected patients who are considered incurable by surgery or other means. Also for the palliative management of liver cancer (usually administered by hepatic intra-arterial infusion).|
|DB00323||Tolcapone||Used as an adjunct to levodopa/carbidopa therapy for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's Disease. This drug is generally reserved for patients with parkinsonian syndrome receiving levodopa/carbidopa who are experiencing symptom fluctuations and are not responding adequately to or are not candidates for other adjunctive therapies.|
|DB00325||Nitroprusside||For immediate reduction of blood pressure of patients in hypertensive crises, reduce bleeding during surgery, and for the treatment of acute congestive heart failure|
|DB00330||Ethambutol||For use, as an adjunct, in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.|
Metformin is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to increase glycemic control in _adults and pediatric patients_ 10 years of age and older diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus [FDA label].
**Metformin extended-release tablet (XR)**
The extended-release form is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in only _adults_ with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Safety in children has not been determined to this date [FDA label].|
|DB00333||Methadone||For the treatment of dry cough, drug withdrawal syndrome, opioid type drug dependence, and pain.|
|DB00338||Omeprazole||Omeprazole, according to the FDA label [FDA label] is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) used for the following purposes:
• Treatment of active duodenal ulcer in adults
• Eradication of Helicobacter pylori to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer
recurrence in adults
• Treatment of active benign gastric ulcer in adults
• Treatment of symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in
patients 1 year of age and older
• Treatment of erosive esophagitis (EE) due to acid-mediated GERD in
patients 1 month of age and older
• Maintenance of healing of EE due to acid-mediated GERD in patients 1
year of age and older
• Pathologic hypersecretory conditions in adults|
|DB00339||Pyrazinamide||For the initial treatment of active tuberculosis in adults and children when combined with other antituberculous agents.|
|DB00349||Clobazam||For treatment and management of epilepsy and seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, a difficult-to-treat form of childhood epilepsy. |
|DB00351||Megestrol acetate||For the treatment of anorexia, cachexia, or an unexplained, significant weight loss in patients with a diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Also used for the palliative management of recurrent, inoperable, or metastatic breast cancer, endometrial cancer, and prostate cancer in Canada and some other countries.|
|DB00355||Aztreonam||For the treatment of the following infections caused by susceptible gram-negative microorganisms: urinary tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, septicemia, skin and skin-structure infections, intra-abdominal infections, and gynecologic infections.|
|DB00356||Chlorzoxazone||For the relief of discomfort associated with acute painful musculoskeletal conditions.|
|DB00359||Sulfadiazine||For the treatment of rheumatic fever and meningococcal meningitis|
|DB00363||Clozapine||For use in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia.|
|DB00364||Sucralfate||For the short-term treatment (up to 8 weeks) of active duodenal ulcer, as well as maintenance therapy for duodenal ulcer patients at reduced dosage (1 gram twice a day) after healing of acute ulcers. Also used for the short-term treatment of gastric ulcer.|
|DB00372||Thiethylperazine||For the treatment or relief of nausea and vomiting.|
|DB00373||Timolol||In its oral form it is used to treat high blood pressure and prevent heart attacks, and occasionally to prevent migraine headaches. In its opthalmic form it is used to treat open-angle and occasionally secondary glaucoma.|
|DB00377||Palonosetron||For the prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of moderately emetogenic cancer chemotherapy, as well as prevention of acute nausea and vomiting associated with highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy. Also used for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting for up to 24 hours post operation.|
|DB00380||Dexrazoxane||For reducing the incidence and severity of cardiomyopathy associated with doxorubicin administration in women with metastatic breast cancer who have received a cumulative doxorubicin hydrochloride dose of 300 mg/m^2 and would benefit from continued doxorubicin therapy. Also approved for the treatment of extravasation from intravenous anthracyclines.|
|DB00390||Digoxin||For the treatment and management of congestive cardiac insufficiency, arrhythmias and heart failure.|
|DB00398||Sorafenib||Sorafenib is indicated for the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma and advanced renal cell carcinoma. |
|DB00401||Nisoldipine||For the treatment of hypertension. It may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents.|
|DB00402||Eszopiclone||For the treatment of insomnia|
|DB00404||Alprazolam||For the management of anxiety disorder or the short-term relief of symptoms of anxiety and for the treatment of panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia.|
|DB00412||Rosiglitazone||Rosiglitazone is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. |
|DB00413||Pramipexole||This drug is indicated for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson’s disease [FDA label]. This drug can be administered as monotherapy or in conjunction with levodopa. It is also indicated for symptomatic treatment of moderate to severe primary Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) [FDA label]. |
|DB00415||Ampicillin||For treatment of infection (Respiratory, GI, UTI and meningitis) due to E. coli, P. mirabilis, enterococci, Shigella, S. typhosa and other Salmonella, nonpenicillinase-producing N. gononhoeae, H. influenzae, staphylococci, streptococci including streptoc|
|DB00418||Secobarbital||For the Short-term treatment of intractable insomnia for patients habituated to barbiturates|
|DB00422||Methylphenidate||Methylphenidate is indicated for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in patients 6 years of age and older and for the treatment of narcolepsy.|
|DB00432||Trifluridine||Trifluridine is used for the treatment of primay keratoconjunctivitis and recurrent epithelial keratitis due to herpes simplex virus, types 1 and 2 in ophthalmic solutions.
Trifluridine, in combination with tipiracil as oral tablets, is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who have been previously treated with fluoropyrimidine-, oxaliplatin- and irinotecan-based chemotherapy, an anti-VEGF biological therapy, and if RAS wild-type, an anti-EGFR therapy [FDA Label].|
|DB00435||Nitric Oxide||For the treatment of term and near-term (>34 weeks) neonates with hypoxic respiratory failure|
|DB00438||Ceftazidime||For the treatment of patients with infections caused by susceptible strains of organisms in the following diseases: lower respiratory tract infections,skin and skin structure infections, urinary tract infections, bacterial septicemia, bone and joint infections, gynecologic infections, intra abdominal infections (including peritonitis), and central nervous system infections (including meningitis).|
|DB00440||Trimethoprim||For the treatment of urinary tract infections, uncomplicated pyelonephritis (with sulfamethoxazole) and mild acute prostatitis. May be used as pericoital (with sulfamethoxazole) or continuous prophylaxis in females with recurrent cystitis. May be used as an alternative to treat asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy (only before the last 6 weeks of pregnancy). Other uses include: alternative agent in respiratory tract infections (otitis, sinusitus, bronchitis and pneumonia), treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (acute or prophylaxis), Nocardia infections, and traveller's diarrhea.|
|DB00441||Gemcitabine||Gemcitabine is indicated for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer that has relapsed at least 6 months after completion of platinum-based therapy; metastatic ovarian cancer; inoperable, locally advanced (Stage IIIA or IIIB), or metastatic (Stage IV) non-small cell lung cancer; and locally advanced (nonresectable Stage II or Stage III) or metastatic (Stage IV) adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. |
|DB00454||Meperidine||Used to control moderate to severe pain.|
|DB00458||Imipramine||For the relief of symptoms of depression and as temporary adjunctive therapy in reducing enuresis in children aged 6 years and older [FDA Label].
May also be used off-label to manage panic disorders with or without agoraphobia, as a second line agent for ADHD in children and adolescents, to manage bulimia nervosa, for short-term management of acute depressive episodes in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, for the treatment of acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, and for symptomatic treatment of postherpetic neuralgia and painful diabetic neuropathy [L1349,L1348,A31900,L1351,L1352,L1353,A31904]. |
|DB00476||Duloxetine||For the acute and maintenance treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), as well as acute management of generalized anxiety disorder. Also used for the management of neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, and fibromyalgia. Has been used in the management of moderate to severe stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women.|
|DB00477||Chlorpromazine||For the treatment of schizophrenia; to control nausea and vomiting; for relief of restlessness and apprehension before surgery; for acute intermittent porphyria; as an adjunct in the treatment of tetanus; to control the manifestations of the manic type of manic-depressive illness; for relief of intractable hiccups; for the treatment of severe behavioral problems in children (1 to 12 years of age) marked by combativeness and/or explosive hyperexcitable behavior (out of proportion to immediate provocations), and in the short-term treatment of hyperactive children who show excessive motor activity with accompanying conduct disorders consisting of some or all of the following symptoms: impulsivity, difficulty sustaining attention, aggressivity, mood lability, and poor frustration tolerance.|
|DB00480||Lenalidomide||Lenalidomide is indicated for the treatment of multiple myeloma in combination with dexamethasone. It is also indicated for the treatment of patients with transfusion-dependent anemia due to low- or intermediate- risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) associated with a deletion 5q cytogenetic abnormality with or without additional cytogenetic abnormalities.|
|DB00490||Buspirone||For the management of anxiety disorders or the short-term relief of the symptoms of anxiety, and also as an augmention of SSRI-treatment against depression.|
|DB00492||Fosinopril||For treating mild to moderate hypertension, use as an adjunct in treating congestive heart failure, and may be used to slow the rate of progression of renal disease in hypertensive individuals with diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria or overt nephropathy. |
|DB00499||Flutamide||For the management of locally confined Stage B2-C and Stage D2 metastatic carcinoma of the prostate|
|DB00501||Cimetidine||For the treatment and the management of acid-reflux disorders (GERD), peptic ulcer disease, heartburn, and acid indigestion.|
|DB00502||Haloperidol||For the treatment of schizophrenia [L2016]
For the treatment of acute psychosis in acutely agitated schizophrenic patients with moderately severe to very severe symptoms [L2016]
For the treatment of severe behavioral or psychological symptoms of dementia [L2016]
For the treatment of delirium in the pediatric intensive care unit [L2016]
For the treatment of agitation or delirium [L2016]
For agitation† or delirium in adult patients with no underlying psychiatric illness [L2016]
For use as a second-line agent for rescue treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting [L2016]
For the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder [L2016]
For the treatment of tics and vocal utterances associated with Tourette's syndrome [L2016]
For the treatment of severe behavioral problems associated with oppositional defiant disorder or other disruptive behavioral disorders, or for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in pediatric patients who show excessive motor activity with accompanying conduct disorders [L2016]|
|DB00512||Vancomycin||A variety of dosage forms (for example, oral, injections, etc.) exist for the treatment of serious or severe infections caused by susceptible strains of methicillin-resistant (beta-lactam-resistant) staphylococci [FDA Label].
Additionally, a unique FDA approved oral liquid treatment is also available and indicated for the treatment of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea and enterocolitis caused by _Staphylococcus aureus_, including methicillin-resistant strains [L1196].|
|DB00524||Metolazone||For the treatment of hypertension, alone or in combination with other antihypertensive drugs of a different class.|
|DB00537||Ciprofloxacin||For the treatment of the following infections caused by susceptible organisms: urinary tract infections, acute uncomplicated cystitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, lower respiratory tract infections, acute sinusitis, skin and skin structure infections, bone and joint infections, complicated intra-abdominal infections (used in combination with metronidazole), infectious diarrhea, typhoid fever (enteric fever), uncomplicated cervical and urethral gonorrhea, and inhalational anthrax (post-exposure).|
|DB00548||Azelaic acid||For the topical treatment of mild-to-moderate inflammatory acne vulgaris.|
|DB00552||Pentostatin||For the treatment of hairy cell leukaemia refractory to alpha interferon.|
|DB00553||Methoxsalen||For the treatment of psoriasis and vitiligo|
|DB00554||Piroxicam||For treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.|
|DB00555||Lamotrigine||Indicated as adjunctive therapy for the following seizure types in patients ≥2 years of age: partial seizures/primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures/generalized seizures of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome [FDA Label].
Indicated for conversion to monotherapy in adults (≥16 years of age) with partial seizures who are receiving treatment with carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, or valproate as the single antiepileptic drug (AED)[FDA Label].
Indicated for the maintenance treatment of Bipolar I Disorder to delay the time to occurrence of mood episodes (depression, mania, hypomania, mixed episodes) in adults (≥18 years of age) treated for acute mood episodes with standard therapy [FDA Label].|
|DB00558||Zanamivir||For the prevention and treatment of influenza A and B.|
|DB00563||Methotrexate||Methotrexate is indicated in the treatment of gestational choriocarcinoma, chorioadenoma destruens and hydatidiform mole. In acute lymphocytic leukemia, methotrexate is indicated in the prophylaxis of meningeal leukemia and is used in maintenance therapy in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. Methotrexate is also indicated in the treatment of meningeal leukemia. Methotrexate is used alone or in combination with other anticancer agents in the treatment of breast cancer, epidermoid cancers of the head and neck, advanced mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T cell lymphoma), and lung cancer, particularly squamous cell and small cell types. Methotrexate is also used in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of advanced stage non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Methotrexate is indicated in the symptomatic control of severe, recalcitrant, disabling psoriasis. Methotrexate is indicated in the management of selected adults with severe, active rheumatoid arthritis (ACR criteria), or children with active polyarticular-course juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. |
|DB00564||Carbamazepine||For the treatment of epilepsy and pain associated with true trigeminal neuralgia. |
|DB00567||Cephalexin||For the treatment of respiratory tract infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes; otitis media due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Moraxella catarrhalis; skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and/or Streptococcus pyogenes; bone infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and/or Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary tract infections, including acute prostatitis, caused by Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.|
|DB00569||Fondaparinux||Approved for: (1) prophylaxis of VTE for up to one month post surgery in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery of the lower limbs such as hip fracture, hip replacement and knee surgery; (2) prophylaxis of VTE patients undergoing abdominal surgery who are at high risk of thromboembolic complications (e.g. patients undergoing abdominal cancer surgery); (3) treatment of acute DVT and PE; (4) management of UA and NSTEMI for the prevention of death and subsequent myocardial infarction (MI); and (5) management of STEMI for the prevention of death and myocardial reinfarction in patients who are managed with thrombolytics or who are initially to receive no form of reperfusion therapy. Fondaparinux should not be used as the sole anticoagulant during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) due to an increased risk of guiding catheter thrombosis. |
|DB00571||Propranolol||For the prophylaxis of migraine.|
|DB00577||Valaciclovir||Valacyclovir is a nucleoside analog DNA polymerase inhibitor indicated for [FDA label]:
• Cold Sores (Herpes Labialis)
• Genital Herpes
• Treatment of genital herpes lesions in immunocompetent patients (initial or recurrent episode)
• Suppression of genital herpes lesions in immunocompetent or HIV-infected patients
• Reduction of viral transmission
• Herpes Zoster
• Cold Sores (Herpes Labialis)
**Limitations of use** [FDA label]
The efficacy and safety of valacyclovir have not been established in immunocompromised patients other than for the suppression of genital herpes in HIV-infected patients.
|DB00583||Levocarnitine||For treatment of primary systemic carnitine deficiency, a genetic impairment of normal biosynthesis or utilization of levocarnitine from dietary sources, or for the treatment of secondary carnitine deficiency resulting from an inborn error of metabolism such as glutaric aciduria II, methyl malonic aciduria, propionic acidemia, and medium chain fatty acylCoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Used therapeutically to stimulate gastric and pancreatic secretions and in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemias. Parenteral levocarnitine is indicated for the prevention and treatment of carnitine deficiency in patients with end-stage renal disease.|
|DB00597||Gadoteridol||Gadoteridol is an MRI contrast agent used for contrast enhancement of the brain, spine and surrounding tissues resulting in improved visualization (compared with unenhanced MRI) of lesions with abnormal vascularity or those thought to cause a disruption of the normal blood brain barrier. Gadoteridol can also be used for whole body contrast enhanced MRI including the head, neck, liver, breast, musculoskeletal system and soft tissue pathologies.|
|DB00603||Medroxyprogesterone acetate||Used as a contraceptive and to treat secondary amenorrhea, abnormal uterine bleeding, pain associated with endometriosis, endometrial and renal cell carcinomas, paraphilia in males, GnRH-dependent forms of precocious puberty, as well as to prevent endometrial changes associated with estrogens.|
|DB00608||Chloroquine||For the suppressive treatment and for acute attacks of malaria due to P. vivax, P.malariae, P. ovale, and susceptible strains of P. falciparum, Second-line agent in treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis|
|DB00612||Bisoprolol||For management of heart failure, angina pectoris, and mild to moderate hypertension and for secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI). |
|DB00624||Testosterone||To be used as hormone replacement or substitution of diminished or absent endogenous testosterone. Use in males: For management of congenital or acquired hypogonadism, hypogonadism associated with HIV infection, and male climacteric (andopause). Use in females: For palliative treatment of androgen-responsive, advanced, inoperable, metastatis (skeletal) carcinoma of the breast in women who are 1-5 years postmenopausal; testosterone esters may be used in combination with estrogens in the management of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause in women who do not respond to adequately to estrogen therapy alone.|
|DB00628||Clorazepic acid||For the management of anxiety disorders or for the short-term relief of the symptoms of anxiety. Also used as adjunctive therapy in the management of partial seizures and for the symptomatic relief of acute alcohol withdrawal.|
|DB00631||Clofarabine||For the treatment of pediatric patients 1 to 21 years old with relapsed or refractory acute lymphocytic (lymphoblastic) leukemia after at least two prior regimens. It is designated as an orphan drug by the FDA for this use.|
|DB00633||Dexmedetomidine||For sedation of initially intubated and mechanically ventilated patients during treatment in an intensive care setting, also used in pain relief; anxiety reduction and analgesia|
|DB00635||Prednisone||For the treatment of drug-induced allergic reactions, perennial or seasonal allergic rhinitis, serum sickness, giant cell arteritis acute rheumatic or nonrheumatic carditis, systemic dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, exfoliative dermatitis, bullous dermatitis herpetiformis, severe seborrheic dermatitis, severe (Stevens-Johnson syndrome) erythema multiforme, mycosis fungoides, pemphigus, severe psoriasis, acute adrenocortical insufficiency, Addison's disease, secondary adrenocortical insufficiency, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypercalcemia associated with neoplasms, nonsuppurative thyroiditis, ulceratice colitis, Crohn's disease, acquired hemolytic anemia, congenital hypoplastic anemia, erythroblastopenia, adult secondary thrombocytopenia, adult idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura, acute or subacute bursitis, epicondylitis, acute nonspecific tenosynovitis, acute or chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's or non-Hodgkin's lynphomas, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, primary brain tumors (adjunct), nephrotic syndrome, tuberculous meningitis, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis. cerebral edema, chorioretinitis, diffuse posterior choroiditis, aleergic conjunctivitis, Herpes zoster ophthalmicus, anterior segment inflammation, iridocyclitis, iritis, keratitis, optoc neuritis, sympathetic ophthalmia, corneal marginal allergic ulcers, symptomatic sarcoidosis, Loeffler's syndrome not manageable by other means, berylliosis, fulminating or disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis when used concurrently with appropriate antituberculous chemotherapy and aspiration pneumonitis.|
|DB00642||Pemetrexed||Used in combination with cisplatin for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma in adults whose disease is unresectable or who otherwise are not candidates for potentially curative surgery. Also used as a monotherapy for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after prior chemotherapy|
|DB00651||Dyphylline||For relief of acute bronchial asthma and for reversible bronchospasm associated with chronic bronchitis and emphysema.|
|DB00660||Metaxalone||For the treatment of painful peripheral musculoskeletal conditions and spasticity from upper motor neuron syndromes.|
|DB00661||Verapamil||For the treatment of hypertension, angina, and cluster headache prophylaxis.|
|DB00672||Chlorpropamide||For treatment of NIDDM in conjunction with diet and exercise. |
|DB00682||Warfarin||For the treatment of retinal vascular occlusion, pulmonary embolism, cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation and flutter, cerebral embolism, transient cerebral ischaemia, arterial embolism and thrombosis.|
|DB00683||Midazolam||The midazolam intravenous injection is indicated for preoperative sedation/anxiolysis/anesthesia induction/amnesia [F2434], and the intramuscular injection is indicated for the treatment of status epilepticus in adults [FDA label].
Midazolam is also an agent for conscious sedation/anxiolysis/amnesia prior to or during diagnostic, therapeutic, or endoscopic procedures. It is important to note that various routes may be applicable to different indications. Refer to the "indications" section of this drug entry for more detailed information.|
|DB00688||Mycophenolate mofetil||For the prophylaxis of organ rejection in patients receiving allogeneic renal, cardiac or hepatic transplants. Mycophenolate mofetil should be used concomitantly with cyclosporine and corticosteroids. |
|DB00690||Flurazepam||For short-term and intermittent use in patients with recurring insomnia and poor sleeping habits|
|DB00695||Furosemide||For the treatment of edema associated with congestive heart failure, cirrhosis of the liver, and renal disease, including the nephrotic syndrome. Also for the treatment of hypertension alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents.|
|DB00706||Tamsulosin||Used in the treatment of signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (reduction in urinary obstruction and relief of associated manifestations such as hesitancy, terminal dribbling of urine, interrupted or weak stream...etc.)|
|DB00709||Lamivudine||For the treatment of HIV infection and chronic hepatitis B (HBV).|
|DB00712||Flurbiprofen||Flurbiprofen tablets are indicated for the acute or long-term symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteorarthritis and anklosing spondylitis. It may also be used to treat pain associated with dysmenorrhea and mild to moderate pain accompanied by inflammation (e.g. bursitis, tendonitis, soft tissue trauma). Topical ophthalmic formulations may be used pre-operatively to prevent intraoperative miosis. |
|DB00713||Oxacillin||Used in the treatment of resistant staphylococci infections.|
|DB00715||Paroxetine||Labeled indications include: major depressive disorder (MDD), panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), social anxiety disorder (social phobia), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Unlabeled indications include: eating disorders, impulse control disorders, vasomotor symptoms of menopause, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children, and mild dementia-associated agitation in nonpsychotic individuals. Brisdelle, which consists of paroxetine mesylate is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms (like hot flashes) associated with menopause. |
|DB00716||Nedocromil||For the treatment of mild to moderate asthma|
|DB00722||Lisinopril||For the treatment of hypertension and symptomatic congestive heart failure. May be used in conjunction with thrombolytic agents, aspirin and/or β-blockers to improve survival in hemodynamically stable individuals following myocardial infarction. May be used to slow the progression of renal disease in hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria or overt nephropathy. |
|DB00730||Thiabendazole||For the treatment of strongyloidiasis (threadworm), cutaneous larva migrans (creeping eruption), visceral larva migrans, and trichinosis.|
|DB00731||Nateglinide||For the treatment of non-insulin dependent-diabetes mellitus in conjunction with diet and exercise.|
|DB00733||Pralidoxime||For the treatment of poisoning due to those pesticides and chemicals of the organophosphate class which have anticholinesterase activity and in the control of overdosage by anticholinesterase drugs used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis.|
|DB00736||Esomeprazole||For the treatment of acid-reflux disorders (GERD), peptic ulcer disease, H. pylori eradication, and prevention of gastroinetestinal bleeds with NSAID use.|
|DB00742||Mannitol||Used for the promotion of diuresis before irreversible renal failure becomes established, the reduction of intracranial pressure, the treatment of cerebral edema, and the promotion of urinary excretion of toxic substances.|
|DB00743||Gadobenic acid||Gadobenate Dimeglumine is an MRI contrast agent used primarily for MR imaging of the liver. It can also be used for MRI of the heart, as well as and central nervous system in adults to visualize lesions with abnormal brain vascularity or abnormalities in the blood brain barrier, the brain, spine, or other associated tissues.|
|DB00749||Etodolac||For acute and long-term management of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, as well as for the management of pain.|
|DB00760||Meropenem||For use as single agent therapy for the treatment of the following infections when caused by susceptible isolates of the designated microorganisms: complicated skin and skin structure infections due to Staphylococcus aureus (b-lactamase and non-b-lactamase producing, methicillin-susceptible isolates only), Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, viridans group streptococci, Enterococcus faecalis (excluding vancomycin-resistant isolates), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Bacteroides fragilis and Peptostreptococcus species; complicated appendicitis and peritonitis caused by viridans group streptococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides fragilis, B. thetaiotaomicron, and Peptostreptococcus species. Also for use in the treatment of bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae (b-lactamase and non-b-lactamase-producing isolates), and Neisseria meningitidis.|
|DB00761||Potassium chloride||For use as an electrolyte replenisher and in the treatment of hypokalemia.|
|DB00763||Methimazole||For the treatment of hyperthyroidism, goiter, Graves disease and psoriasis.|
|DB00775||Tirofiban||For treatment, in combination with heparin, of acute coronary syndrome, including patients who are to be managed medically and those undergoing PTCA or atherectomy.|
|DB00780||Phenelzine||Phenelzine is indicated for the treatment of nonendogenous, neurotic or atypical depression for patients that do not tolerate other forms of therapy.[L1356]
Atypical depression has a high prevalence rate, starts in early life, tends to last longer, is more likely to occur in people with bipolar disorder, has a high comorbidity with anxiety disorder and carries more risk of suicidal behavior. It is important to specify the atypical feature to predict the clinical course of depression and hence generate the best treatment and service. The featuring symptoms of the atypical feature include mood reactivity, two or more of this symptoms: 1) increased appetite, 2) increased sleep, 3) leaden paralysis and 4) interpersonal rejection sensitivity and should not have melancholic or catatonic features of depression.[A31917]
Neurotic depression is a depression of an emotionally unstable person. It is a secondary condition to major personality disorder, neuroses and drug use disorders. Likewise, a primary depression with a family history of depression spectrum disease would fit in this category.[A31922]
A nonendogenous depression is characterized by a disturbance in mood and general outlook. The physical symptoms tend to be less severe and it often occurs in response to stressful life events that keep occurring over a large period of time generating a continuous stress in the daily living.[A31924]|
|DB00782||Propantheline||For the treatment of enuresis. It has also been used for hyperhidrosis, and cramps or spasms of the stomach, intestines or bladder.|
|DB00783||Estradiol||Estradiol is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms and vulvar and vaginal atrophy due to menopause, for the treatment of hypoestrogenism due to hypogonadism, castration, or primary ovarian failure, and for the prevention of post-menopausal osteoarthritis. It is also used for the treatment of breast cancer (for palliation only) in appropriately selected women and men with metastatic disease, and for the treatment of advanced androgen-dependent carcinoma of the prostate (for palliation only).|
|DB00789||Gadopentetic acid||For use with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in adults, and pediatric patients (2 years of age and older) to visualize lesions with abnormal vascularity in the brain (intracranial lesions), spine and associated tissues as well as lesions with abnormal vascularity in the head and neck. Also used to facilitate the visualization of lesions with abnormal vascularity in the body (excluding the heart).|
|DB00800||Fenoldopam||For the in-hospital, short-term (up to 48 hours) management of severe hypertension when rapid, but quickly reversible, emergency reduction of blood pressure is clinically indicated, including malignant hypertension with deteriorating end-organ function.|
|DB00804||Dicyclomine||For the treatment of functional bowel/irritable bowel syndrome
including Colicky abdominal pain; diverticulitis|
|DB00806||Pentoxifylline||For the treatment of patients with intermittent lameness or immobility arising from chronic occlusive arterial disease of the limbs.|
|DB00811||Ribavirin||Indicated for the treatment of chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in combination with other antiviral agents with the intent to cure or achieve a sustained virologic response (SVR). Typically added to improve SVR and reduce relapse rates [A19644].
The addition of ribavirin in Technivie therapy indicated for treating HCV genotype 1a and 4 infections is recommended in patients with or without cirrhosis.
Resistance: viral genetic determinants resulting in variable response to ribavirin therapy has not been yet determined. |
|DB00813||Fentanyl||For the treatment of cancer patients with severe pain that breaks through their regular narcotic therapy.|
|DB00820||Tadalafil||Used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.|
|DB00829||Diazepam||In general, diazepam is useful in the symptomatic management of mild to moderate degrees of anxiety in conditions dominated by tension, excitation, agitation, fear, or aggressiveness such as may occur in psychoneurosis, anxiety reactions due to stress conditions, and anxiety states with somatic expression [F3160].
Moreover, in acute alcoholic withdrawal, diazepam may be useful in the symptomatic relief of acute agitation, tremor, and impending acute delirium tremens [F3160].
Furthermore, diazepam is a useful adjunct for the relief of skeletal muscle spasm due to reflex spasm to local pathologies, such as inflammation of the muscle and joints or secondary to trauma; spasticity caused by upper motor neuron disorders, such as cerebral palsy and paraplegia; athetosis and the rare "stiff man syndrome" [F3160].
Particular label information from the United Kingdom also lists particular age-specific indications, including for adults: (1) The short-term relief (2-4 weeks) only, of anxiety which is severe, disabling, or subjecting the individual to unacceptable distress, occurring alone or in association with insomnia or short-term psychosomatic, organic or psychotic illness, (2) cerebral palsy, (3) muscle spasm, (4) as an adjunct to certain types of epilepsy (eg. myoclonus), (5) symptomatic treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal, (6) as oral premedication for the nervous dental patient, and (7) for premedication before surgery [L5188].
In the same UK label information, diazepam is indicated in children for: (1) control of tension and irritability in cerebral spasticity in selected cases, (2) as an adjunct to the control of muscle spasm in tetanus, and for (3) oral premedication [L5188].|
|DB00833||Cefaclor||For the treatment of certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia and ear, lung, skin, throat, and urinary tract infections.|
|DB00839||Tolazamide||For use as an adjunct to diet to lower the blood glucose in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (Type II) whose hyperglycemia cannot be satisfactorily controlled by diet alone.|
|DB00841||Dobutamine||For inotropic support in the short- term treatment of patients with cardiac decompensation due to depressed contractility resulting either from organic heart disease or from cardiac surgical procedures|
|DB00842||Oxazepam||For the treatment of anxiety disorders and alcohol withdrawal. |
|DB00853||Temozolomide||For the treatment of adult patients diagnosed with anaplastic astrocytoma whose disease has progressed after therapy with nitrosourea and procarbazine, as well as concomitantly with radiation therapy for treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme. Also used as maintenance therapy for glioblastoma multiforme.|
|DB00861||Diflunisal||For symptomatic treatment of mild to moderate pain accompanied by inflammation (e.g. musculoskeletal trauma, post-dental extraction, post-episiotomy), osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis.|
|DB00863||Ranitidine||This drug is used alone or with concomitant antacids for the following conditions [FDA label]:
Treatment of active duodenal ulcer (short-term), maintenance therapy of duodenal ulcers after healing (reduced dose)
**Pathological hypersecretion of gastric acid**
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, systemic mastocytosis, and other conditions causing gastric acid hypersecretion
Short term treatment of active gastric ulcer (benign), maintenance of healing after gastric acid ulcer therapy (reduced dose)
Treatment of GERD symptoms (symptoms usually improve within 24 hours), treatment of erosive esophagitis (endoscopically diagnosed) and maintenance of healing [FDA label]
|DB00869||Dorzolamide||For the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma. Also used prophylatically for the inhibition of perioperative IOP increase (before neodynium yttrium aluminum garnet laser posterior capsulotomy).|
|DB00871||Terbutaline||For the prevention and reversal of bronchospasm in patients 12 years of age and older with reversible, obstructive airway disease, as well as symptomatic management of reversible bronchospasm associated with bronchitis and emphysema. Also used acute IV and sub-Q therapy in selected women to inhibit uterine contractions in preterm labor (tocolysis) and prolong gestation when beneficial.|
|DB00887||Bumetanide||For the treatment of edema associated with congestive heart failure, hepatic and renal disease including the nephrotic syndrome.|
|DB00894||Testolactone||For palliative treatment of advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women.|
|DB00897||Triazolam||For the short-term treatment of insomnia.|
|DB00900||Didanosine||For use, in combination with other antiretroviral agents, in the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults.|
|DB00905||Bimatoprost||For the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who are intolerant of other intraocular pressure lowering medications or insufficiently responsive (failed to achieve target IOP determined after multiple measurements over time) to another intraocular pressure lowering medication.|
|DB00908||Quinidine||For the treatment of ventricular pre-excitation and cardiac dysrhythmias|
|DB00909||Zonisamide||For use as adjunctive treatment of partial seizures in adults with epilepsy.|
|DB00911||Tinidazole||For the treatment of trichomoniasis caused by T. vaginalis in both female and male patients. Also for the treatment of giardiasis caused by G. duodenalis in both adults and pediatric patients older than three years of age and for the treatment of intestinal amebiasis and amebic liver abscess caused by E. histolytica in both adults and pediatric patients older than three years of age.|
|DB00915||Amantadine||For the chemoprophylaxis, prophylaxis, and treatment of signs and symptoms of infection caused by various strains of influenza A virus. Also for the treatment of parkinsonism and drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions.|
|DB00918||Almotriptan||For the treatment of acute migraine headache in adults|
|DB00928||Azacitidine||For treatment of patients with the following French-American-British myelodysplastic syndrome subtypes: refractory anemia or refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (if accompanied by neutropenia or thrombocytopenia or requiring transfusions), refractory anemia with excess blasts, refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (now classified as acute myelogenous leukemia with multilineage dysplasia), and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.|
|DB00934||Maprotiline||For treatment of depression, including the depressed phase of bipolar depression, psychotic depression, and involutional melancholia, and may also be helpful in treating certain patients suffering severe depressive neurosis.|
|DB00939||Meclofenamic acid||For the relief of mild to moderate pain, for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea and for the treatment of idiopathic heavy menstrual blood loss. Also for relief of the signs and symptoms of acute and chronic rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.|
|DB00951||Isoniazid||For the treatment of all forms of tuberculosis in which organisms are susceptible.|
|DB00953||Rizatriptan||For treatment of acute migraine attacks with or without aura.|
|DB00958||Carboplatin||For the initial treatment of advanced ovarian carcinoma in established combination with other approved chemotherapeutic agents. One established combination regimen consists of PARAPLATIN and cyclophosphamide. It is also indicated for the palliative treatment of patients with ovarian carcinoma recurrent after prior chemotherapy, including patients who have been previously treated with cisplatin. |
|DB00960||Pindolol||For the management of hypertension, edema, ventricular tachycardias, and atrial fibrillation.|
|DB00961||Mepivacaine||For production of local or regional analgesia and anesthesia by local infiltration, peripheral nerve block techniques, and central neural techniques including epidural and caudal blocks.|
|DB00962||Zaleplon||For the treatment of short-term treatment of insomnia in adults.|
|DB00968||Methyldopa||For use in the treatment of hypertension.|
|DB00980||Ramelteon||For the treatment of insomnia characterized by difficulty with sleep onset.|
|DB00982||Isotretinoin||For the treatment of severe recalcitrant nodular acne|
|DB00988||Dopamine||For the correction of hemodynamic imbalances present in the shock syndrome due to myocardial infarction, trauma, endotoxic septicemia, open-heart surgery, renal failure, and chronic cardiac decompensation as in congestive failure|
|DB00991||Oxaprozin||Used to relieve the inflammation, swelling, stiffness, and joint pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.|
|DB00995||Auranofin||Used in the treatment of active, progressive or destructive forms of inflammatory arthritis, such as adult rheumatoid arthritis.|
|DB01001||Salbutamol||Salbutamol is indicated for (i) the symptomatic relief and prevention of bronchospasm due to bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, reversible obstructive airway disease, and other chronic bronchopulmonary disorders in which bronchospasm is a complicating factor, and/or (ii) the acute prophylaxis against exercise-induced bronchospasm and other stimuli known to induce bronchospasm [FDA Label, F3265, F3268].|
|DB01002||Levobupivacaine||For the production of local or regional anesthesia for surgery and obstetrics, and for post-operative pain management|
|DB01009||Ketoprofen||For symptomatic treatment of acute and chronic rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, primary dysmenorrhea and mild to moderate pain associated with musculotendinous trauma (sprains and strains), postoperative (including dental surgery) or postpartum pain.|
|DB01010||Edrophonium||For the differential diagnosis of myasthenia gravis and as an adjunct in the evaluation of treatment requirements in this disease. It may also be used for evaluating emergency treatment in myasthenic crises.|
|DB01011||Metyrapone||Used as a diagnostic drug for testing hypothalamic-pituitary ACTH function. Occasionally used in Cushing's syndrome.|
|DB01018||Guanfacine||For use alone or in combination with other classes of antihypertensive agents in the management of hypertension. Has also been used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in pediatric patients.|
|DB01020||Isosorbide Mononitrate||For the prevention of angina pectoris due to coronary artery disease and the treatment of acute and chronic angina pectoris, hypertension, and myocardial infarction.|
|DB01030||Topotecan||For the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer in patients with disease that has recurred or progressed following therapy with platinum-based regimens. Also used as a second-line therapy for treatment-sensitive small cell lung cancer, as well as in combination with cisplatin for the treatment of stage IV-B, recurrent, or persistent cervical cancer not amenable to curative treatment with surgery and/or radiation therapy.|
|DB01032||Probenecid||For the reduction of serum uric acid concentrations in chronic gouty arthritis and tophaceous gout in patients with frequent disabling gout attacks. Has also been effectively used to promote uric acid excretion in hyperuricemia secondary to the administration of thiazide and related diuretics. |
|DB01035||Procainamide||For the treatment of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias.|
|DB01036||Tolterodine||For the treatment of overactive bladder (with symptoms of urinary frequency, urgency, or urge incontinence).|
|DB01039||Fenofibrate||For use as adjunctive therapy to diet to reduce elevated LDL-C, Total-C,Triglycerides and Apo B, and to increase HDL-C in adult patients with primary hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia (Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb)|
|DB01043||Memantine||Memantine is used to manage moderate to severe Alzheimer's dementia [FDA label].
A more recent systemic review and meta-analysis [A177106] indicates that memantine is beneficial as a first line drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's dementia. Cholinesterase inhibitors may be added to memantine for further beneficial effects on behavioral symptoms and other symptoms of dementia [A177106].|
|DB01046||Lubiprostone||For the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation in the adult population. Also used for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation in women who are 18 years of age or older.|
|DB01048||Abacavir||For the treatment of HIV-1 infection, in combination with other antiretroviral agents.|
|DB01050||Ibuprofen||Ibuprofen is the most commonly used and prescribed NSAID. It is very common over the counter medication widely used as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic.[A39096]
The use of ibuprofen and its enantiomer [DB09213] in a racemic mix is common for the management of mild to moderate pain related to dysmenorrhea, headache, migraine, postoperative dental pain, spondylitis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and soft tissue disorder.[A39097]
Due to its activity against prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis, ibuprofen has been attributed to alteration of platelet function and prolongation of gestation and labor.[A39092]
As ibuprofen is a widely used medication, the main therapeutic indications are:
* Patent Ductus Arteriosus - it is a neonatal condition wherein the ductus arteriosus (blood vessel that connects the main pulmonary artery to the proximal descending aorta) fails to close after birth causing severe risk of heart failure. The prostaglandin inhibition of ibuprofen has been studied for the treatment of this condition as it is known that prostaglandin E2 is responsible for keeping the ductus arteriosus open.[A39100]
* Rheumatoid- and osteo-arthritis - ibuprofen is very commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of inflammatory, musculoskeletal and rheumatic disorders.[A39176]
* Cystic fibrosis - the use of high dosages of ibuprofen has been proven to decrease inflammation and decreasing polymorphonuclear cell influx in the lungs.[A39177]
* Orthostatic hypotension - ibuprofen can induce sodium retention and antagonize the effect of diuretics which has been reported to be beneficial for patients with severe orthostatic hypotension.[A1651]
* Dental pain - ibuprofen is used to manage acute and chronic orofacial pain.[A10901]
* Minor pain - ibuprofen is widely used to reduce minor aches and pains as well as to reduce fever and manage dysmenorrhea. It is very commonly used for the relief of acute indications such as fever and tension headaches.[A39092]
* Investigational uses - efforts have been put into developing ibuprofen for the prophylaxis of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease, and breast cancer.[A39092]|
|DB01060||Amoxicillin||For the treatment of infections of the ear, nose, and throat, the genitourinary tract, the skin and skin structure, and the lower respiratory tract due to susceptible (only b-lactamase-negative) strains of Streptococcus spp. (a- and b-hemolytic strains only), S. pneumoniae, Staphylococcus spp., H. influenzae, E. coli, P. mirabilis, or E. faecalis. Also for the treatment of acute, uncomplicated gonorrhea (ano-genital and urethral infections) due to N. gonorrhoeae (males and females).|
|DB01067||Glipizide||For use as an adjunct to diet for the control of hyperglycemia and its associated symptomatology in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM; type II), formerly known as maturity-onset diabetes, after an adequate trial of dietary therapy has proved unsatisfactory.|
|DB01069||Promethazine||For the treatment of allergic disorders, and nausea/vomiting.|
|DB01101||Capecitabine||For the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer resistant to both paclitaxel and an anthracycline-containing chemotherapy regimen. May also be used in combination with docetaxel for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in patients who have failed to respond to, or recurred or relasped during or following anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. Capecitabine is used alone as an adjuvant therapy following the complete resection of primary tumor in patients with stage III colon cancer when monotherapy with fluroprymidine is preferred. The use or capecitabine in combination regimens for advanced gastric cancer is currently being investigated.|
|DB01105||Sibutramine||For the treatment of obesity.|
|DB01115||Nifedipine||For the management of vasospastic angina, chronic stable angina, hypertension, and Raynaud's phenomenon. May be used as a first line agent for left ventricular hypertrophy and isolated systolic hypertension (long-acting agents). |
|DB01124||Tolbutamide||For treatment of NIDDM (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) in conjunction with diet and exercise.|
|DB01129||Rabeprazole||For the treatment of acid-reflux disorders (GERD), peptic ulcer disease, H. pylori eradication, and prevention of gastroinetestinal bleeds with NSAID use.|
|DB01133||Tiludronic acid||For treatment of Paget's disease of bone (osteitis deformans).|
|DB01137||Levofloxacin||For the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis caused by susceptible strains of the following organisms: Corynebacterium species, Staphylococus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus (Groups C/F/G), Viridans group streptococci, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Haemophilus influenzae, Serratia marcescens.|
|DB01140||Cefadroxil||For the treatment of the following infections (skin, UTI, ENT) caused by; S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, staphylococci, S. pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococci), E. coli, P. mirabilis, Klebsiella sp, coagulase-negative staphylococci and Streptococcus pyogenes|
|DB01148||Flavoxate||For symptomatic relief of dysuria, urgency, nocturia, suprapubic pain, frequency and incontinence as may occur in cystitis, prostatitis, urethritis, urethrocystitis/urethrotrigonitis.|
|DB01151||Desipramine||For relief of symptoms in various depressive syndromes, especially endogenous depression. It has also been used to manage chronic peripheral neuropathic pain, as a second line agent for the management of anxiety disorders (e.g. panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder), and as a second or third line agent in the ADHD management. |
|DB01156||Bupropion||For the treatment of depression and as aid to smoking cessation.|
|DB01166||Cilostazol||For the reduction of symptoms of intermittent claudication (pain in the legs that occurs with walking and disappears with rest).|
|DB01169||Arsenic trioxide||For induction of remission and consolidation in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), and whose APL is characterized by the presence of the t(15;17) translocation or PML/RAR-alpha gene expression|
|DB01170||Guanethidine||For the treatment of moderate and severe hypertension, either alone or as an adjunct, and for the treatment of renal hypertension.|
|DB01181||Ifosfamide||Used as a component of various chemotherapeutic regimens as third-line therapy for recurrent or refractory germ cell testicular cancer. Also used as a component of various chemotherapeutic regimens for the treatment of cervical cancer, as well as in conjunction with surgery and/or radiation therapy in the treatment of various soft tissue sarcomas. Other indications include treatment of osteosarcoma, bladder cancer, ovarian cancer. small cell lung cancer, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.|
|DB01183||Naloxone||For the complete or partial reversal of narcotic depression, including respiratory depression, induced by opioids including natural and synthetic narcotics, propoxyphene, methadone and the narcotic-antagonist analgesics: nalbuphine, pentazocine and butorphanol. It is also indicated for the diagnosis of suspected acute opioid overdose. It may also be used as an adjunctive agent to increase blood pressure in the management of septic shock.|
|DB01203||Nadolol||Used in cardiovascular disease to treat arrhythmias, angina pectoris, and hypertension.|
|DB01205||Flumazenil||For the complete or partial reversal of the sedative effects of benzodiazepines in cases where general anesthesia has been induced and/or maintained with benzodiazepines, and where sedation has been produced with benzodiazepines for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Also for the management of benzodiazepine overdose as an adjunct for appropriate supportive and symptomatic measures.|
|DB01212||Ceftriaxone||For the treatment of the infections (respiratory, skin, soft tissue, UTI, ENT) caused by S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, staphylococci, S. pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococci), E. coli, P. mirabilis, Klebsiella sp, coagulase-negative staph|
|DB01213||Fomepizole||Antizol is indicated as an antidote for ethylene glycol (such as antifreeze) or methanol poisoning, or for use in suspected ethylene glycol or methanol ingestion, either alone or in combination with hemodialysis|
|DB01215||Estazolam||For the short-term management of insomnia characterized by difficulty in falling asleep, frequent nocturnal awakenings, and/or early morning awakenings.|
|DB01221||Ketamine||Ketamine is indicated as an anesthetic agent for recommended diagnostic and surgical procedures. If skeletal muscle relaxation is needed, it should be combined with a muscle relaxant. If the surgical procedure involves visceral pain, it should be supplemented with an agent that obtunds visceral pain. Ketamine can be used for induction of anesthesia prior other general anesthetic agents and as a supplement of low potency agents.[L1336, FDA label]
Reports have indicated a potential use of ketamine as a therapeutic tool for the management of depression when administered in lower doses.[A31873] These reports have increased the interest for ketamine in this area and several clinical trials are launched for this indication.[L1337, A31874]|
|DB01222||Budesonide||The oral capsule is used for the treatment of mild to moderate active Crohn's disease. The oral tablet is used for induction of remission in patients with active, mild to moderate ulcerative colitis. The oral inhalation formulation is used for the treatment of asthma, non-infectious rhinitis (including hay fever and other allergies), and for treatment and prevention of nasal polyposis.|
|DB01224||Quetiapine||For the treatment of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders.|
|DB01233||Metoclopramide||For the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It is also used in treating nausea and vomiting, and to increase gastric emptying.|
|DB01240||Epoprostenol||For the long-term intravenous treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary hypertension associated with the scleroderma spectrum of disease in NYHA Class III and Class IV patients who do not respond adequately to conventional therapy.|
|DB01241||Gemfibrozil||For treatment of adult patients with very high elevations of serum triglyceride levels (types IV and V hyperlipidemia) who are at risk of developing pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas) and who do not respond adequately to a strict diet.|
|DB01242||Clomipramine||May be used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder and disorders with an obsessive-compulsive component (e.g. depression, schizophrenia, Tourette’s disorder).
Unlabeled indications include: depression, panic disorder, chronic pain (e.g. central pain, idiopathic pain disorder, tension headache, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, neuropathic pain), cataplexy and associated narcolepsy (limited evidence), autistic disorder (limited evidence), trichotillomania (limited evidence), onchophagia (limited evidence), stuttering (limited evidence), premature ejaculation, and premenstrual syndrome. |
|DB01249||Iodixanol||Iodixanol is a contrast agent during coronary angiography.|
|DB01261||Sitagliptin||For use as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also for use in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to improve glycemic control in combination with metformin or a PPARγ agonist (e.g., thiazolidinediones) when the single agent alone, with diet and exercise, does not provide adequate glycemic control.|
|DB01267||Paliperidone||For the treatment of schizophrenia.|
|DB01273||Varenicline||For use as an aid in smoking cessation.|
|DB01274||Arformoterol||A bronchodilator used for the long term, symptomatic treatment of reversible bronchoconstriction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including chronic bronchitis and emphysema. |
|DB01275||Hydralazine||For the treatment of essential hypertension, alone or as an adjunct. Also for the management of severe hypertension when the drug cannot be given orally or when blood pressure must be lowered immediately, congestive heart failure (in combination with cardiac glycosides and diuretics and/or with isosorbide dinitrate), and hypertension secondary to pre-eclampsia/eclampsia.|
|DB01330||Cefotetan||For prophylaxis and treatment of bacterial infections.|
|DB01345||Potassium cation||Potassium is used to regulate hypokalemia as a primary condition or secondary to other medical conditions. |
|DB01359||Penbutolol||Penbutolol is indicated in the treatment of mild to moderate arterial hypertension. It may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents, especially thiazide-type diuretics.Penbutolol is contraindicated in patients with cardiogenic shock, sinus bradycardia, second and third degree atrioventricular conduction block, bronchial asthma, and those with known hypersensitivity.|
|DB01367||Rasagiline||For the treatment of the signs and symptoms of idiopathic Parkinsons disease as initial monotherapy and as adjunct therapy to levodopa.|
|DB01394||Colchicine||For treatment and relief of pain in attacks of acute gouty arthritis.|
|DB01409||Tiotropium||Used in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).|
|DB01415||Ceftibuten||Used to treat acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (ABECB), acute bacterial otitis media, pharyngitis, and tonsilitis.|
|DB01420||Testosterone propionate||Testosterone propionate is often used for muscle mass building. The original medical indication is for the treatment of androgen deficiency in male adults either in hypogonadism or andropause.[L1161] Nowadays testosterone propionate is indicated for its use in heifers in order to stimulate maximal growth.[L1160]|
|DB01427||Amrinone||Used in the treatment of congestive heart failure.|
|DB01428||Oxybenzone||Used as an ingredient in sunscreen and other cosmetics.|
|DB01550||Fenproporex||Fenproporex is used as an appetite suppressant, and anti-obesity agent ; however, due to substance abuse potential, it is an illicit substance in many countries. In some countries, such as Brazil, it is still prescribed -- often in the form of diet pills (ie. Brazilian Diet Pills) which combine amphetamines, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, diuretics and laxatives.
In the United States the sale of such diet pills has been banned due to concerns over side effects, and the risk of potentially fatal overdose.
However, internet sales and illicit markets has lead to international availability. It has been found by primary care physicians that Brazilian immigrant women utilized imported diet pills at particularly high rates, and sometimes suffered from side effects requiring hospitalization or experienced a loss of employment. |
|DB01558||Bromazepam||For the short-term treatment of insomnia, short-term treatment of anxiety or panic attacks, if a benzodiazepine is required, and the alleviation of the symptoms of alcohol- and opiate-withdrawal.|
|DB01563||Chloral hydrate||Mainly used as a hyponotic in the treatment of insomnia; however, it is only effective as a hypnotic for short-term use. May be used as a routine sedative preoperatively to decrease anxiety and cause sedation and/or sleep with respiration depression or cough reflex. |
|DB01577||Metamfetamine||For the treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (ADHD) and exogenous obesity.|
|DB01587||Ketazolam||Ketazolam could be used for the treatment of anxiety. In approved countries, it is indicated for the treatment of anxiety, tension, irritability and similar stress related symptoms.|
|DB01638||Sorbitol||Used as a non-stimulant laxative via an oral suspension or enema.|
|DB01656||Roflumilast||Roflumilast is indicated as a treatment to reduce the risk of COPD exacerbations in patients with severe COPD associated with chronic bronchitis and a history of exacerbations. Roflumilast is not a bronchodilator and is not indicated for the relief of acute bronchospasm.|
|DB01685||Topiroxostat||Indicated for the treatment of gout and hyperurcemia in Japan.|
|DB04574||Estrone sulfate||Estropipate is used for the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms associated with the monopause, and moderate to severe symptoms of vulval and vaginal atrophy associated with the menopause. It is also used to treat hypoestrogenism due to hypogonadism, castration or primary ovarian failure, and prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis.|
|DB04871||Lorcaserin||For the treatment of obesity, as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity.|
|DB04890||Bepotastine||For the symptomatic treatment of itchy eyes (caused by IgE-induced mast cell degranulation) due to allergic conjunctivitis.|
|DB04895||Pegaptanib||For the treatment of neovascular (wet) age-related macular degeneration.|
|DB04896||Milnacipran||Milnacipran is a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) indicated for the management of fibromyalgia in patients that are 18 years old or above [F3925]. At the same time, levomilnacipran is indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in patients that are 18 years old or above [F3922], although some regional prescribing information notes that use of the medication is specifically for the short-term symptomatic relief of MDD [F3919].
Nevertheless, it is important to note that the regulatory approval of and/or indications listed here for milnacipran may or may not exist and/or vary greatly between regions and nations [F3928, F3934].|
|DB04920||Clevidipine||For the treatment of hypertension.|
|DB04930||Permethrin||For the treatment of infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei (scabies).|
|DB04948||Lofexidine||Lofexidine is indicated for mitigation of symptoms associated with acute withdrawal from opioids and for facilitation of the completion of opioid discontinuation treatment. It is the first non-opioid medication for the symptomatic management of opioid discontinuation.[L2801]
Opioid withdrawal syndrome is a debilitating manifestation of opioid dependence.[A33085] This condition is extremely unpleasant lasting several days with some of the main features being abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, mydriasis, lacrimation, and piloerection. These symptoms are often observed after abrupt reductions in the opioid dose and can be resolved by re-administration of the opioid.[A33088]|
|DB04953||Ezogabine||Adjuvant treatment of partial-onset seizures. |
|DB05018||Migalastat||Migalastat is an alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-Gal A) pharmacological chaperone indicated for the long-term treatment of adults and adolescents aged 16 years and older with a confirmed diagnosis of Fabry disease (alpha-galactosidase A deficiency) and an amenable galactosidase alpha gene (GLA) mutation/variant based upon in vitro assay data [FDA Label, F1107].
This indication is approved by the US FDA under accelerated approval based on reduction in kidney interstitial capillary cell globotriaosylceramide (KIC GL-3) substrate [FDA Label]. Continued approval by the US FDA for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in ongoing confirmatory trials [FDA Label].|
|DB05541||Brivaracetam||Used as adjunctive therapy for partial-onset seizures in patients 16 years of age or older.|
|DB05676||Apremilast||Investigated for use/treatment in psoriasis and psoriatic disorders.|
|DB06154||Pentaerythritol tetranitrate||Used for the treatment of angina pectoris [L2393].|
|DB06186||Ipilimumab||Ipilimumab is approved for different conditions such as:
* Treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma in patients 12 years and older.
* Adjuvant treatment of patients with cutaneous melanoma with the pathologic involvement of regional lymph nodes of more than 1 mm who have undergone complete resection, including total lymphadenectomy.[FDA label]
In combination with [nivolumab], ipilimumab is approved for:
* Treatment of patients with intermediate or poor risk, previously untreated advanced renal cell carcinoma
* Treatment of 12 years and older patients with MSI-H/dMMR metastatic colorectal cancer with progression after treatment with fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan.[FDA label]|
|DB06196||Icatibant||Approved for use in acute attacks of hereditary angioedema (HAE). Investigated for use/treatment in angioedema, liver disease, and burns and burn infections.|
|DB06203||Alogliptin||Indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. |
|DB06209||Prasugrel||Indicated in combination with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) to prevent atherothrombotic events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who are to be managed with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). May be used in patients with unstable angina (UA), non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who are to be managed with PCI. Prasugrel is not recommended in patients 75 years of age or greater, those that weigh<60kg, and patients with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack due to increased risk of fatal and intracranial bleeding. |
|DB06211||Doripenem||Doripenem is indicated in the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections and complicated urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis, caused by designated susceptible bacteria.
|DB06228||Rivaroxaban||Rivaroxaban is indicated for the prevention of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) in patients who have undergone total hips replacements and total knee replacement surgery; prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation; treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE); to reduce risk of recurrent DVT and/or PE. Rivaroxaban is also indicated, in combination with aspirin, for reducing the risk of major cardiovascular events in patients with chronic coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease. Due to a lack of safety studies, it is not recommended for use in those under 18 years old. Its use is also not recommended in those with severe renal impairment (<30mL/min).
|DB06230||Nalmefene||Indicated for the reduction of alcohol consumption in adult patients with alcohol dependence who have a high drinking risk level (DRL), without physical withdrawal symptoms and who do not require immediate detoxification [L1024].
Indicated for the complete or partial reversal of opioid drug effects, including respiratory depression - induced by either natural or synthetic opioids - or in the management of known or suspected opioid overdose [FDA Label].|
|DB06262||Droxidopa||For treatment of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (NOH) associated with various disorders including Multiple System Atrophy, Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy, hemodialysis induced hypotension and Parkinson's Disease. Also investigated for use/treatment in neurologic disorders, nephropathy, blood (blood forming organ disorders, unspecified), and dizzy/fainting spells.|
|DB06282||Levocetirizine||Levocetirizine is indicated for the relief of symptoms associated with allergic rhinitis (seasonal and perennial) in adults and children 6 years of age and older. |
|DB06335||Saxagliptin||Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus to improve glycemic control in combination with other agents or as monotherapy. |
|DB06402||Telavancin||For the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) caused by gram-positive bacteria like methicillin-susceptible or -resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, or Streptococcus anginosus group. Also for the treatment of adult patients with hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (VAP), known or suspected to be caused by susceptible isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant S. aureus).|
|DB06623||Flupirtine||Investigated for use/treatment in fibromyalgia.|
|DB06637||Dalfampridine||Dalfampridine is a neurofunctional modifier that helps improve walking speed in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). |
|DB06695||Dabigatran etexilate||Dabigatran is indicated for the prevention of venous thromboembolic events in patients who have undergone elective hip or knee replacement surgery (based on RE-NOVATE, RE-MODEL, and RE-MOBILIZE trials)[A177463,A6978,A6977]. In 2010, it was approved in the US and Canada for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation (approval based on the RE-LY trial)[Label,A177463].|
|DB06700||Desvenlafaxine||Desvenlafaxine is indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder in adults[A6990,A6991,Label].|
|DB06702||Fesoterodine||For the treatment of overactive bladder (with symptoms of urinary frequency, urgency, or urge incontinence).|
|DB06705||Gadofosveset trisodium||Gadofosveset trisodium is indicated for use as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to evaluate aortoiliac occlusive disease (AIOD) in adults with known or suspected peripheral vascular disease.|
|DB06710||Methyltestosterone||Methyltestosterone is an anabolic steroid hormone used to treat men with a testosterone deficiency. It is also used in women to treat breast cancer, breast pain, swelling due to pregnancy, and with the addition of estrogen it can treat symptoms of menopause.|
|DB06736||Aceclofenac|| Indicated for the relief of pain and inflammation in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. |
|DB06766||Alcaftadine||For the prevention of itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis.|
|DB06767||Ammonium chloride||1. Expectorant in cough syrups.
2. The ammonium ion (NH4+) in the body plays an important role in the maintenance of acid-base balance. The kidney uses ammonium (NH4+) in place of sodium (Na+) to combine with fixed anions in maintaining acid-base balance, especially as a homeostatic compensatory mechanism in metabolic acidosis.
The therapeutic effects of Ammonium Chloride depend upon the ability of the kidney to utilize ammonia in the excretion of an excess of fixed anions and the conversion of ammonia to urea by the liver, thereby liberating hydrogen (H+) and chloride (Cl–) ions into the extracellular fluid.
Ammonium Chloride Injection, USP, after dilution in isotonic sodium chloride injection, may be indicated in the treatment of patients with:
(1) hypochloremic states and (2) metabolic alkalosis.|
|DB06782||Dimercaprol||For the treatment of arsenic, gold and mercury poisoning. Indicated in acute lead poisoning when used concomitantly with edetate calcium disodium (DB00974).|
|DB06795||Mafenide||Mafenide is indicated in the treatment of severe burns.|
|DB06796||Mangafodipir||Indicated for use as an organ-specific paramagnetic contrast agent developed for imaging of the hepatobiliary system and detecting lesions in liver and pancreas.|
|DB06800||Methylnaltrexone||Treatment of opioids induced constipation in palliative patients that are inadequately responding to laxative therapy. |
|DB06809||Plerixafor||Used in combination with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, filgrastim) to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells to the peripheral blood for collection and subsequent autologous transplantation in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma (MM).|
|DB06815||Pyrithione||Indicated for the treatment of dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis [A27133]. |
|DB06823||Tiopronin||Tiopronin is indicated for the prevention of kidney stone formation in patients with severe homozygous cystinuria consisting of a urinary cystine concentration greater than 500 mg/day, and who have failed treatment with non-pharmacological measures of increased fluid intake, decreased sodium and protein intake, and urine alkalinization.|
|DB06824||Triethylenetetramine||Trientine is a copper chelator used in the treatment of Wilson's disease as an alternative to D-penicillamine. It tends to be used in patients who are experiencing serious adverse effects from penicillamine therapy or intolerance of penicillamine. |
|DB08824||Ioflupane I-123||Ioflupane I-123 is a SPECT (single photon emission computerized tomography) agent used to distinguish between Parkinson’s syndrome tremors and essential tremor. |
|DB08826||Deferiprone||Deferiprone is indicated in thalassemia syndromes when first line chelation agents are not adequate to treat transfusional iron overload.|
|DB08840||N-methylnicotinamide||N-methylnicotinamide is an experimental drug with no approved indication.|
|DB08872||Gabapentin enacarbil||For the treatment of adult Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN).|
|DB08877||Ruxolitinib||Treatment of intermediate or high-risk myelofibrosis, including primary myelofibrosis, post-polycythemia vera (post-PV) myelofibrosis and post-essential thrombocythemia (post-ET) myelofibrosis. [Lexicomp] Myeolofibrosis is the proliferation of abnormal bone marrow stem cells which cause fibrosis (the excessive formation of connective tissue).|
|DB08893||Mirabegron||Mirabegron is a beta-3 adrenergic agonist indicated for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) with symptoms of urge urinary incontinence, urgency, and urinary frequency.|
|DB08894||Peginesatide||Peginesatide is used for the treatment of anemia due to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adult patients on dialysis |
|DB08897||Aclidinium||Aclidinium bromide inhalation powder is indicated for the long-term, maintenance treatment of bronchospasm associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including chronic bronchitis and emphysema.|
|DB08899||Enzalutamide||Enzalutamide is indicated for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who have previously received docetaxel.|
|DB08900||Teduglutide||Treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS), malabsorption associated with the removal of the intestine, in adults patients who are dependent on parenteral support. |
|DB08905||Formestane||For the treatment of estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer in post-menopausal women.|
|DB08907||Canagliflozin||This drug is used in conjunction with diet and exercise to increase glycemic control in adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus [FDA label].
Another indication for canagliflozin is for the prevention of major cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or death due to a cardiovascular cause) in patients with type 2 diabetes [FDA label], [L5897].
It is important to note that this drug is **not** indicated for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus or diabetic ketoacidosis [FDA label]. |
|DB08909||Glycerol phenylbutyrate||Glycerol phenylbutyrate is a nitrogen-binding agent for the chronic management of adult and pediatric patients ≥2 years of age with urea cycle disorders (UCDs) who cannot be managed by dietary protein restriction and/or amino acid supplementation alone. |
|DB08910||Pomalidomide||Pomalidomide is indicated for patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least two prior therapies including lenalidomide and bortezomib and have demonstrated disease progression on or within 60 days of completion of the last therapy.|
|DB08911||Trametinib||Trametinib is indicated for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E or V600K mutations, as detected by an FDA-approved test [FDA].
In May 2018, it was approved for use with [DB08912] for the treatment of treat anaplastic thyroid cancer caused by an abnormal BRAF V600E gene [L2726].|
|DB08918||Levomilnacipran||Levomilnacipran is a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and is indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). |
|DB08932||Macitentan||Macitentan is indicated for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.|
|DB08934||Sofosbuvir||Sofosbuvir is used in combination therapy with other antiviral medications to treat chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients with HCV genoptypes 1-6, and to treat HCV and HIV co-infected patients. Depending on the level of cirrhosis or decompensation, combination therapy can also include either ribavirin alone or ribavirin and peg-interferon alfa.
When used in combination with [DB09027] as the combination product Harvoni, sofosbuvir has the following indications: treatment of genotypes 1, 4, 5, or 6 infection without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis; in combination with [DB00811] for genotype 1 infection with decompensated cirrhosis; or in combination with [DB00811] for the treatment of genotype 1 or 4 infection who are liver transplant recipients without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis.
When used in combination with [DB11613] as the combination product Epclusa, sofosbuvir is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 infection without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis, or in combination with [DB00811] if associated with decompensated cirrhosis.
Resistance: Reduced susceptibility to sofosbuvir has been associated with the NS5B substitution mutation S282T [A19634].|
|DB08964||Gemeprost||Indicated for the softening and dilatation of the cervix uteri prior to transcervical, intrauterine operative procedures in the first trimester of pregnancy or facilitating therapeutic termination of pregnancy in patients in the second trimester of gestation.|
|DB09027||Ledipasvir||When used in combination with the antiviral medication [DB08934] as the commercially available product Harvoni, ledipasvir is indicated for the treatment of HCV genotypes 1, 4, 5, and 6 with or without [DB00811] depending on the level of liver damage or cirrhosis [FDA Label]. Its use has also proven successful in the treatment of HCV in patients co-infected with HIV [A19627].|
|DB09038||Empagliflozin||Empagliflozin is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes.|
|DB09050||Ceftolozane||-Complicated Intra-abdominal Infections, used in combination with metronidazole.
-Complicated Urinary Tract Infections, including Pyelonephritis.|
|DB09066||Corifollitropin alfa||Controlled ovarian stimulation [L2273] in cases of women who are undergoing fertility treatment to stimulate the development of more than one mature egg simultaneously in the ovaries in combination with a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist (a type of medicine also used in fertility treatments)[L2270].|
|DB09068||Vortioxetine||Vortioxetine is indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD).|
|DB09071||Tasimelteon||Tasimelteon is indicated for the treatment of Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder (N24HSWD).|
|DB09075||Edoxaban||Edoxaban is indicated to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism (SE) in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). However, it should not be used in patients with creatinine clearance (CrCL) > 95 mL/min because of increased risk of ischemic stroke compared to warfarin at the highest dose studied (60 mg). It is also indicated for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) following 5-10 days of initial therapy with a parenteral anticoagulant.|
|DB09081||Idebenone||Idebenone is indicated for use by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the treatment of visual impairment in adolescent and adult patients with
Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON). It is not currently approved for use by either the Food and Drug Administration (USA) or Health Canada [L885].|
|DB09082||Vilanterol||Vilanterol is approved for use in several combination products such as with fluticasone furoate under the tradename Breo Ellipta and in combination with umeclidinium bromide as Anoro Ellipta. Approved by the FDA in 2013, use of Breo Ellipta is indicated for the long-term, once-daily maintenance treatment of airflow obstruction in patients with COPD, including chronic bronchitis and emphysema. It is also indicated for once-daily maintenance treatment of asthma in patients aged 18 or older with reversible obstructive airways disease.|
|DB09084||Benzydamine||Available predominantly as a liquid mouthwash, oromucosal spray, or topical cream, benzydamine is most frequently employed as a locally acting analgesic and anti-inflammatory treatment for the relief of painful inflammatory conditions.
When formulated as a mouthwash or spray, benzydamine may be used to treat traumatic conditions like pharyngitis following tonsillectomy or the use of a naso-gastric tube, inflammatory conditions like pharyngitis, aphthous ulcers and oral ulceration due to radiation therapy, dentistry operations and procedures, or more general conditions like sore throat, sore tongue, sore gums, mouth ulcers, or discomfort caused by dentures. [L1121]
When used as a topical cream, benzydamine may be employed to relieve symptoms associated with painful inflammatory conditions of the muscolo-skeletal system including acute inflammatory disorders such as myalgia and bursitis or traumatic conditions like sprains, strains, bruises, sore muscles, stiff joints, or even the after-effects of fractures. [ L1123]|
|DB09089||Trimebutine||Indicated for symptomatic treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and treatment of postoperative paralytic ileus following abdominal surgery. |
|DB09091||Tixocortol||Tixocortol is indicated for the treatment of rhinitis as a nasal suspension or aerosol. It is also used in the form of lozenges for the treatment of pharyngitis and in the form of enemas or rectal solution for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Tixocortol can be used orally in a suspension or powder for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.[L1077] It is also the substance used for the screening of contact allergies to class A steroids.[A31435]|
|DB09095||Difluocortolone||Difluocortolone is used as a topical treatment of the symptoms of inflammatory skin disorders like eczema, seborrheic eczema, lichen planus and psoriasis. All these disorders present as a common characteristic the occurrence of symptoms as itching, swelling, redness and scaling.[L1083]|
|DB09103||Ancestim||Ancestim, in combination with filgrastim, is indicated for the setting of autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation in patients at risk of poor peripheral blood progenitor cell mobilisation.[L1090] The use of ancestim with filgrastim will generate a sustained increase in the number of peripheral blood progenitor cells capable of engraftment. It is used for mobilization of progenitor cells from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood with or withouth mobilizing chemotherapy. The harvested progenitor cells can be used for transplant following myelosuppressive or myeloablative therapies.[L1089]|
|DB09104||Magnesium hydroxide||Magnesium hydroxide can be used as an antacid or a laxative depending on the administered dose.
As an antacid, it is used for the temporary relief of heartburn, upset stomach, sour stomach or acid indigestion.
As a laxative, it is used for the relief of occasional constipation by promoting bowel movements for 30 minutes and up to 6 hours.
|DB09106||Hydroxyethyl Starch||An intravenous solution of hydroxyethyl starch is used to prevent shock following severe blood loss caused by trauma, surgery, or other issues.|
|DB09111||Pentastarch||The primary intended use of pentastarch is as a substitute for older colloids such as albumin or hetastarch for use in plasma volume expansion. |
|DB09118||Stiripentol||Indicated for use in conjunction with clobazam and valproate as adjunctive therapy of refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients with severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (SMEI, Dravet’s syndrome) whose seizures are not adequately controlled with clobazam and valproate.|
|DB09121||Aurothioglucose||Aurothioglucose is indicated for the adjunctive treatment of early active adult and juvenile type rheumatoid arthritis that is not adequately controlled by other anti-inflammatory agents and conservative measures like salicylate, glucocorticoids, etc. [L1925, L1937]. In chronic, advanced cases of rheumatoid arthritis, such gold therapy is not demonstrated to be as valuable [L1937].
Antirheumatic measures such as salicylate and other anti-inflammatory drugs (both steroidal and non steroidal) may be continued after initiation of gold therapy [L1937]. After improvement commences, these measures may be discontinued slowly as symptoms permit [L1937].|
|DB09123||Dienogest||Indicated for use as the treatment of endometriosis alone and as a contraceptive in combination with ethinylestradiol. |
|DB09129||Chromic chloride||For use as a supplement to intravenous solutions given for total parenteral nutrition (TPN).|
|DB09132||Gadoteric acid||Gadoteric acid is indicated for intravenous use with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in brain (intracranial), spine and associated tissues in adult and pediatric patients (2 years of age and older) to detect and visualize areas with disruption of the blood brain barrier (BBB) and/or abnormal vascularity.|
|DB09133||Iothalamic acid||Conray is indicated for use in excretory urography, cerebral angiography, peripheral arteriography, venography, arthrography, direct cholangiography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, contrast enhancement of computed tomographic brain images, cranial computerized angiotomography, intravenous digital subtraction angiography and arterial digital subtraction angiography.
Conray may also be used for enhancement of computed tomographic scans performed for detection and evaluation of lesions in the liver, pancreas, kidneys, abdominal aorta, mediastinum, abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space.|
|DB09134||Ioversol||Optiray 350 is indicated in adults for peripheral and coronary arteriography and left ventriculography. Optiray 350 is also indicated for contrast enhanced computed tomographic imaging of the head and body, intravenous excretory urography, intravenous digital subtraction angiography and venography. Optiray 350 is indicated in children for angiocardiography.
Optiray 320 is indicated in adults for angiography throughout the cardiovascular system. The uses include cerebral, coronary, peripheral, visceral and renal arteriography, venography, aortography, and left ventriculography. Optiray 320 is also indicated for contrast enhanced computed tomographic imaging of the head and body, and intravenous excretory urography.
Optiray 320 is indicated in children for angiocardiography, contrast enhanced computed tomographic imaging of the head and body, and intravenous excretory urography.
Optiray 300 is indicated for cerebral angiography and peripheral arteriography. Optiray 300 is also indicated for contrast enhanced computed tomographic imaging of the head and body, venography, and intravenous excretory urography.
Optiray 240 is indicated for cerebral angiography and venography. Optiray 240 is also indicated for contrast enhanced computed tomographic imaging of the head and body and intravenous excretory urography.|
|DB09135||Ioxilan||When administered intra-arterially, Ioxilan is indicated for the following diagnostic tests: cerebral arteriography (300 mgI/mL), coronary arteriography and left ventriculography (350 mgI/mL), visceral angiography(350 mgI/mL), aortography(350 mgI/mL), and peripheral arteriography(350 mgI/mL).
When administered intravenously, Ioxilan is indicated for excretory urography and contrast enhanced computed tomographic (CECT) imaging of the head and body (300 and 350 mgI/mL).|
|DB09136||Isosulfan blue||Isosulfan Blue is a synthetic visual lymphatic imaging agent. Isosulfan blue upon subcutaneous administration, delineates the lymphatic vessels draining the region of injection. It is an adjunct to lymphography in: primary and secondary lymphedema of the extremities; chyluria, chylous ascites or chylothorax; lymph node involvement by primary or secondary neoplasm; lymph node response to therapeutic modalities. |
|DB09137||Technetium Tc-99m mebrofenin||Technetium Tc 99m Mebrofenin is indicated as a hepatobiliary imaging agent.|
|DB09139||Technetium Tc-99m oxidronate||Technetium Tc-99m oxidronate is indicated in adult and pediatric patients to be used in skeletal imaging for diagnosis of areas that can present altered osteogenesis. When administered intravenously, it is able to generate a clear image of the bones which allows the physician to diagnose any bone problem.[L1141] It is important to point out that this drug has to be manipulated only under the service of a nuclear specialist.[L1140] The approved indications for a bone scan are 1) visualization of tumor metastasis in bone, 2) osteomyelitis, 3) fracture, 4) stress fracture, 5) avascular necrosis, 6) osteoporosis and 7) prosthetic joint evaluation. From all the major indications, the detection of a metastatic disease is the most common because it presents a 95% of sensitivity and lesion detection can be done 6 months earlier than with X-ray studies.[L1139]|
|DB09148||Florbetaben (18F)||Florbetaben is a radioactive diagnostic agent indicated for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of the brain to estimate β-amyloid neuritic plaque density in adult patients with cognitive impairment who are being evaluated for Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and other causes of cognitive decline.|
|DB09149||Florbetapir (18F)||Florbetapir 18F is indicated for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of the brain to estimate β-amyloid neuritic plaque density in adult patients with cognitive impairment who are being evaluated for Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and other causes of cognitive decline.|
|DB09156||Iopromide||Iopromide, as the product Iovist, is indicated for use as an X-ray contrast agent in the following procedures:
Intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (IA-DSA) (150 mg I/mL)
Cerebral arteriography and peripheral arteriography (300 mg I/mL)
Coronary arteriography and left ventriculography, visceral angiography and aortography (370 mg I/mL)
Peripheral venography (240 mg I/mL)
Excretory urography (300 mg I/mL)
Contrast computed tomography (CT) imaging of head and body (300 mg I/mL and 370 mg I/mL) |
|DB09163||Technetium Tc-99m exametazime||Technetium Tc99m exametazime scintigraphy (with or without methylene blue stabilization) may be useful as an adjunct in the detection of altered regional cerebral perfusion in stroke. Tc99m exametazime without methylene blue stabilization is indicated for leukocyte labeled scintigraphy as an adjunct in the localization of intra-abdominal infection and inflammatory bowel disease.|
|DB09164||Technetium Tc-99m disofenin||Technetium Tc99m Disofenin is indicated as a hepatobiliary imaging agent. Hepatolite is indicated in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis as well as to rule out the occurrence of acute cholecystitis in suspected patients with right upper quadrant pain, fever, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness and mass or rebound tenderness, but not limited to these signs and symptoms.|
|DB09165||Technetium Tc-99m pyrophosphate||For use as a skeletal imaging agent used to demonstrate areas of altered osteogenesis, and a cardiac imaging agent used as an adjunct in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction [FDA Label]. May also be used to image gated blood pools and detect gastrointetinal bleeding.|
|DB09185||Viloxazine||Indicated for the treatment of clinical depression.|
|DB09194||Etoperidone||Etoperidone has been studied for the treatment of depression[T47], tremors in Parkinson, extrapyramidal symptoms[L1041] and male impotence[L1042]. It is not certain if it was ever approved and marketed but its current status is withdrawn.|
|DB09195||Lorpiprazole||In 2016, lorpiprazole was classified in the "Chemical structure-related drug-like criteria of global approved drugs" as an antipsychotic and anxiolytic.[L1167] An antipsychotic is a medication used to treat a state of delusion, hallucination, paranoia or disordered thought. On the other hand, an anxiolytic is a medication used for the treatment of severe, chronic or debilitating anxiety. The anxiety state can be defined as an unpleasant state of tension, apprehension or uneasiness.[T77]|
|DB09204||Arotinolol||Artinolol was introduced to be used as an antihypertensive agent since 1986.[T88] It has been studied for other functions like tremor control for patients with Parkinson disease and it is currently in clinical trials for its use in the control of blood pressure and heart rate.[L1168]|
|DB09205||Moxisylyte||By the WHO, moxisylyte is indicated for the symptomatic management of sequelae of cerebral infarction or hemorrhage.[T91] The cerebral infarction is characterized by the blockage of the artery either by the formation of a thrombus or an embolus.[A31644]
On the other hand, the FDA classified moxisylyte for the reversal of phenylephrine-induced mydriasis in patients who have narrow anterior angles and are at risk of developing an acute attack of angle-closure glaucoma.[L1172] Closed-angle glaucoma is caused by the contact between the iris and the trabecular meshwork. This contact will damage the aqueous outflow by the meshwork thus, increasing eye pressure and producing the symptoms of glaucoma.[A31645] Mydriasis is referred to the dilatation of the pupils and this standard body function is known to be a trigger factor for the development of acute closed-angle glaucoma.This risk is explained by the generation of a pupillary block, which is the contact between the pupillary margins and the lens, thus preventing flow from the aqueous humor to the anterior chamber and followed by an increased pressure gradient.[L1173]
Moxisylyte is also approved in France as the first drug for the treatment of impotence.[A31647]|
|DB09210||Piracetam||Indicated in adult patients suffering from myoclonus of cortical origin, irrespective of aetiology, and should be used in combination with other anti-myoclonic therapies [L1125].|
|DB09214||Dexketoprofen||For short-term treatment of mild to moderate pain, including dysmenorrhoea, musculoskeletal pain and toothache [L1302]. |
|DB09219||Bisoxatin||For use in the treatment of constipation in the absence of bowel obstruction and for surgical preparation of the colon [L926].|
|DB09220||Nicorandil||Indicated for the prevention and treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris and reduction in the risk of acute coronary syndromes. |
|DB09223||Blonanserin||Used for the treatment of schizophrenia [L1097].|
|DB09224||Melperone||For the treatment of schizophrenia, sleep, disorders, agitation and mentally confused states [L1317, L1319, L1322]. |
|DB09241||Methylene blue||Methylene blue has several indications in medicine:
1. found to improve the hypotension associated with various clinical states.
2. Antiseptic in urinary tract infections.
3. Improves hypoxia and hyper dynamic circulation in cirrhosis of liver and severe hepatopulmonary syndrome.
4. Results in transient and reproducible improvement in blood pressure and cardiac function in septic shock.
5. Investigated for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
6. Treatment of ifofosamide induced neurotoxicity.|
|DB09244||Pirlindole||For the treatment of major depression.
It is being studied in the treatment of fibromyalgia pain syndrome. One study determined that the effect of pirlindole on sensorimotor performance while driving a motor vehicle shows many similarities to that of placebo. The drug appears to stimulate the central nervous system, rather than exhibit a sedative effect, like many antidepressants. Because of its selective, reversible inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO-A) and short half-life, unpleasant "cheese effects" are avoided. This refers to the effects of consuming tyramine-rich foods, such as cheese while medicated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors, leading to severe headaches and hypertension [L1395]. of The available evidence supports pirlindole as a safe and effective treatment option for the management of depression and fibromyalgia syndrome [L1394].
|DB09255||Dextran||Dextran is used as the restoration of blood mass during surgical interventions if there is hypovolemia due to trauma or dehydration. It is as well used after the presence of hemorrhage in cases of blood loss to a level inferior to 15% of the blood mass, if compatibility test cannot be completed or when blood lots need to be tested for pathogen detection. Dextran is also used for the prevention of profound postoperative venous thrombosis.[L1455]
Dextran as well presents ophthalmic applications as solutions or ointments for the temporary relief of xerophthalmia or minor ocular irritations.[L1461]|
|DB09257||Gimeracil||Gimeracil is used as an adjunct to antineoplastic therapy. When used within the product Teysuno, gimeracil is indicated for the treatment of adults with advanced gastric (stomach) cancer when given in combination with cisplatin.|
|DB09264||Idarucizumab||For use in patients treated with Dabigatran when reversal of the anticoagulant effects of dabigatran is needed for emergency surgery/urgent procedures and in life-threatening or uncontrolled bleeding.|
|DB09265||Lixisenatide||For use as an antihyperglycemic agent in the treatment of T2DM [FDA Label].|
|DB09268||Picosulfuric acid||Indicated for cleansing of the colon as a preparation for colonoscopy in adults [FDA Label].|
|DB09276||Sodium aurothiomalate||As anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of arthritis. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, DMARD.|
|DB09277||Choline C 11||Choline C11 is indicated for its use in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in patients with suspected prostate cancer recurrence and non-informative bone scintigraphy, computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging.[FDA label, A32037]|
|DB09281||Magnesium trisilicate||For the treatment of peptic ulcers.
Relieving indigestion and heartburn.|
|DB09288||Propacetamol||Propacetamol is a paracetamol prodrug of intravenous administration used to control fever and pain of perioperative period in multimodal analgesia therapy.[L1511]|
|DB09292||Sacubitril||Used in combination with valsartan to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with chronic heart failure (NYHA Class II-IV) and reduced ejection fraction. It is usually administered in conjunction with other heart failure therapies, in place of an ACE inhibitor or other ARB.|
|DB09301||Chondroitin sulfate||Chondroitin sulfate, used with glucosamine, is indicated to alleviate pain and inflammation from primary osteoarthritis.[L1527] This supplement is reported to improve joint function and slow disease progression.[L1528] Osteoarthritis is characterized by progressive structural and metabolic changes in joint tissues, mainly cartilage degradation, subchondral bone sclerosis and inflammation of synovial membrane.[A32066]
Studies have proposed the potential use of chondroitin sulfate as a nutraceutical in dietary supplements.[A32065]
|DB09317||Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, A||For the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms due to menopause and for treatment of moderate to severe symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy due to menopause.|
|DB09318||Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, B||For the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms due to menopause and for the treatment of moderate to severe vaginal dryness, pain with intercourse, and symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy due to menopause.|
|DB09320||Procaine benzylpenicillin||For the treatment of a number of bacterial infections such as syphilis, anthrax, mouth infections, pneumonia and diphtheria. |
|DB09324||Sulbactam||Sulbactam is currently available in combination products with ampicillin. Within this formulation it is indicated for the treatment of infections due to susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions listed below.
Skin and Skin Structure Infections caused by beta-lactamase producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. (including K. pneumoniae), Proteus mirabilis, Bacteroides fragilis, Enterobacter spp., and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.
Intra-Abdominal Infections caused by beta-lactamase producing strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. (including K. pneumoniae), Bacteroides spp. (including B. fragilis), and Enterobacter spp.
Gynecological Infections caused by beta-lactamase producing strains of Escherichia coli, and Bacteroides spp. (including B. fragilis).|
|DB09325||Sodium fluoride||To prevent cavities. |
|DB09329||Antihemophilic Factor (Recombinant), PEGylated||For the management of hemophilia A (congenital factor VIII deficiency) [FDA label], [A32064].
This medication is a human antihemophilic factor indicated in adolescent and adult patients (12 years and older) with hemophilia A (congenital factor VIII deficiency). It is also used for on-demand treatment and control of bleeding and routine prophylaxis of bleeding episodes. It is not indicated for the treatment of von Willebrand disease [FDA label].|
|DB09344||Invert sugar||Invert sugar presents a large variety of uses. It can be used therapeutically for parenteral hyperalimentation[T127] or to be used as an excipient with a known effect.[L1691] Invert sugar is also approved for its use in food products as a humectant, crystallization modifier, and liquid and nutritive sweetener.[T128]|
|DB09350||Piperonyl butoxide||For the treatment of head, pubic (crab), and body lice.|
|DB09357||Dexpanthenol||Injection: Prophylactic use immediately after major abdominal surgery to minimize the possibility of paralytic ileus. Intestinal atony causing abdominal distention; postoperative or postpartum retention of flatus, or postoperative delay in resumption of intestinal motility; paralytic ileus.
Topical: This medication is used as a moisturizer to treat or prevent dry, rough, scaly, itchy skin and minor skin irritations (e.g., diaper rash, skin burns from radiation therapy). |
|DB09394||Phosphoric acid||Phosphoric acid is used in dentistry and orthodontics as an etching solution, to clean and roughen the surfaces of teeth where dental appliances or fillings will be placed.|
|DB09395||Sodium acetate||Injection, USP 40 mEq is indicated as a source of sodium, for addition to large volume intravenous fluids to prevent or correct hyponatremia in patients with restricted or no oral intake. It is also useful as an additive for preparing specific intravenous fluid formulas when the needs of the patient cannot be met by standard electrolyte or nutrient solutions. Sodium acetate and other bicarbonate precursors are alkalinising agents, and can be used to correct metabolic acidosis, or for alkalinisation of the urine.|
|DB09407||Magnesium chloride||Magnesium chloride is used in several medical and topical (skin related) applications. Magnesium chloride usp, anhydrous uses as electrolyte replenisher, pharmaceutic necessity for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis fluids.
|DB09418||Potassium perchlorate||No current FDA- or EMA-approved therapeutic indications.|
|DB09472||Sodium sulfate||indicated for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy or barium enema X-ray examination.|
|DB09477||Enalaprilat||Enalaprilat injection is indicated for the treatment of hypertension when oral therapy is not practical.|
|DB09481||Magnesium carbonate||Used as an over the counter antacid [L593].|
|DB09488||Acrivastine||For the relief of symptoms associated with seasonal allergic rhinitis such as sneezing, rhinorrhea, pruritus, lacrimation, and nasal congestion.|
|DB09494||Cetyl alcohol||No therapeutic indications in medicinal products. Indicated to be used as an indirect additive in food contact substances, or an ingredient in commercial or cosmetic products. |
|DB09496||Octinoxate||As an active ingredient in sunscreens and lip balms. Used for protection against damaging effects of sun rays. |
|DB09502||Fludeoxyglucose F-18||The uptake of 18F-FDG by tissues is a marker for the tissue uptake of glucose, which in turn is closely correlated with certain types of tissue metabolism.
Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection is indicated in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging for assessment of abnormal glucose metabolism to assist in the evaluation of malignancy in patients with known or suspected abnormalities found by other testing modalities, or in patients with an existing diagnoses of cancer. |
|DB09546||Iobenguane sulfate I-123||For use in the diagnostic imaging of adrenergically inervated tissues for the purposes of detecting metastatic pheochromocytoma or neuroblastoma [FDA Label]. Also used to assess the sympathetic inervation of the myocardium via determination of the heart to mediastinum ratio of radioactivity in patients with New York Heart Association class II or III heart failure.|
|DB09570||Ixazomib||Ixazomib is indicated in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least one prior therapy. |
|DB11077||Polyethylene glycol 400||PEG-400 has been indicated for the temporary relief of burning and irritation due to dryness of the eye, and
for protection against further irritation and desiccation [L1795], [L1796], [L1797].|
|DB11090||Potassium nitrate||For the relief of tooth sensitivity, and is also used as a pesticide, insecticide, as a food additive, and a rodenticide [L1751, L1754, L1757].
|DB11098||Potassium bicarbonate||Potassium bicarbonate is used as an antacid, electrolyte replenisher and potassium supplement. It can also be used as an excipient in drug formulations.[L1837] An antacid is a medication used to neutralize gastric acid in a short timeframe after ingestion and the effect is soon overcome by meal-stimulated acid secretion.[A32214]|
|DB11102||N-acetyltyrosine||N-acetyltyrosine is indicated, in combination with several other amino acids and dextrose, as a peripherally administered source of nitrogen for nutritional support in patients with adequate stores of body fat in whom, for short periods, oral administration cannot be tolerated, is undesirable, or inadequate [FDA Label].
It is also indicated, with other amino acids, 5-10% dextrose, and fat emulsion, for parenteral nutrition to preserve protein and reduce catabolism in stress conditions where oral administration is inadequate [FDA Label].
When administered with other amino acids and concentrated dextrose, it is indicated for central vein infusion to prevent or reverse negative nitrogen balance in patients where the alimentary tract by the oral, gastrostomy, or jejestomy routes cannot or should not be used or in patients in which gastrointestinal absorption of protein is impaired, metabolic requirements for protein are substantially increased, or morbidity and mortality may be reduced by replacing amino acids lost from tissue breakdown [FDA Label]|
|DB11114||Eucalyptus oil||As an active agent, eucalyptus oil has been indicated for relief of the symptoms of catarrhal colds, and/or the relief of the symptoms of minor muscular sprains and cramps [L1857].|
|DB11121||Chloroxylenol||The predominant medical applications for which chloroxylenol is formally indicated for therapeutic use is as an application to the skin for use in cuts, bites, stings, abrasions, and for use as antiseptic hand cleaner [L1992].|
Selenium injection is indicated for use as a supplement to intravenous solutions given for total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Administration of selenious acid in TPN formulas helps to maintain plasma selenium levels and also to maintain endogenous stores to prevent deficiency [L1922].
Selenium compounds, such as selenium sulfide, are used topically in anti-dandruff shampoos and in cases of seborrhea [L1916].
For the purpose of brevity, selenite will the focus of discussion, and more information about selenium can be obtained at [DB11135].|
|DB11130||Opium||Opium and its derivatives are the most commonly used medications for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. Opium and its alkaloid-derivatives can also be used as tranquilizers, antitussives and in the treatment of diarrhea.[T138] The direct use of opium is not common nowadays but the use of some of its derivatives such as morphine and codeine, as well as the use of a tincture of opium for severe diarrhea can be seen in medical practice.[T139]
Illegal use of opium has been registered to be for both recreational and medicinal purposes.[A32182]|
|DB11135||Selenium||For the supplementation of total parenteral nutrition to prevent hyposelenemia [FDA Label].|
|DB11136||Chromium||Indicated for use as a supplement to intravenous solutions given for total parenteral nutrition (TPN), to maintain chromium serum levels and to prevent depletion of endogenous stores and subsequent deficiency symptoms [FDA Label].|
|DB11143||Cresol||The primary medical indications for cresols in general include being used as bactericides, pesticides, and disinfectants [L2020]. Certain isomers of cresol, like m-cresol, may be used as inactive ingredients for the purpose of serving as a preservative in some pharmaceuticals [L2020]. Conversely, many other active pharmaceuticals are also derivatives of various cresol isomer precursors or intermediates [L2049].|
|DB11145||Oxyquinoline||Oxyquinoline is used as a biocidal component of several over the counter products. These products are marketed for the purposes of inhibiting abnormal biological growth in the vagina and restoring natural pH. |
|DB11148||Butamben||Butamben was indicated for the treatment of chronic pain due to its long-duration effect.[A32663] It is also indicated as a surface anesthetic for skin a mucous membrane and for the relief of pain and pruritus associated with anorectal disorders.[L2445]|
|DB11156||Pyrantel||For the treatment of enterobiasis including roundworm (ascariasis), pinworm (enterobius) and hookworm (strongyloides) and hookworm (ancylostoma) in the pyrantel pamoate form [L1893].
Pyrantel is available in various formulations for humans, dogs, and cats as the pamoate (US Pharmacopeia nomenclature) or embonate (European Pharmacopoeia nomenclature) salt, which contains 34.7% pyrantel base combined with pamoic acid [L1893]. [L1900], [A32283].
Pyrantel pamoate (embonate) ingested orally is effective for removal and control of ascarid and hookworm infections in puppies and dogs (adult Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, An. braziliense, Uncinaria stenocephala), cats (adult Toxocara cati, Toxa. leonina, An. caninum, An. braziliense, U. stenocephala), horses and ponies (adult and immature Parascaris equorum, adult Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, S. equinus, Cyathostomes (Triodontophorus spp., Cyathostomum spp., Cylicodontophorus spp., Cylicocyclus spp., Cylicostephanus spp., Poteriostomum spp.), Oxyuris equi, Anoplocephala perfoliata), swine (adult Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum dentatum), and humans (adult A. lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, An. duodenale, Necator americanus) [L1900].|
|DB11164||Bicisate||Bicisate as a complex with technetium Tc-99m is used in single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) as an adjunct to conventional CT or MRI in the localization of stroke in patients whom the presence of a stroke has already been diagnosed. It is not indicated to assess the functional viability of brain tissue or to distinguish between a stroke and other brain lesions.[L2034]
A stroke is defined as a condition in which the blood stops flowing to any part of the brain causing a damage to brain cells. The potential effect of a stroke depends on the part of the brain that was affected by it as well as the extension of the damage.[L2069]|
|DB11185||Sulisobenzone||Sunscreening agents are used to prevent sunburn, actinic keratosis, and premature skin aging and to reduce the incidence of skin cancer [L2664].|
|DB11251||Tocopherol||Tocopherol can be used as a dietary supplement for patients with a deficit of vitamin E; this is mainly prescribed in the alpha form.[A32443] Vitamin E deficiency is rare, and it is primarily found in premature babies of very low birth weight, patients with fat malabsorption or patients with abetalipoproteinemia.[L2120]
Tocopherol, due to its antioxidant properties, is studied for its use in prevention or treatment in different complex diseases such as cancer,[A32436] atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases,[A32442] and age-related macular degeneration.[A32444]|
|DB11278||DL-Methylephedrine||Used as an antitussive and decongestant [L2834].|
|DB11304||Phenoxyethanol||Antimicrobial agent used as a preservative in cosmetics [L2618], [L2619], [L2625].|
|DB11328||Tetradecyl hydrogen sulfate (ester)||Sotradecol (sodium tetradecyl sulfate injection) is indicated in the treatment of small, uncomplicated varicose veins of the legs showing simple dilation, with competent valves [L2030].
Sodium tetradecyl sulfate has been designated as an orphan drug by the FDA for the treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding due to esophageal varices [L2041].
|DB11338||Clove oil||Clove oil is primarily indicated in conditions like colic, flatulence, and toothache [L2849].|
|DB11358||Evening primrose oil||Evening primrose oil is used as part of over-the-counter dietary supplements.[L1113]
It is also used for the treatment of systemic inflammatory diseases and for women's health conditions such as cyclical mastalgia. These indications do not have sufficient evidence of their effectiveness. It was used for the treatment of atopic dermatitis in the United Kingdom but it is currently withdrawn due to lack of evidence of effectiveness.[A33131]|
|DB11364||Pidotimod||For use as immunostimulant therapy for treatment of cell-mediated immunosuppression with respiratory or urinary infections [L929].|
|DB11367||Cefroxadine||Was used for the treatment of bacterial infections.|
|DB11560||Lesinurad||For use, in combination with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, for the treatment of hyperuricemia associated with gout in patients who have not achieved target serum uric acid levels with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor alone.|
|DB11577||Indigotindisulfonic Acid||This drug was initially used as a kidney function test. The main application of indigo carmine at this time is localizing and visualizing ureteral orifices during cystoscopy and ureteral catheterization procedures [L2215]. |
|DB11587||Etafedrine||Conditions characterized by bronchial congestion and bronchospasm when an expectorant or bronchodilator action is required, such as acute bronchitis, acute episodes of chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma [L2565], [L2566].|
|DB11598||Antithrombin III human||Antithrombin III human is a human antithrombin (AT) indicated in patients with hereditary antithrombin deficiency for the treatment and prevention of thromboembolism and prevention of peri-operative and peri-partum thromboembolism|
|DB11642||Pitolisant||Indicated in adults for the treatment of narcolepsy with or without cataplexy [L1471].|
|DB11660||Latanoprostene Bunod||Latanoprostene bunod opthalmic solution is indicated for the reduction of intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension [FDA Label].|
|DB11691||Naldemedine||For the treatment of opioid-induced constipation [FDA Label].|
|DB11699||Tropisetron||For the prevention of nausea and vomiting induced by cytotoxic therapy and postoperative. |
|DB11817||Baricitinib||Indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis in adult patients who have responded inadequately to, or who are intolerant to one or more disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs as monotherapy or in combination with methotrexate.|
|DB11901||Apalutamide||Indicated for the treatment of patients with non-metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (NM-CRPC) [FDA Label].|
|DB11915||Valbenazine||For the treatment of tardive dyskinesia in adults [FDA Label].|
|DB11943||Delafloxacin||Delafloxacin is indicated for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections caused by the Gram-positive organisms Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible isolates), Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus anginosus Group (including Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, and Streptococcus constellatus), Streptococcus pyogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis as well as the Gram-negative organisms Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa [FDA Label].|
|DB11989||Benznidazole||For use in the treatment of Chagas disease in children 2-12 years of age [L939].|
|DB12007||Isoflavone||Indicated for over-the-counter use as a dietary supplement for increasing bone density and regulating blood fat. |
|DB12107||Vaborbactam||Indicated in combination with meropenem for the treatment of patients 18 years of age and older with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) including pyelonephritis caused by the following susceptible microorganisms: _Escherichia coli_, _Klebsiella pneumoniae_, and _Enterobacter cloacae_ species complex [FDA Label].|
|DB12161||Deutetrabenazine||Indicated for the treatment of chorea associated with Huntington’s disease [FDA Label]. |
|DB12278||Propiverine||Indicated for symptomatic treatment of urinary incontinence and/or increased urinary frequency and urgency in patients with overactive bladder (OAB) [L2315]. Propiverine may also be used in patients with neurogenic bladder as a result of spinal cord injury [A32581].|
|DB12615||Plazomicin||Plazomicin is indicated for the treatment of patients 18 years of age or older with Complicated Urinary Tract Infections (cUTI) including Pyelonephritis, who have limited or no alternative treatment options. It should only be used to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible microorganisms [FDA Label]. |
|DB12783||Benserazide||The primary therapeutic use for which benserazide is currently indicated for is as a combination therapy with levadopa for the treatment of Parkinson's disease in adults > 25 years of age, with the exception of drug-induced parkinsonism [F2, L2553].
At certain doses, the combination product of levodopa and benserazide may also be used to treat restless legs syndrome, which is sometimes associated with Parkinson's disease [L2553, T181].
There have also been some studies that have prompted the European Medicines Agency to confer orphan designation upon benserazide hydrochloride as a potential therapy for beta thalassaemia [F3]. Although studies are ongoing, no evidence has been formally elucidated as of yet [F3].|
|DB12911||Nicoboxil||The primary therapeutic use for which nicoboxil is currently indicated for is as an active ingredient in combination with the capsaicinoid nonivamide compound as a topical analgesic for the temporary relief of the pain of rheumatism, arthritis, lumbago, muscular aches, sprains and strains, sporting injuries, and other conditions where local warmth is beneficial [F11].
Nevertheless, most of the available studies regarding the use of nicoboxil and nonivamide topical analgesics focus specifically on their efficacy and safety in treating acute non-specific low back pain, typically finding the combination analgesic to be an effective, safe, and well-tolerated medication for such an indication [A32785, A32786].|
|DB13025||Tiapride||Tiapride is indicated for the treatment of a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders including dyskinesia, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, negative symptoms of psychosis, and agitation and aggression in the elderly.|
|DB13139||Levosalbutamol||Levosalbutamol's bronchodilator properties give it indications in treatment of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, also known as chronic obstructive lung disease) and asthma.|
|DB13145||Nedaplatin||Used in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, small cell lung cancer, oesophygeal cancer, and head and neck cancers [A20300].|
|DB13154||Parachlorophenol||Used as an intermediate in organic synthesis of dyes and drugs.
Local antibacterial agent in root canal therapy, as topical antiseptic in ointments
|DB13156||Inosine pranobex||Inosine pranobex is also indicated for mucocutaneous infections due to herpes simplex virus (type 1 and type II) and for treatment of genital warts as adjunctive therapy to podophyllin or carbon dioxide laser. |
|DB13158||Clobetasone||In dermatology, topical clobestasone butyrate helps to reduce the itchiness and erythema associated with eczema and dermatitis.
In ophthalmology, clobetasone butyrate 0.1% eye drops have been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of dry eyes in Sjögren's Syndrome.|
|DB13167||Alclofenac||Alclofenac is indicated in rheumatology, in particular for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and, as an analgesic, in painful arthritic pathologies.|
|DB13178||Inositol||Inositol may be used in food without any limitation. As a drug, inositol is used as a nutrient supplement in special dietary foods and infant formula.[L2561] As it presents a relevant role in ensuring oocyte fertility, inositol has been studied for its use in the management of polycystic ovaries.[A32751] Inositol is also being researched for the treatment of diabetes,[A32766] prevention of metabolic syndrome,[A32768] aid agent for weight loss,[A32769] treatment of depression, psychiatric disorder and anxiety disorder[A32770] and for prevention of cancer.[A32771]|
|DB13185||Oxabolone cipionate||Used as a performance enhancing drug illicitly in athletes. |
|DB13191||Phosphocreatine||Phosphocreatine is a naturally occuring substance that is found predominantly in the skeletal muscles of vertebrates. Its primary utility within the body is to serve in the maintanence and recycling of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for muscular activity like contractions.
Given this utility of phosphocreatine to recycle ATP, the most plausible therapeutic potentials for its use involve conditions caused by energy shortage or by increased energy requirements - such as in ischemic stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases. It is important to note however that relatively little clinical research has been done to significantly further the evidence for any such indications, although it is administered intravenously for cardiovascular conditions in some countries.
Additionally, because phosphocreatine is not regulated as a controlled substance it is taken as a supplement by some professional athletes as a means to perhaps increase short bursts of muscle strength or energy for professional athletics. |
|DB13268||Acetarsol||Acetarsol has been used for the treatment of different diseases such as syphilis, amoebiasis, yaws, trypanosomiasis, and malaria.[L2624] Acetarsol was used commonly for the treatment of vaginitis due to _Trichomonas vaginalis_ and _Candida albicans_.[A32839, A32841] When orally administered, acetarsol can be used for the treatment of intestinal amoebiasis and in the form of suppositories it has been researched for the treatment of proctitis.[L2626]
Protozoan infections are parasitic diseases characterized to be caused by organisms classified in the kingdom Protozoa which is formed by a great diversity of organisms.[L2627]|
|DB13269||Dichlorobenzyl alcohol||Dichlorobenzyl alcohol in combination with [DB13908] is available in over-the-counter products used for symptomatic relief of acute sore throat and postoperative sore throat.[A27155]|
|DB13293||Ipecac||Ipecac is indicated as an emetic agent for the induction of vomiting in poisoning victims who ingested systemic poison in order to prevent absorption of the chemicals through the gastrointestinal tract. In low doses, ipecac was also used as an expectorant.[L2753]
Reports have suggested that ipecac was vastly used in patients with eating disorders to produce vomiting.[T49]|
|DB13595||Almasilate||Almasilate is indicated for use as an antacid for the neutralization of excess stomach acid [F25]. It is subsequently also used for the symptomatic treatment of diseases where it is necessary to neutralize acid in the stomach, for example, for treating stomach and duodenal ulcers or heartburn and stomach conditions caused by excess stomach acid [F25].|
|DB13747||Trolamine||Trolamine is used as an alkalizing agent, surfactant, and counter-ion in cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations [A27174]. It is not considered to be an active pharmacological ingredient and so has no official indication.|
|DB13873||Fenofibric acid||For use as an adjunctive therapy to diet to: (a) reduce triglyceride levels in adult patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia, and (b) reduce elevated total cholesterol, low-density-lipoprotein (LDL-C), triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B, and to increase high-density-lipoprotein (HDL-C) in adult patients with primary hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia (Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb). [FDA Label]|
|DB13884||Albutrepenonacog alfa||Under the EMA and FDA, rIX-RFP is indicated in the treatment of hemophilia B.[L2306] For Health Canada, rIX-FRP is also indicated to prevent or reduce bleeding episodes.[L2305]
Hemophilia B is the second most common type of hemophilia. It is a rare inherited bleeding disorder caused by reduced or absent levels of factor IX (FIX). The FIX is a vitamin K-dependent plasma protease that when activated is involved in the blood coagulation cascade.[A32551] The hemophilia B is caused by mutations in the _FIX_ gene which can cause different phenotypes. The severe form is characterized by the presence of spontaneous and recurring bleeds into the joints and muscles and excessive bleeding after trauma or surgery.[A32552]|
|DB13909||Bismuth subgallate||The most common medical purpose for which bismuth subgallate is currently and formally indicated for is the use as a non-prescription internal deodorant product for the purpose of deodorizing flatulence and stools [L2309, L2312, A32566].
Additionally, there are also various non-prescription (over the counter) bismuth subgallate based wound healing products as well as ongoing studies into whether or not the substance can be utilized as a legitimate hemostatic agent - usually for soft tissue surgery in otorhinolaryngology and/or dermatologic settings [A32567, A32568, A32569, A32570].
Moreover, in the past bismuth subgallate may have seen some use as a treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection [A32571]. In contrast, contemporary first-line therapies generally involve proton pump inhibitor and antibiotic combination therapies that generally achieve high rates of pathogen eradication, ease of administration, and patient compliance.|
|DB13943||Testosterone cypionate||Testosterone cypionate is used in males that present conditions derived from a deficiency or absence of endogenous testosterone. These conditions are 1) primary hypogonadism, defined as the testicular failure due to cryptorchidism, bilateral torsion, orchitis, vanishing testis syndrome or orchidectomy; and 2) hypogonadotropic hypogonadism characterized by idiopathic gonadotropin, LHRH deficiency or pituitary-hypothalamic injury from tumors, trauma or radiation.[L1153]|
|DB13944||Testosterone enanthate||Testosterone enanthate in males is indicated as a replacement therapy in conditions associated with a deficiency or absence of endogenous testosterone. Some of the treated conditions are 1) primary hypogonadism, defined as testicular failure due to cryptorchidism, bilateral torsion, orchitis, vanishing testis syndrome or orchidectomy; 2) hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to an idiopathic gonadotropin or luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone deficiency or due to a pituitary-hypothalamic injury from tumors, trauma or radiation, in this case it is important to accompany the treatment with adrenal cortical and thyroid hormone replacement therapy; 3) to stimulate puberty in patients with delayed puberty not secondary to a pathological disorder. If the conditions 1 and 2 occur prior to puberty, the androgen replacement therapy will be needed during adolescent years for the development of secondary sexual characteristics and prolonged androgen treatment might be needed it to maintain sexual characteristics after puberty.[FDA label]
In females, testosterone enanthate is indicated to be used secondarily in presence of advanced inoperable metastatic mammary cancer in women who are from one to five years postmenopausal. It has also been used in premenopausal women with breast cancer who have benefited from oophorectomy and are considered to have a hormone-responsive tumor.[FDA label]
Testosterone enanthate injections that are currently formulated for subcutaneous use are specifically indicated only for primary hypogonadism and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism [F1941]. The use of such formulations is limited because the safety and efficacy of these subcutaneous products in adult males with late-onset hypogonadism and males less than 18 years old have not yet been established [F1941]. Moreover, subcutaneously administered testosterone enanthate is indicated only for the treatment of men with hypogonadal conditions associated with structural or genetic etiologies, considering the medication could cause blood pressure increases that can raise the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events like non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and cardiovascular death [F1941].|
|DB13946||Testosterone undecanoate||Testosterone undecanoate is indicated for replacement therapy in adult males with conditions that are linked with an absence or deficiency in endogenous testosterone production. [F4247][FDA Label]|
|DB13952||Estradiol acetate||Femring is indicated for the treatment of vasomotor and urogenital symptoms associated with menopause. Use of Femring (estradiol acetate) has been shown to improve symptoms caused by atrophy of the vagina (such as dryness, burning, pruritus and dyspareunia) and/or the lower urinary tract (urinary urgency and dysuria).|
|DB13954||Estradiol cypionate||Depo-Estradiol intramuscular depot injection is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms and hypoestrogenism due to hypogonadism.|
|DB13955||Estradiol dienanthate||Estradiol dienanthate is not currently available in any FDA or Health Canada approved products.|
|DB13956||Estradiol valerate||Estradiol valerate is commercially available as an intramuscular injection as the product Delestrogen and is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms and vulvovaginal atrophy due to menopause, for the treatment of hypoestrogenism due to hypogonadism, castration or primary ovarian failure, and for the treatment of advanced androgen-dependent carcinoma of the prostate (for palliation only).
Estradiol valerate is also available in combination with [DB09123] as the commercially available product Natazia used for the prevention of pregnancy and for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding.|
|DB13960||Bronopol||Bronopol as an active ingredient is registered as a commercial biocide and preservative in many industrial processes. Registered biocidal uses include pulp and paper mills, water cooling towers, waste water treatment, evaporative condensers, heat exchangers, food pasteurizing plants, metalworking fluids, and oilfield applications [F2317]. In addition, preservative uses include household products (e.g., dishwashing liquids, laundry products), latex emulsions, polymer lattices, pigments, leather and milk samples for analysis [F2317]. Bronopol is also formulated into granular domestic end-use products in the form of cat litter [F2317].|
|DB13967||Patent Blue||Patent blue is used for marking lymphatic vessels and arterial territories as well as for sentinel lymph node prior to biopsy in patients with operable breast cancer and clinically negative lymph nodes in combination with a radiotracer.[A32575]
Patent blue is also used in the textile, paper, agriculture and cosmetic industry.[A32574]|
|DB14006||Choline salicylate||The oral gel is indicated for the relief of pain and discomfort of common mouth ulcers, cold sores, denture sore spots, infant teething and mouth ulcers, and sore spots due to orthodontic devices in children [L2135].
|DB14007||Pentetic acid||DTPA is widely used in industry and medicine. As a medical agent, it is approved for its use in medical imaging and for the decorporation of internally deposited radionuclides.[A32501] It is FDA approved for the treatment of individuals with known or suspected internal contamination with plutonium, americium or curium to increase the rates of elimination.[L2243]
Due to the pharmacokinetic elimination by the kidneys, pentetic acid conjugated with technetium Tc-99m is being used clinically to estimate physiological parameters such as glomerular filtration rat and effective renal plasma flow.[T168]|
|DB14184||Cinnamaldehyde||Cinnamaldehyde is approved by the FDA for use within allergenic epicutaneous patch tests which are indicated for use as an aid in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in persons 6 years of age and older.|
|DB14186||Cinnamyl alcohol||Cinnamyl alcohol is approved by the FDA for use within allergenic epicutaneous patch tests which are indicated for use as an aid in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in persons 6 years of age and older.|
|DB14498||Potassium acetate||Potassium is used to regulate hypokalemia as a primary condition or secondary to other medical conditions. |
|DB14499||Potassium sulfate||Potassium is used to regulate hypokalemia as a primary condition or secondary to other medical conditions. |
|DB14526||Chromic citrate||Indicated for use as a supplement to intravenous solutions given for total parenteral nutrition (TPN), to maintain chromium serum levels and to prevent depletion of endogenous stores and subsequent deficiency symptoms [FDA Label].|
|DB14527||Chromic nitrate||Indicated for use as a supplement to intravenous solutions given for total parenteral nutrition (TPN), to maintain chromium serum levels and to prevent depletion of endogenous stores and subsequent deficiency symptoms [FDA Label].|
|DB14528||Chromium gluconate||Indicated for use as a supplement to intravenous solutions given for total parenteral nutrition (TPN), to maintain chromium serum levels and to prevent depletion of endogenous stores and subsequent deficiency symptoms [FDA Label].|
|DB14529||Chromium nicotinate||Indicated for use as a supplement to intravenous solutions given for total parenteral nutrition (TPN), to maintain chromium serum levels and to prevent depletion of endogenous stores and subsequent deficiency symptoms [FDA Label].|
|DB14530||Chromous sulfate||Indicated for use as a supplement to intravenous solutions given for total parenteral nutrition (TPN), to maintain chromium serum levels and to prevent depletion of endogenous stores and subsequent deficiency symptoms [FDA Label].|
|DB00598||Labetalol||For the management of hypertension (alone or in combination with other classes of antihypertensive agents), as well as chronic stable angina pectoris and sympathetic overactivity syndrome associated with severe tetanus. Labetalol is used parenterally for immediate reduction in blood pressure in severe hypertension or in hypertensive crises when considered an emergency, for the control of blood pressure in patients with pheochromocytoma and pregnant women with preeclampsia, and to produce controlled hypotension during anesthesia to reduce bleeding resulting from surgical procedures.|
|DB00657||Mecamylamine||For the treatment of moderately severe to severe essential hypertension and in uncomplicated cases of malignant hypertension|
|DB00665||Nilutamide||For use in combination with surgical castration for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer involving distant lymph nodes, bone, or visceral organs (Stage D2).|
|DB00669||Sumatriptan||For the treatment of migraine attacks with or without aura.|
|DB00674||Galantamine||For the treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Has also been investigated in patients with mild cognitive impairment who did not meet the diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease.|
|DB00692||Phentolamine||Used as an aid for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, and may be administered immediately prior to or during pheochromocytomectomy to prevent or control paroxysmal hypertension resulting from anesthesia, stress, or operative manipulation of the tumor. Phentolamine has also been used to treat hypertensive crisis caused by sympathomimetic amines or catecholamine excess by certain foods or drugs in patients taking MAO inhibitors, or by clonidine withdrawal syndrome. Other indications include the prevention of dermal necrosis and sloughing following IV administration or extravasation of norepinephrine, decrease in impedance to left ventricular ejection and the infarct size in patients with MI associated with left ventricular failure, treatment of erectile dysfunction through self-injection of small doses combined with papaverine hydrochloride into the corpus cavernosum, and as an adjunct to the management of cocaine overdose to reverse coronary vasoconstriction following use of oxygen, benzodiazepines,and nitroglycerin. |
|DB00759||Tetracycline||Used to treat bacterial infections such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever, tick fevers, Q fever, rickettsialpox and Brill-Zinsser disease. May be used to treat infections caused by Chlamydiae spp., B. burgdorferi (Lyme disease), and upper respiratory infections caused by typical (S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis) and atypical organisms (C. pneumoniae, M. pneumoniae, L. pneumophila). May also be used to treat acne. Tetracycline may be an alternative drug for people who are allergic to penicillin.|
|DB00790||Perindopril||For the treatment of mild to moderate essential hypertension, mild to moderate congestive heart failure, and to reduce the cardiovascular risk of individuals with hypertension or post-myocardial infarction and stable coronary disease. |
|DB00808||Indapamide||For the treatment of hypertension, alone or in combination with other antihypertensive drugs, as well as for the treatment of salt and fluid retention associated with congestive heart failure or edema from pregnancy (appropriate only in the management of edema of pathologic origin during pregnancy when clearly needed). Also used for the management of edema as a result of various causes.|
|DB00828||Fosfomycin||For the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (acute cystitis) in women due to susceptible strains of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis.|
|DB00851||Dacarbazine||For the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma. In addition, dacarbazine is also indicated for Hodgkin's disease as a secondary-line therapy when used in combination with other antineoplastic agents.|
|DB00993||Azathioprine||For use in rheumatoid arthritis, preventing renal transplant rejection, Crohn's disease, and colitis.|
|DB01022||Phylloquinone||For the treatment of haemorrhagic conditions in infants, antidote for coumarin anticoagulants in hypoprothrombinaemia.|
|DB01068||Clonazepam||Clonazepam is indicated as monotherapy or as an adjunct in the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (petit mal variant), akinetic, and myoclonic seizures [FDA Label] [F3787]. Furthermore, clonazepam may also be of some value in patients with absence spells (petit mal) who have failed to respond to succinimides [FDA Label] [F3787]. Additionally, clonazepam is also indicated for the treatment of panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia, as defined in the DSM-V [FDA Label].
Alternatively, some regional prescribing information note that clonazepam is indicated for all clinical forms of epileptic disease and seizures in adults, especially absence seizures (petit mal) including atypical absence; primary or secondarily generalised tonic-clonic (grand mal), tonic or clonic seizures; partial (focal) seizures with elementary or complex symptomatology; various forms of myoclonic seizures, myoclonus and associated abnormal movements [L5572, F3796]. Such regional label data also has clonazepam indicated for most types of epilepsy in infants and children, especially absences (petit mal), myoclonic seizures and tonic-clonic fits, whether due to primary generalized epilepsy or to secondary generalization of partial epilepsy [F3796]. |
|DB01093||Dimethyl sulfoxide||For the symptomatic relief of patients with interstitial cystitis.|
|DB01135||Doxacurium||Used to provide skeletal muscle relaxation as an adjunct to general anesthesia, for endotracheal intubation or to facilitate mechanical ventilation.|
|DB01149||Nefazodone||For the treatment of depression.|
|DB01157||Trimetrexate||For use, with concurrent leucovorin administration (leucovorin protection), as an alternative therapy for the treatment of moderate-to-severe Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised patients, including patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Also used to treat several types of cancer including colon cancer.|
|DB01431||Allylestrenol||Allylestrenol was designed to be used for miscarriage prevention, prevention of premature labour and has been investigated for possible use in men for treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia.|
|DB09209||Pholcodine||Pholcodine is indicated as a cough suppressant for the temporary relief of non-productive dry cough. It is stated to present a required label indication of "temporary relief of dry cough."[L1200] Cough is the respiratory movement that occurs after an irritation signal is transmitted to the central nervous system and further stimulates the medulla oblongata. This stimulation causes a motor output that is sent through motoneurons to the respiratory muscles. A non-productive cough is a type of cough characterized by the absence of sputum, and it has a large inspiration that will cause continuous coughing.|
|DB09245||Toloxatone||For the treatment of major depressive disorder. |
|DB09256||Tegafur||Indicated for the treatment of cancer usually in combination with other biochemically modulating drugs.
Indicated in adults for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer when given in combination with [DB00515] [L933].
Indicated for the first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer with [DB03419] and calcium folinate [L934]. |
|DB09262||Imidafenacin||Used in the treatment of overactive bladder [FDA Label].|
|DB09338||Mersalyl||Elevated blood pressure, edema [L1577, L1585].|
|DB11085||Resorcinol||Contemporary therapeutic uses for resorcinol primarily revolve around the use of the phenol derivative as an active ingredient in topical antiseptics [L2745, L2744, L2727, F61] or as topical antibacterial skin treatment products for conditions like acne, seborrheic dermatitis, eczema, and others [L2746, L2745, L2744, L2727, F61].|
|DB13987||Strontium chloride||When employed as an ingredient in toothpaste formulations, strontium chloride is predominantly indicated for treating teeth hypersensitivity [A33167, A33168, L2882, F118].|
|DB01004||Ganciclovir||For induction and maintenance in the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in immunocompromised patients, including patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Also used in the treatment of severe cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease, including CMV pneumonia, CMV gastrointestinal disease, and disseminated CMV infections, in immunocompromised patients.|
|DB01610||Valganciclovir||Valganciclovir is an antiviral medication used for the treatment of cytomegalovirus infections.|
|DB09299||Tenofovir alafenamide||For use in the treatment of HIV infection and chronic hepatitis B.|
|DB00369||Cidofovir||For the treatment of CMV retinitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)|
|DB00787||Acyclovir||For the treatment and management of herpes zoster (shingles), genital herpes, and chickenpox. |
|DB01024||Mycophenolic acid||For the prophylaxis of organ rejection in patients receiving allogeneic renal transplants, administered in combination with cyclosporine and corticosteroids.|
|DB00591||Fluocinolone acetonide||Fluocinolone acetonide has been used extensively in different medical areas.
-In dermatology, it is extensively used for the relief of inflammatory dermatosis, dermatitis, psoriasis, hypertrophic tissues, keloid tissues and atopic dermatitis.[F1955]
-It has been used in shampoo products as a low to medium potency corticosteroid for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp.[L4682]
-In ear drops, it is used as a low to medium potency corticosteroid for the treatment of chronic eczematous external otitis in adults and pediatric patients 2 years and older.[L4683]
-As an intravitreal implant, it is indicated for the treatment of diabetic macular edema with patients that have been previously treated with a course of corticosteroids and no clinically significant rise in intraocular pressure.[L4684]
-Fluocinolone acetonide was announced on October 15, 2018 to be FDA approved for the treatment of chronic non-infectious uveitis affecting the posterior segment of the eye.[L4685]
-Some reports have indicated the use of fluocinolone acetonide as a vasoprotective agent and for its use in the treatment of first-degree hemorrhoids.[A39532]|
|DB01356||Lithium cation||Lithium is used as a mood stabilizer, and is used for treatment of depression and mania. It is often used in bipolar disorder treatment.|
|DB14507||Lithium citrate||Lithium is used as a mood stabilizer, and is used for treatment of depression and mania. It is often used in bipolar disorder treatment.|
|DB00437||Allopurinol||Allopurinol is indicated in [FDA label]:
1) the management of patients with signs and symptoms of primary or secondary gout (acute attacks, tophi, joint destruction, uric acid lithiasis, and/or nephropathy).
2) the management of patients with leukemia, lymphoma and malignancies who are receiving cancer therapy which causes elevations of serum and urinary uric acid levels. Treatment with allopurinol should be discontinued when the potential for overproduction of uric acid is no longer present.
3) the management of patients with recurrent calcium oxalate calculi whose daily uric acid excretion exceeds 800 mg/day in male patients and 750 mg/day in female patients. Therapy in such patients should be carefully assessed initially and reassessed periodically to determine in each case that treatment is beneficial and that the benefits outweigh the risks.|
|DB14509||Lithium carbonate||Lithium is used as a mood stabilizer, and is indicated for the treatment of manic episodes and maintenance of bipolar disorder[FDA Label].|
|DB00879||Emtricitabine||Indicated, in combination with other antiretroviral agents, for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults and for postexposure prophylaxis of HIV infection in health care workers and others exposed occupationally or nonoccupationally via percutaneous injury or mucous membrane or nonintact skin contact with blood, tissues, or other body fluids associated with risk for transmission of the virus.|
|DB00698||Nitrofurantoin||May be used as an alternative in the treatment of urinary tract infections. May be used by females pericoitally for prophylaxis against recurrent cystitis related to coitus. |
|DB00515||Cisplatin||For the treatment of metastatic testicular tumors, metastatic ovarian tumors and advanced bladder cancer.|
|DB01015||Sulfamethoxazole||For the treatment bacterial infections causing bronchitis, prostatitis and urinary tract infections.|
|DB14506||Lithium hydroxide||Not Available|
|DB14508||Lithium succinate||Not Available|
|DB06480||Prucalopride||Prucalopride is indicated for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) in adults.[L4882]
CIC is one of the most common chronic functional gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. The diagnosis of this agent is very hard and it can be confirmed if the patient experience at least two of the following:
-Straining during more than 25% of the bowel movements.
-Lumpy or hard stools in 25% of the bowel movements.
-Sensation of incomplete evacuation in more than 25% of all bowel movements.
-Sensation of anorectal blockage or obstruction in more than 25% of the bowel movements.
-Manual maneuvers required in more than 25% of the bowel movements.
-Fewer than 3 bowel movements per week.[L4883]|
|DB01099||Flucytosine||For the treatment (in combination with amphotericin B) of serious infections caused by susceptible strains of Candida (septicemia, endocarditis and urinary system infections) and/or Cryptococcus (meningitis and pulmonary infections).|
|DB06813||Pralatrexate||Treatment of relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma. |
|DB00190||Carbidopa||Carbidopa is indicated with [levodopa] for the treatment of symptoms of idiopathic Parkinson disease, postencephalitic parkinsonism and symptomatic parkinsonism followed by carbon monoxide or manganese intoxication.[FDA label]
The combination therapy is administered for the reduction of [levodopa]-driven nausea and vomiting.[FDA label]
The product of carbidopa should be used in patients where the combination therapy of carbidopa/[levodopa] provide less than the adequate daily dosage.[FDA label]
As well carbidopa can be used in patients where the dosages of carbidopa and [levodopa] require individual titration.[FDA label]|
|DB00243||Ranolazine||Ranolazine is approved as a second-line agent in the management of chronic stable angina pectoris that is refractory to conventional anti-ischemic therapy.[A174913]
Ranolazine has also been used off-label for the treatment of some arrhythmias such as ventricular tachycardia, however, this use does not have a lot of supporting evidence.[A174940]
The use of ranolazine has been researched in the treatment of acute coronary syndrome, microvascular coronary dysfunction, arrhythmia, and glycemic control.[A174898]|
|DB00341||Cetirizine||**Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis**: Indicated for the relief of symptoms associated with seasonal allergic rhinitis caused by allergens such as ragweed, grass and tree pollens in adults and children 2 years of age and above. Symptoms treated effectively include sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal pruritus, ocular pruritus, tearing, and redness of the eyes [FDA label].
**Perennial allergic rhinitis**: This drug is indicated for the relief of symptoms associated with perennial allergic rhinitis due to allergens including dust mites, animal dander, and molds in adults and children 6 months of age and older. Symptoms treated effectively include sneezing, rhinorrhea, postnasal discharge, nasal pruritus, ocular pruritus, and tearing [FDA label].
**Chronic urticaria**: Cetirizine is indicated for the treatment of the uncomplicated skin manifestations of chronic idiopathic urticaria in adults and children 6 months of age and older. It markedly reduces the occurrence, severity, and duration of hives and significantly reduces pruritus [FDA label].|
|DB00245||Benzatropine||Benztropine is indicated to be used as an adjunct in the therapy of all forms of parkinsonism. It can also be used for the control of extrapyramidal disorders due to neuroleptic drugs.[T203]
The extrapyramidal symptoms are defined as drug-induced disorders that include symptoms of dystonia, akathisia, parkinsonism, bradykinesia, tremors, and dyskinesia.[A175120]
Parkinsonism is a general term that refers to the group of neurological disorders that produce symptoms similar to Parkinson's disease such as tremors, slow movement, and stiffness. The parkinsonism includes a large number of disorders and some of them have not been clearly defined.[L5509]|
|DB00264||Metoprolol||Metoprolol is indicated for the treatment of angina, heart failure, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter and hypertension.[A175141]
Some off-label uses of metoprolol include supraventricular tachycardia and thyroid storm.[A175141]
All the indications of metoprolol are part of cardiovascular diseases. These conditions correspond to a number of diseases that involve the function of the heart and blood vessels. The underlying causes of these conditions are variable and can be due to genetic disposition, lifestyle decisions such as smoking, obesity, diet, and lack of exercise, and comorbidity with other conditions such as diabetes. The cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death on a global scale.[L5533]|
|DB00318||Codeine||Codeine sulfate is a form of this drug that is commonly used. It is available in tablet form [FDA label] and indicated for the relief of mild to moderately severe pain, where the use of an opioid analgesic is appropriate [FDA label].
The solution form is used by itself or combined in a syrup with other drugs and is used as a cough suppressant in adults aged 18 and above [L5521], [L5524]. |
|DB00279||Liothyronine||Liothyronine is officially approved for the following indications:
- Replacement therapy in primary (thyroidal), secondary (pituitary) and tertiary (hypothalamic) congenital or acquired hypothyroidism.
- As an adjunct therapy to surgery and radioiodine in the management of thyroid cancer.
- As a diagnostic agent in suppression tests for mild hyperthyroidism or thyroid gland autonomy.[FDA label]
In general terms, exogenous liothyronine is used to replace insufficient hormonal production and restore T3 plasma levels.[T457]
The lack of liothyronine can be presented as a pale and puffy face, coarse, brittle hair, dry skin, croaky voice and constipation as well as irregular periods, drowsiness, and lethargy.[T457]
Liothyronine should never be used in the suppression of benign nodules and nontoxic diffuse goiter in iodine-sufficient patients nor in the treatment of hyperthyroidism during the recovery phase of subacute thyroiditis.[FDA label]|
|DB00289||Atomoxetine||Atomoxetine is recommended for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. It is recommended as a monotherapy in youths that do not respond correctly to stimulants.[A175723]
ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be categorized as a mental health condition. The symptoms of this condition start at childhood but they continue in adolescence and adulthood. The risk factors of ADHD are variable and they include the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol or drugs during pregnancy, low brain weight, brain injuries, toxical exposure or genetic disorders. The main symptoms for this condition are difficult in paying attention, overactivity and impulsivity.[L5665]|
|DB00327||Hydromorphone||Hydromorphone is indicated for the management of moderate to severe acute pain and severe chronic pain. Due to its addictive potential and overdose risk, hydromorphone is only prescribed when other first-line treatments have failed.[A176468]
The WHO has proposed a three-step ladder for the management of pain in which it is suggested to start with a non-opioid medication followed by addition of weak opioids to the non-opioid treatment for moderate pain and finishing in the use of strong opioids such as hydromorphone along with the existing regimen for cases of severe pain.[A176471]
Off-label, hydromorphone can be administered for the suppression of refractory cough.[A176468]|
|DB14754||Solriamfetol||Solriamfetol is indicated for treatment of daytime sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnea and narcolepsy, but is not a treatment for the underlying airway obstruction in apnea patients[FDA Label][A176534,A176744].|
|DB08904||Certolizumab pegol||Certolizumab pegol has been approved for several different conditions listed below:
- Symptomatic management of Chron's disease patients and for the maintenance of clinical response in patients with moderate to severe disease with inadequate response to conventional therapy.
- Treatment of adult patients with moderate to severely active rheumatoid arthritis.
- Treatment of adult patients with active psoriatic arthritis.
- Treatment of adult patients with active ankylosing spondylitis.
- Treatment of adult patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis that are candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy.[FDA label]
- Treatment of adult patients with active non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis with objective signs of inflammation.[L5819]
In Canada, certolizumab pegol is additionally approved in combination with [methotrexate] for the symptomatic treatment, including major clinical response, and for the reduction of joint damage in adult patients with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis.[L5825]
Inflammation is a biological response against a potential threat. This response can be normal but in certain conditions, the immune system can attack the body's normal cells or tissues which causes an abnormal inflammation.[L5840] TNF-alpha has been identified as a key regulator of the inflammatory response. The signaling cascades of this inflammatory mediator can produce a wide range of reactions including cell death, survival, differentiation, proliferation and migration.[A176660] |
|DB01142||Doxepin||Oral doxepin is approved for the following indications:
- Treatment of depression and/or anxiety.[A177163]
- Treatment of depression and/or anxiety associated with different conditions, including alcoholism, organic disease and manic-depressive disorders.[T249]
- Treatment of psychotic depressive disorders with associated anxiety.[T249]
- Treatment of involutional depression.[T249]
- Treatment of manic-depressive disorder.[T249]
- Treatment of insomnia characterized by difficulties with sleep maintenance.[A177163]
Topical doxepin is also approved for short-term (up to 8 days) management of moderate pruritus in adult patients with atopic dermatitis, pruritus or lichen simplex chronicus.[T249]
Off-label, doxepin is used topically for the management of neuropathic pain.[A177172]
Depression is a common medical illness that causes feelings of sadness and or loss of interest in prior enjoyable activities. This condition can lead to emotional and physical disturbances that can decrease the ability of a person to function in a regular environment.[L5980]
Anxiety is a normal reaction of the body towards a normal danger. When the anxious state is exacerbated or appears on situations without danger, it is defined as an anxiety disorder. This disorders can appear in different forms such as phobias, panic, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.[L5983]
Insomnia is a sleep disorder that directly affects the quality of life of the individual. It is characterized by the complication either to fall asleep or to stay asleep. This condition can be occasional or chronic.[L5986]
Pruritus is defined as an unpleasant skin reaction that provokes the urge to scratch. It can be localized or generalized and it can appear in an acute or chronic manner.[L5989]
Neuropathic pain occurs due to the damage or dysfunction of the peripheral or central nervous system rather than stimulation of the pain receptors.[L5992]|
|DB00945||Acetylsalicylic acid||**Pain, fever, and inflammation**
Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), in the regular tablet form (immediate-release), is indicated to relieve pain, fever, and inflammation associated with many conditions, including the flu, the common cold, neck and back pain, dysmenorrhea, headache, tooth pain, sprains, fractures, myositis, neuralgia, synovitis, arthritis, bursitis, burns, and various injuries. It is also used for symptomatic pain relief after surgical and dental procedures [FDA label].
The _extra strength_ formulation of acetylsalicylic acid is also indicated for the management migraine pain with photophobia (sensitivity to light) and phonophobia (sensitivity to sound)[FDA label].
ASA is also indicated for various other purposes, due to its ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. These include:
Reducing the risk of cardiovascular death in suspected cases of myocardial infarction (MI) [FDA label].
Reducing the risk of a first non-fatal myocardial infarction in patients, and for reducing the risk of morbidity and mortality in cases of unstable angina and in those who have had a prior myocardial infarction [FDA label].
For reducing the risk of transient ischemic attacks (TIA) and to prevent atherothrombotic cerebral infarction (in conjunction with other treatments) [FDA label].
For the prevention of thromboembolism after hip replacement surgery [FDA label].
For decreasing platelet to platelet adhesion following carotid endarterectomy, aiding in the prevention of transient ischemic attacks (TIA) [FDA label].
Used for patients undergoing hemodialysis with a silicone rubber arteriovenous cannula inserted to prevent thrombosis at the insertion site [FDA Label].
**Important note regarding use of the extended-release formulation [F4405]**
In the setting of acute myocardial infarction, or before percutaneous interventions, the extended-release form of acetylsalicylic acid should not be used. Use immediate-release formulations in scenarios requiring rapid onset of action [Label, F4405]. The extended-release form is taken to decrease the incidence of mortality and myocardial infarction (MI) for individuals diagnosed with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), including patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) or unstable angina or with chronic stable angina. Additionally, the extended-release form is used to decrease the risk of death and recurrent episodes of stroke in patients with a history of stroke or TIA [F4405].