Dihydrofolate reductase

Details

Name
Dihydrofolate reductase
Synonyms
  • 1.5.1.3
Gene Name
DHFR
Organism
Humans
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0036993|Dihydrofolate reductase
MVGSLNCIVAVSQNMGIGKNGDLPWPPLRNEFRYFQRMTTTSSVEGKQNLVIMGKKTWFS
IPEKNRPLKGRINLVLSRELKEPPQGAHFLSRSLDDALKLTEQPELANKVDMVWIVGGSS
VYKEAMNHPGHLKLFVTRIMQDFESDTFFPEIDLEKYKLLPEYPGVLSDVQEEKGIKYKF
EVYEKND
Number of residues
187
Molecular Weight
21452.61
Theoretical pI
7.6
GO Classification
Functions
dihydrofolate reductase activity / drug binding / folic acid binding / methotrexate binding / mRNA binding / NADPH binding
Processes
axon regeneration / dihydrofolate metabolic process / folic acid metabolic process / G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle / glycine biosynthetic process / mitotic cell cycle / nitric oxide metabolic process / nucleotide biosynthetic process / one-carbon metabolic process / oxidation-reduction process / positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity / regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity / regulation of removal of superoxide radicals / regulation of transcription involved in G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle / response to methotrexate / small molecule metabolic process / tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthetic process / tetrahydrofolate biosynthetic process / tetrahydrofolate metabolic process / vitamin metabolic process / water-soluble vitamin metabolic process
Components
cytosol / nucleoplasm
General Function
Nadph binding
Specific Function
Key enzyme in folate metabolism. Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway. Catalyzes an essential reaction for de novo glycine and purine synthesis, and for DNA precursor synthesis. Binds its own mRNA and that of DHFRL1.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane Regions
Not Available
Cellular Location
Not Available
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0016067|Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)
ATGGTTGGTTCGCTAAACTGCATCGTCGCTGTGTCCCAGAACATGGGCATCGGCAAGAAC
GGGGACCTGCCCTGGCCACCGCTCAGGAATGAATTCAGATATTTCCAGAGAATGACCACA
ACCTCTTCAGTAGAAGGTAAACAGAATCTGGTGATTATGGGTAAGAAGACCTGGTTCTCC
ATTCCTGAGAAGAATCGACCTTTAAAGGGTAGAATTAATTTAGTTCTCAGCAGAGAACTC
AAGGAACCTCCACAAGGAGCTCATTTTCTTTCCAGAAGTCTAGATGATGCCTTAAAACTT
ACTGAACAACCAGAATTAGCAAATAAAGTAGACATGGTCTGGATAGTTGGTGGCAGTTCT
GTTTATAAGGAAGCCATGAATCACCCAGGCCATCTTAAACTATTTGTGACAAGGATCATG
CAAGACTTTGAAAGTGACACGTTTTTTCCAGAAATTGATTTGGAGAAATATAAACTTCTG
CCAGAATACCCAGGTGTTCTCTCTGATGTCCAGGAGGAGAAAGGCATTAAGTACAAATTT
GAAGTATATGAGAAGAATGATTAA
Chromosome Location
5
Locus
5q11.2-q13.2
External Identifiers
ResourceLink
UniProtKB IDP00374
UniProtKB Entry NameDYR_HUMAN
GenBank Protein ID182724
GenBank Gene IDJ00140
GenAtlas IDDHFR
HGNC IDHGNC:2861
General References
  1. Chen MJ, Shimada T, Moulton AD, Cline A, Humphries RK, Maizel J, Nienhuis AW: The functional human dihydrofolate reductase gene. J Biol Chem. 1984 Mar 25;259(6):3933-43. [PubMed:6323448]
  2. Masters JN, Attardi G: The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA coding for the human dihydrofolic acid reductase. Gene. 1983 Jan-Feb;21(1-2):59-63. [PubMed:6687716]
  3. Yang JK, Masters JN, Attardi G: Human dihydrofolate reductase gene organization. Extensive conservation of the G + C-rich 5' non-coding sequence and strong intron size divergence from homologous mammalian genes. J Mol Biol. 1984 Jun 25;176(2):169-87. [PubMed:6235374]
  4. Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T, Sugano S: Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. Nat Genet. 2004 Jan;36(1):40-5. Epub 2003 Dec 21. [PubMed:14702039]
  5. Schmutz J, Martin J, Terry A, Couronne O, Grimwood J, Lowry S, Gordon LA, Scott D, Xie G, Huang W, Hellsten U, Tran-Gyamfi M, She X, Prabhakar S, Aerts A, Altherr M, Bajorek E, Black S, Branscomb E, Caoile C, Challacombe JF, Chan YM, Denys M, Detter JC, Escobar J, Flowers D, Fotopulos D, Glavina T, Gomez M, Gonzales E, Goodstein D, Grigoriev I, Groza M, Hammon N, Hawkins T, Haydu L, Israni S, Jett J, Kadner K, Kimball H, Kobayashi A, Lopez F, Lou Y, Martinez D, Medina C, Morgan J, Nandkeshwar R, Noonan JP, Pitluck S, Pollard M, Predki P, Priest J, Ramirez L, Retterer J, Rodriguez A, Rogers S, Salamov A, Salazar A, Thayer N, Tice H, Tsai M, Ustaszewska A, Vo N, Wheeler J, Wu K, Yang J, Dickson M, Cheng JF, Eichler EE, Olsen A, Pennacchio LA, Rokhsar DS, Richardson P, Lucas SM, Myers RM, Rubin EM: The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 5. Nature. 2004 Sep 16;431(7006):268-74. [PubMed:15372022]
  6. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334]
  7. Banka S, Blom HJ, Walter J, Aziz M, Urquhart J, Clouthier CM, Rice GI, de Brouwer AP, Hilton E, Vassallo G, Will A, Smith DE, Smulders YM, Wevers RA, Steinfeld R, Heales S, Crow YJ, Pelletier JN, Jones S, Newman WG: Identification and characterization of an inborn error of metabolism caused by dihydrofolate reductase deficiency. Am J Hum Genet. 2011 Feb 11;88(2):216-25. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.01.004. [PubMed:21310276]
  8. Burkard TR, Planyavsky M, Kaupe I, Breitwieser FP, Burckstummer T, Bennett KL, Superti-Furga G, Colinge J: Initial characterization of the human central proteome. BMC Syst Biol. 2011 Jan 26;5:17. doi: 10.1186/1752-0509-5-17. [PubMed:21269460]
  9. McEntee G, Minguzzi S, O'Brien K, Ben Larbi N, Loscher C, O'Fagain C, Parle-McDermott A: The former annotated human pseudogene dihydrofolate reductase-like 1 (DHFRL1) is expressed and functional. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Sep 13;108(37):15157-62. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1103605108. Epub 2011 Aug 26. [PubMed:21876184]
  10. Anderson DD, Quintero CM, Stover PJ: Identification of a de novo thymidylate biosynthesis pathway in mammalian mitochondria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Sep 13;108(37):15163-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1103623108. Epub 2011 Aug 26. [PubMed:21876188]
  11. Oefner C, D'Arcy A, Winkler FK: Crystal structure of human dihydrofolate reductase complexed with folate. Eur J Biochem. 1988 Jun 1;174(2):377-85. [PubMed:3383852]
  12. Davies JF 2nd, Delcamp TJ, Prendergast NJ, Ashford VA, Freisheim JH, Kraut J: Crystal structures of recombinant human dihydrofolate reductase complexed with folate and 5-deazafolate. Biochemistry. 1990 Oct 9;29(40):9467-79. [PubMed:2248959]
  13. Stockman BJ, Nirmala NR, Wagner G, Delcamp TJ, DeYarman MT, Freisheim JH: Sequence-specific 1H and 15N resonance assignments for human dihydrofolate reductase in solution. Biochemistry. 1992 Jan 14;31(1):218-29. [PubMed:1731871]
  14. Lewis WS, Cody V, Galitsky N, Luft JR, Pangborn W, Chunduru SK, Spencer HT, Appleman JR, Blakley RL: Methotrexate-resistant variants of human dihydrofolate reductase with substitutions of leucine 22. Kinetics, crystallography, and potential as selectable markers. J Biol Chem. 1995 Mar 10;270(10):5057-64. [PubMed:7890613]
  15. Cody V, Galitsky N, Luft JR, Pangborn W, Rosowsky A, Blakley RL: Comparison of two independent crystal structures of human dihydrofolate reductase ternary complexes reduced with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and the very tight-binding inhibitor PT523. Biochemistry. 1997 Nov 11;36(45):13897-903. [PubMed:9374868]
  16. Gangjee A, Vidwans AP, Vasudevan A, Queener SF, Kisliuk RL, Cody V, Li R, Galitsky N, Luft JR, Pangborn W: Structure-based design and synthesis of lipophilic 2,4-diamino-6-substituted quinazolines and their evaluation as inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductases and potential antitumor agents. J Med Chem. 1998 Aug 27;41(18):3426-34. [PubMed:9719595]
  17. Klon AE, Heroux A, Ross LJ, Pathak V, Johnson CA, Piper JR, Borhani DW: Atomic structures of human dihydrofolate reductase complexed with NADPH and two lipophilic antifolates at 1.09 a and 1.05 a resolution. J Mol Biol. 2002 Jul 12;320(3):677-93. [PubMed:12096917]
  18. Cody V, Galitsky N, Luft JR, Pangborn W, Gangjee A: Analysis of two polymorphic forms of a pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine N9-C10 reversed-bridge antifolate binary complex with human dihydrofolate reductase. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2003 Apr;59(Pt 4):654-61. Epub 2003 Mar 25. [PubMed:12657784]
  19. Cody V, Luft JR, Pangborn W, Gangjee A: Analysis of three crystal structure determinations of a 5-methyl-6-N-methylanilino pyridopyrimidine antifolate complex with human dihydrofolate reductase. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2003 Sep;59(Pt 9):1603-9. Epub 2003 Aug 19. [PubMed:12925791]
  20. Cody V, Luft JR, Pangborn W, Gangjee A, Queener SF: Structure determination of tetrahydroquinazoline antifolates in complex with human and Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate reductase: correlations between enzyme selectivity and stereochemistry. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004 Apr;60(Pt 4):646-55. Epub 2004 Mar 23. [PubMed:15039552]
  21. Cody V, Luft JR, Pangborn W: Understanding the role of Leu22 variants in methotrexate resistance: comparison of wild-type and Leu22Arg variant mouse and human dihydrofolate reductase ternary crystal complexes with methotrexate and NADPH. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2005 Feb;61(Pt 2):147-55. Epub 2005 Jan 19. [PubMed:15681865]
  22. Kovalevskaya NV, Smurnyy YD, Polshakov VI, Birdsall B, Bradbury AF, Frenkiel T, Feeney J: Solution structure of human dihydrofolate reductase in its complex with trimethoprim and NADPH. J Biomol NMR. 2005 Sep;33(1):69-72. [PubMed:16222560]
  23. Reynolds RC, Campbell SR, Fairchild RG, Kisliuk RL, Micca PL, Queener SF, Riordan JM, Sedwick WD, Waud WR, Leung AK, Dixon RW, Suling WJ, Borhani DW: Novel boron-containing, nonclassical antifolates: synthesis and preliminary biological and structural evaluation. J Med Chem. 2007 Jul 12;50(14):3283-9. Epub 2007 Jun 15. [PubMed:17569517]
  24. Cody V, Pace J, Makin J, Piraino J, Queener SF, Rosowsky A: Correlations of inhibitor kinetics for Pneumocystis jirovecii and human dihydrofolate reductase with structural data for human active site mutant enzyme complexes. Biochemistry. 2009 Mar 3;48(8):1702-11. doi: 10.1021/bi801960h. [PubMed:19196009]
  25. Volpato JP, Yachnin BJ, Blanchet J, Guerrero V, Poulin L, Fossati E, Berghuis AM, Pelletier JN: Multiple conformers in active site of human dihydrofolate reductase F31R/Q35E double mutant suggest structural basis for methotrexate resistance. J Biol Chem. 2009 Jul 24;284(30):20079-89. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.018010. Epub 2009 May 28. [PubMed:19478082]
  26. Gangjee A, Li W, Kisliuk RL, Cody V, Pace J, Piraino J, Makin J: Design, synthesis, and X-ray crystal structure of classical and nonclassical 2-amino-4-oxo-5-substituted-6-ethylthieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines as dual thymidylate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors and as potential antitumor agents. J Med Chem. 2009 Aug 13;52(15):4892-902. doi: 10.1021/jm900490a. [PubMed:19719239]
  27. Cario H, Smith DE, Blom H, Blau N, Bode H, Holzmann K, Pannicke U, Hopfner KP, Rump EM, Ayric Z, Kohne E, Debatin KM, Smulders Y, Schwarz K: Dihydrofolate reductase deficiency due to a homozygous DHFR mutation causes megaloblastic anemia and cerebral folate deficiency leading to severe neurologic disease. Am J Hum Genet. 2011 Feb 11;88(2):226-31. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.01.007. [PubMed:21310277]

Drug Relations

Drug Relations
DrugBank IDNameDrug groupPharmacological action?ActionsDetails
DB00563MethotrexateapprovedyesinhibitorDetails
DB01157Trimetrexateapproved, investigationalyesinhibitorDetails
DB00157NADHapproved, nutraceuticalunknownDetails
DB00642Pemetrexedapproved, investigationalyesinhibitorDetails
DB00440Trimethoprimapproved, vet_approvednoinhibitorDetails
DB01131ProguanilapprovedyesinhibitorDetails
DB021042,4-Diamino-5-Methyl-6-[(3,4,5-Trimethoxy-N-Methylanilino)Methyl]Pyrido[2,3-D]PyrimidineexperimentalunknownDetails
DB025596-(Octahydro-1h-Indol-1-Ylmethyl)Decahydroquinazoline-2,4-DiamineexperimentalunknownDetails
DB02583N6-(2,5-Dimethoxy-Benzyl)-N6-Methyl-Pyrido[2,3-D]Pyrimidine-2,4,6-TriamineexperimentalunknownDetails
DB029192,4-Diamino-6-[N-(3',4',5'-Trimethoxybenzyl)-N-Methylamino]Pyrido[2,3-D]PyrimidineexperimentalunknownDetails
DB03060Sri-9662experimentalunknownDetails
DB03351Sri-9439experimentalunknownDetails
DB034612'-Monophosphoadenosine 5'-DiphosphoriboseexperimentalunknownDetails
DB03695PiritreximinvestigationalunknownDetails
DB00205Pyrimethamineapproved, investigational, vet_approvedyesinhibitorDetails
DB03886BiopterinexperimentalunknownDetails
DB06358IclapriminvestigationalunknownDetails
DB071405-[(3R)-3-(5-methoxybiphenyl-3-yl)but-1-yn-1-yl]-6-methylpyrimidine-2,4-diamineexperimentalunknownDetails
DB071415-[(3R)-3-(5-methoxy-4'-methylbiphenyl-3-yl)but-1-yn-1-yl]-6-methylpyrimidine-2,4-diamineexperimentalunknownDetails
DB071425-[(3R)-3-(5-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylbiphenyl-3-yl)but-1-yn-1-yl]-6-methylpyrimidine-2,4-diamineexperimentalunknownDetails
DB071445-[(3R)-3-(5-methoxy-2',6'-dimethylbiphenyl-3-yl)but-1-yn-1-yl]-6-methylpyrimidine-2,4-diamineexperimentalunknownDetails
DB024272,4-Diamino-6-[N-(2',5'-Dimethoxybenzyl)-N-Methylamino]QuinazolineexperimentalunknownDetails
DB039872,4-Diamino-6-[N-(3',5'-Dimethoxybenzyl)-N-Methylamino]Pyrido[2,3-D]PyrimidineexperimentalunknownDetails
DB082345-[3-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)prop-1-yn-1-yl]-6-ethylpyrimidine-2,4-diamineexperimentalunknownDetails
DB08406[N-(2,4-DIAMINOPTERIDIN-6-YL)-METHYL]-DIBENZ[B,F]AZEPINEexperimentalunknownDetails
DB08448(4aS)-5-[(2,4-diaminopteridin-6-yl)methyl]-4a,5-dihydro-2H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-8-olexperimentalunknownDetails
DB08642(2R,6S)-6-{[methyl(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)amino]methyl}-1,2,5,6,7,8-hexahydroquinazoline-2,4-diamineexperimentalunknownDetails
DB031252,4-Diamino-5-(3,4,5-Trimethoxy-Benzyl)-Pyrimidin-1-IumexperimentalunknownDetails
DB00563MethotrexateapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB06813Pralatrexateapproved, investigationalyesinhibitorDetails
DB08878Aminopterininvestigational, withdrawnunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00798Gentamicinapproved, vet_approvedunknownDetails
DB00555Lamotrigineapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00158Folic acidapproved, nutraceutical, vet_approvednoDetails