Dandruff

Also known as: Cradle cap / Seborrhea capitis / Seborrhoea capitis / Seborrhoeic dermatitis capitis / Seborrheic dermatitis capitis

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB11082Coal tarCoal tar is a brown or black liquid of extremely high viscosity. Coal tar is among the by-products when coal is carbonized to make coke or gasified to make coal gas. Coal tars are complex and variable mixtures of phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heterocyclic compounds. It has been indicated for local relief of itching, dryness, and irritation caused by psoriasis, seborrhea and eczema.
DB11327DipyrithioneDipyrithione is a pyrithione derivate used as bactericide and fungicide. The drug was marketed under the name Crimanex in the form of shampoo for the treatment of dandruff, however it is no longer available on the manufacturer website (Drossa Pharm [L2611]. It is currently used as a pesticide [A32829]. Interestingly, dipyrithione has been studied and shown to have cytotoxic and potent broad-spectrum antitumor activity, which suggests a potential basis for an anticancer drug development [A32825]. Pyrithione derivatives, such as [DB06815] and sodium pyrithione, are widely used as cosmetic preservatives and as anti-dandruff agents in shampoos [A32825]. It may be combined with other ingredients, such as triclosan to serve as antifungal and antibacterial skin treatments [L2615]. Dandruff is a common scalp disease affecting >40% of the world's adult population, and may be caused by fungi such as _Malassezia globosa_ and _M. restricta_ [A32162].
DB01026KetoconazoleBroad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients. It is a racemate consisting of equimolar amounts of (2R,4S)- and (2S,4R)-ketoconazole with the chiral centers on the acetal ring.
DB06815PyrithionePyrithione zinc, or zinc pyrithione or zinc pyridinethione, is a coordination complex consisted of pyrithione ligands chelated to zinc (2+) ions via oxygen and sulfur centers. In the crystalline state, it exists as a centrosymmetric dimer. Due to its dynamic fungistatic and bacteriostatic properties, pyrithione zinc is used to treat dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. Dandruff is a common scalp disease affecting >40% of the world's adult population, and may be caused by fungi such as _Malassezia globosa_ and _M. restricta_ [A32162]. Pyrithione zinc is commonly found as an active ingredient in OTC antidandruff topical treatments such as shampoos. It mediates its action by increasing the cellular levels of copper, and damaging iron-sulfur clusters of proteins essential for fungal metabolism and growth [A27132]. Due to low solubility, pyrithione zinc released from the topical formulations is deposited and retained relatively well onto the target skin surfaces [A27133]. Other uses of pyrithione zinc include additive in antifouling outdoor paints and algaecide. While its use has been approved in the early 1960's by the FDA [A32163], safety and effectiveness of pyrithione zinc has been reported for decades. It is not shown to have any significant estrogenic activity according to the _in vivo_ and _in vitro_ assays [A32163].
DB00971Selenium SulfideSelenium Sulfide is an antifungal agent as well as a cytostatic agent, slowing the growth of hyperproliferative cells in seborrhea. Selenium Sulfide is the active ingredient often used in shampoos for the treatment of dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis and tinea capitis, a fungal infection that is primarily a disease of preadolescent children.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB11327DipyrithioneNitric oxide synthase, inducibletarget
DB11327DipyrithioneProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB01026KetoconazoleCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01026KetoconazoleCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01026KetoconazoleCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01026KetoconazoleCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB01026KetoconazoleCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01026KetoconazoleCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB01026KetoconazoleCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB01026KetoconazoleCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01026KetoconazoleCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB01026KetoconazoleBile salt export pumptransporter
DB01026KetoconazoleMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01026KetoconazoleSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB01026KetoconazoleCholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrialenzyme
DB01026KetoconazoleCytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrialenzyme
DB01026KetoconazoleCytochrome P450 1B1enzyme
DB01026KetoconazoleCytochrome P450 26A1enzyme
DB01026KetoconazoleCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB01026KetoconazoleCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01026KetoconazoleLanosterol 14-alpha demethylaseenzyme
DB01026KetoconazoleLanosterol 14-alpha demethylasetarget
DB01026KetoconazoleAndrogen receptortarget
DB01026Ketoconazole17-hydroxylasetarget
DB01026KetoconazoleSteroid 21-hydroxylasetarget
DB01026Ketoconazole11-hydroxylasetarget
DB01026KetoconazoleCytochrome P450 19A1target
DB01026KetoconazolePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2target
DB01026KetoconazoleNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DB01026KetoconazoleNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 3target
DB01026KetoconazoleUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB01026KetoconazoleUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB01026KetoconazoleSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB01026KetoconazoleCytochrome P450 4F12enzyme
DB01026KetoconazoleLeukotriene-B(4) omega-hydroxylase 1enzyme
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount