Identification

Name
Folic Acid
Accession Number
DB00158  (NUTR00025)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet approved
Description

A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (poaceae). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • ácido fólico
  • Folacin
  • Folate
  • Folsäure
  • N-[(4-{[(2-amino-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}phenyl)carbonyl]-L-glutamic acid
  • N-pteroyl-L-glutamic acid
  • PGA
  • PteGlu
  • Pteroyl-L-glutamate
  • Pteroyl-L-glutamic acid
  • Pteroyl-L-monoglutamic acid
  • Pteroylglutamic acid
  • Vitamin B9
  • Vitamin Bc
  • Vitamin M
External IDs
NSC-3073
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Folate sodium9P9W8GGU786484-89-5SWIRFWUEJODNRG-CURYUGHLSA-L
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Sodium cationionicLYR4M0NH3717341-25-2FKNQFGJONOIPTF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Acide Folique 5 TabTablet5 mgOralPro Doc Limitee1982-12-312010-07-13Canada
Apo Folic Acid Tab 5mgTablet5 mgOralApotex Corporation1978-12-31Not applicableCanada
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralMutual Pharmaceutical2006-09-20Not applicableUs
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralApace Packaging2009-12-23Not applicableUs
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralWatson Labs2006-04-07Not applicableUs
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralWest Ward Pharmaceutical2007-05-28Not applicableUs
Folic Acid 0.4mgTablet0.4 mgOralLeiner Health ProductsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Folic Acid Inj 5mg/ml USPLiquid5 mgIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousLyphomed, Division Of Fujisawa Canada Inc.1993-12-311996-09-10Canada
Folic Acid InjectionSolution5 mgIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousFresenius Kabi1996-08-14Not applicableCanada
Folic Acid Injection USPLiquid5 mgIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousSandoz Canada Incorporated1990-12-31Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralA-S Medication Solutions2009-01-12Not applicableUs
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralSunrise Pharmaceutical, Inc.2015-08-04Not applicableUs
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralPD-Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2009-12-02Not applicableUs
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack2009-12-022018-05-29Us
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2011-08-102012-08-10Us
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1995-09-27Not applicableUs54868 231420180113 27003 1ohwb8x
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralSafecor Health, LLC2014-09-30Not applicableUs
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralNucare Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2009-01-12Not applicableUs
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2013-02-282016-11-14Us64125 0127 10 nlmimage10 a23b510a
Folic AcidTablet1 mg/1OralBicon Pharmaceutical Inc.2013-07-182015-05-31Us
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Folic AcidCapsule1 mgOralSisu Inc.1999-08-032006-07-31Canada
Folic Acid (1mg Tablet)Tablet1 mgOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1997-10-102002-07-31Canada
Folic Acid 0.4 Mg TabletTablet0.4 mgOralSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.1999-12-062007-07-31Canada
Folic Acid 0.4mgTablet0.4 mgOralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada
Folic Acid 0.4mg Dietary SupplementTablet0.4 mgOralGarden State Nutritionals1998-08-312000-06-07Canada
Folic Acid 0.8mgTablet0.8 mgOralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada
Folic Acid 1 mgTablet1 mgOralPreferred Nutrition Inc.2004-04-282005-08-04Canada
Folic Acid 1 Mg - TabletTablet1 mgOralHealth Wise Nutrition Inc.1996-10-222002-07-18Canada
Folic Acid 1mgTablet1.0 mgOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2002-04-152006-08-08Canada
Folic Acid 1mgTablet1 mgOralJamieson Laboratories Ltd1994-12-311997-08-13Canada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
24 Multivitamins + MineralsFolic Acid (.8 mg) + Ascorbic acid (150 mg) + Beta carotene (10000 unit) + Biotin (25 mcg) + Calcium (130 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Choline bitartrate (25 mg) + Chromium (20 mcg) + Copper (1 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Ferrous fumarate (15 mg) + Inositol (25 mg) + Magnesium (65 mg) + Manganese (2 mg) + Molybdenum (20 mcg) + Niacin (25 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (25 mg) + Potassium (15 mg) + Potassium Iodide (.1 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Racemethionine (25 mg) + Riboflavin (25 mg) + Selenium (20 mcg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Vanadium (20 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (5000 unit) + Vitamin E (50 unit) + Zinc (10 mg)TabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1997-04-302002-07-31Canada
50 PlusFolic Acid (.2 mg) + Ascorbic acid (200 mg) + Biotin (20 mcg) + Choline bitartrate (20 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (20 mcg) + Inositol (20 mg) + Niacin (20 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (20 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg) + Racemethionine (20 mg) + Riboflavin (20 mg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (20 mg) + Vitamin A palmitate (10000 unit) + Vitamin D (400 unit) + Vitamin E (20 unit)TabletOralQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products1998-08-042001-07-06Canada
50 Plus Multiple Vitamins & MineralsFolic Acid (0.4 mg) + Ascorbic acid (90 mg) + Biotin (45 mcg) + Calcium (200 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Chromium (10 mcg) + Copper (2 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Magnesium (100 mg) + Manganese (5 mg) + Molybdenum (25 mcg) + Nicotinamide (40 mg) + Pantothenic acid (10 mg) + Potassium Iodide (0.15 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (3 mg) + Riboflavin (3.2 mg) + Selenium (25 mcg) + Thiamine mononitrate (2.25 mg) + Vanadium (10 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (6000 unit) + Zinc (15 mg)TabletOralGfr Pharma Ltd.2002-10-202004-06-15Canada
A.R.T.H. Away FormulaFolic Acid (0.025 mg) + Calcium (24 mg) + Cholecalciferol (45 unit) + Copper (0.232 mg) + Manganese (0.58 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (0.5 mg) + Selenium (1.54 mcg) + Zinc (0.63 mg)CapsuleOralAbundance Marketing Ltd.1999-02-012006-06-16Canada
A/o-26 - CapletFolic Acid (.4 mg) + Beta carotene (7500 unit) + Calcium (75 mg) + Calcium ascorbate (250 mg) + Copper (1 mg) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (100 unit) + Manganese (2.5 mg) + Racemethionine (50 mg) + Selenium (100 mcg) + Zinc (7.5 mg)TabletOralEnviro Tech International Canada1996-12-191999-07-26Canada
Acti-folic + Dibencozide CapletsFolic Acid (1 mg) + Cobamamide (40 mcg)TabletOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada
Adult Infuvite Multiple VitaminsFolic Acid (600 ug/10mL) + Ascorbic acid (200 mg/10mL) + Biotin (60 ug/10mL) + Cholecalciferol (200 [iU]/10mL) + Cyanocobalamin (5 ug/10mL) + Dexpanthenol (15 mg/10mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (3.6 mg/10mL) + Nicotinamide (40 mg/10mL) + Phylloquinone (150 ug/10mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Thiamine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (3300 [iU]/10mL) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (10 [iU]/10mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousSandoz2003-06-16Not applicableUs
Adult Infuvite Multiple VitaminsFolic Acid (600 ug/10mL) + Ascorbic acid (200 mg/10mL) + Biotin (60 ug/10mL) + Cholecalciferol (200 [iU]/10mL) + Cyanocobalamin (5 ug/10mL) + Dexpanthenol (15 mg/10mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (3.6 mg/10mL) + Nicotinamide (40 mg/10mL) + Phylloquinone (150 ug/10mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Thiamine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (3300 [iU]/10mL) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (10 [iU]/10mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousSandoz2005-05-18Not applicableUs
Adult Infuvite Multiple VitaminsFolic Acid (600 ug/10mL) + Ascorbic acid (200 mg/10mL) + Biotin (60 ug/10mL) + Cholecalciferol (200 [iU]/10mL) + Cyanocobalamin (5 ug/10mL) + Dexpanthenol (15 mg/10mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (3.6 mg/10mL) + Nicotinamide (40 mg/10mL) + Phylloquinone (150 ug/10mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Thiamine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (3300 [iU]/10mL) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (10 [iU]/10mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousSandoz2003-06-16Not applicableUs
Adult Infuvite Multiple VitaminsFolic Acid (600 ug/10mL) + Ascorbic acid (200 mg/10mL) + Biotin (60 ug/10mL) + Cholecalciferol (200 [iU]/10mL) + Cyanocobalamin (5 ug/10mL) + Dexpanthenol (15 mg/10mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (3.6 mg/10mL) + Nicotinamide (40 mg/10mL) + Phylloquinone (150 ug/10mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Thiamine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (3300 [iU]/10mL) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (10 [iU]/10mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousSandoz2005-05-18Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Active FEFolic Acid (1250 ug/1) + Ascorbic acid (160 mg/1) + Beta carotene (2100 [iU]/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (30 ug/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (40 [iU]/1) + Iron (75 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (30 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Thiamine hydrochloride (4 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (20 mg/1)TabletOralGm Pharmaceuticals2013-11-11Not applicableUs
Active OBFolic Acid (1 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (30 ug/1) + D-alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (320 mg/1) + Iron (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (2 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (30 mg/1)Capsule, liquid filledOralGm Pharmaceuticals2013-10-282017-03-31Us
Animi-3Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (1000 [iU]/1) + Cyanocobalamin (500 ug/1) + Doconexent (250 mg/1) + Icosapent (35 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (500 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (12.5 mg/1) + Soy sterol (200 mg/1)CapsuleOralPbm Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-06-01Not applicableUs
Animi-3 with Vitamin DFolic Acid (1 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (1000 [iU]/1) + Cyanocobalamin (500 ug/1) + Doconexent (250 mg/1) + Icosapent (35 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (500 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (12.5 mg/1) + Soy sterol (200 mg/1)CapsuleOralPbm Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-06-01Not applicableUs
Av-VITE FBFolic Acid (2.5 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (1 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1)TabletOralAv Kare, Inc.2015-11-052016-01-13Us
B-NexaFolic Acid (1.22 mg/1) + Calcium (124.23 mg/1) + Ginger (100 mg/1) + Pyridoxine (42 mg/1)TabletOralUpsher Smith Laboratories2012-08-152015-04-30Us
B-NexaFolic Acid (1.2 mg/1) + Calcium (124.1 mg/1) + Ginger (100 mg/1) + Pyridoxine (40 mg/1)TabletOralUpsher Smith Laboratories2011-12-082014-02-28Us
BacminFolic Acid (1 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (500 mg/1) + Biotin (150 ug/1) + Chromium Cr-51 chloride (0.1 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (3 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (50 ug/1) + Ferrous fumarate (27 mg/1) + Flavone (50 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (50 mg/1) + Manganese gluconate (5 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (100 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (25 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Riboflavin (20 mg/1) + Selenomethionine (50 ug/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (20 mg/1) + Vitamin A acetate (2000 [iU]/1) + Zinc oxide (22.5 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1)Tablet, coatedOralMarnel Pharmaceuticals, Llc2000-04-01Not applicableUs
Bal-Care DHAFolic Acid (1 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Beta carotene (2850 [iU]/1) + Calcium Carbonate (219 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (840 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (.012 mg/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (3 mg/1) + Iodine (.223 mg/1) + Iron saccharate (1.35 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (430 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Sodium feredetate (25.65 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.8 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)KitPru Gen Pharmaceuticals2012-05-01Not applicableUs
Bal-Care DHA EssentialFolic Acid (1 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Beta carotene (2850 [iU]/1) + Calcium Carbonate (219 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (840 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (.012 mg/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (3 mg/1) + Iodine (.223 mg/1) + Iron saccharate (1.35 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (374 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Sodium feredetate (25.65 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.8 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)KitPru Gen Pharmaceuticals2012-05-01Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Acfol (Cazi) / Fefol (GlaxoSmithKline)
Categories
UNII
935E97BOY8
CAS number
59-30-3
Weight
Average: 441.3975
Monoisotopic: 441.139681375
Chemical Formula
C19H19N7O6
InChI Key
OVBPIULPVIDEAO-LBPRGKRZSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H19N7O6/c20-19-25-15-14(17(30)26-19)23-11(8-22-15)7-21-10-3-1-9(2-4-10)16(29)24-12(18(31)32)5-6-13(27)28/h1-4,8,12,21H,5-7H2,(H,24,29)(H,27,28)(H,31,32)(H3,20,22,25,26,30)/t12-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-[(4-{[(2-amino-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}phenyl)formamido]pentanedioic acid
SMILES
NC1=NC(=O)C2=NC(CNC3=CC=C(C=C3)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(O)=O)C(O)=O)=CN=C2N1

Pharmacology

Indication

For treatment of folic acid deficiency, megaloblastic anemia and in anemias of nutritional supplements, pregnancy, infancy, or childhood.

Pharmacodynamics

Folic acid, a water-soluble B-complex vitamin, is found in foods such as liver, kidneys, yeast, and leafy, green vegetables. Folic acid is used to diagnose folate deficiency and to treat topical sprue and megaloblastic and macrocytic anemias, hematologic complications resulting from a deficiency in folic acid.

Mechanism of action

Folic acid, as it is biochemically inactive, is converted to tetrahydrofolic acid and methyltetrahydrofolate by dihydrofolate reductase. These folic acid congeners are transported across cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis where they are needed to maintain normal erythropoiesis, synthesize purine and thymidylate nucleic acids, interconvert amino acids, methylate tRNA, and generate and use formate. Using vitamin B12 as a cofactor, folic acid can normalize high homocysteine levels by remethylation of homocysteine to methionine via methionine synthetase.

TargetActionsOrganism
UFolate receptor beta
binder
Human
UFolate receptor gamma
binder
Human
UFolate receptor alphaNot AvailableHuman
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

Very high to plasma protein

Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of elimination

Folic Acid is metabolized in the liver to 7, 8-dihydrofolic acid and eventually to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid with the aid of reduced diphosphopyridine nucleotide (DPNH) and folate reductases. A majority of the metabolic products appeared in the urine after 6 hours; excretion was generally complete within 24 hours. Folic Acid is also excreted in the milk of lactating mothers.

Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

IPR-MUS LD50 85 mg/kg,IVN-GPG LD50 120 mg/kg, IVN-MUS LD50 239 mg/kg, IVN-RAT LD50 500 mg/kg, IVN-RBT LD50 410 mg/kg

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Methotrexate Action PathwayDrug action
One Carbon Pool by Folate IMetabolic
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency (MTHFRD)Disease
Folate MetabolismMetabolic
One Carbon Pool by Folate I Metabolic
Folate Malabsorption, HereditaryDisease
Folate MetabolismMetabolic
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
AbacavirFolic Acid may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
AbemaciclibAbemaciclib may decrease the excretion rate of Folic Acid which could result in a higher serum level.
AcarboseFolic Acid may decrease the excretion rate of Acarbose which could result in a higher serum level.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Folic Acid which could result in a higher serum level.
AcemetacinAcemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Folic Acid which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetaminophenFolic Acid may decrease the excretion rate of Acetaminophen which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetazolamide is combined with Folic Acid.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Folic Acid which could result in a higher serum level.
AclidiniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Folic Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Aclidinium.
AcrivastineFolic Acid may decrease the excretion rate of Acrivastine which could result in a higher serum level.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Carroll G. Temple, Jr., Robert D. Elliott, Jerry D. Rose, John A. Montgomery, "Preparation of tetrahydrofolic acid from folic acid." U.S. Patent US4206307, issued April, 1956.

US4206307
General References
  1. Kamen B: Folate and antifolate pharmacology. Semin Oncol. 1997 Oct;24(5 Suppl 18):S18-30-S18-39. [PubMed:9420019]
  2. Fenech M, Aitken C, Rinaldi J: Folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine status and DNA damage in young Australian adults. Carcinogenesis. 1998 Jul;19(7):1163-71. [PubMed:9683174]
  3. Zittoun J: [Anemias due to disorder of folate, vitamin B12 and transcobalamin metabolism]. Rev Prat. 1993 Jun 1;43(11):1358-63. [PubMed:8235383]
  4. Alaimo K, McDowell MA, Briefel RR, Bischof AM, Caughman CR, Loria CM, Johnson CL: Dietary intake of vitamins, minerals, and fiber of persons ages 2 months and over in the United States: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Phase 1, 1988-91. Adv Data. 1994 Nov 14;(258):1-28. [PubMed:10138938]
  5. Raiten DJ, Fisher KD: Assessment of folate methodology used in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994). J Nutr. 1995 May;125(5):1371S-1398S. [PubMed:7738698]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0000121
KEGG Drug
D00070
KEGG Compound
C00504
PubChem Compound
6037
PubChem Substance
46508092
ChemSpider
5815
BindingDB
50367343
ChEBI
27470
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1622
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001309
PharmGKB
PA449692
HET
FOL
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Folic_Acid
ATC Codes
B03AE01 — Iron, vitamin b12 and folic acidB03AE02 — Iron, multivitamins and folic acidB03BB51 — Folic acid, combinationsB03BB01 — Folic acid
AHFS Codes
  • 88:08.00 — Vitamin B Complex
PDB Entries
1cd2 / 1dhf / 1drf / 1dyi / 1pj6 / 1qzf / 1ra2 / 1ra8 / 1rb2 / 1rd7
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MSDS
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceCancer of the Ovary1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) / Cancer of the Ovary / Non Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC) / Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) / Tumors, Solid1
1CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Infection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I / Mycobacterium avium complex infection1
1CompletedDiagnosticHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedOtherHeart Rate / Heart Rate Variability / Inflammatory Reaction1
1CompletedPreventionHealthy Volunteers / Pharmacokinetics1
1CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Infection(HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)1
1CompletedPreventionRecurrent Neural Tube Defects1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentMalignancies / Metastases1
1CompletedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis2
1RecruitingDiagnosticMetastatic Cancer Lung / Ovarian Cancer Metastatic1
1RecruitingTreatmentLeptomeningeal Metastases1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentCancer of the Ovary / Fallopian Tube Cancer / Malignant Peritoneal Neoplasm1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCecal Neoplasms / Metastases to peritoneum / Neoplasms, Colorectal / Peritoneal Carcinomatosis1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentPostpartum Anemia1
1, 2SuspendedTreatmentSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentPsoriasis1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancers / Neoplasms Metastasis1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMetastatic Colorectal Cancers1
2CompletedPreventionAdenoma benign / Colorectal Polyps / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon1
2CompletedPreventionDepression / Depressive Disorders1
2CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Arsenic Poisoning1
2CompletedTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma1
2CompletedTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
2CompletedTreatmentLupus / Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)1
2CompletedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis7
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
2RecruitingPreventionRefractory Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma Unspecified / Relapsed Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma1
2RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
2RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Kidney Diseases1
2RecruitingTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
2TerminatedTreatmentInfertilities1
2TerminatedTreatmentRectal Neoplasms1
2Unknown StatusPreventionArsenic Poisoning / Toxic Effect of Arsenic and Its Compounds1
2Unknown StatusPreventionCoronary Artery Disease1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentAfter Resection of Liver Metastases / Colorectal Cancers / KRAS Wildtype1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentAnemias1
2WithdrawnTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
2, 3CompletedPreventionAdenoma benign / Colorectal Cancers / Polyps1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / The Mortality Rate1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Nephropathies1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionNeoplasms, Colorectal1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentMyocardial Infarction, Anterior Wall / Myocardial Remodeling, Ventricular1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
3CompletedPreventionCleft Lip / Cleft Palates1
3CompletedPreventionComplications, Pregnancy / Preeclampsia1
3CompletedPreventionGingival Overgrowth1
3CompletedPreventionPlasmodium Infections1
3CompletedTreatmentActive Rheumatoid Arthritis1
3CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
3CompletedTreatmentAnemias1
3CompletedTreatmentContraception1
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB)1
3CompletedTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
3CompletedTreatmentMale Infertility1
3CompletedTreatmentMycobacterium Tuberculosis1
3CompletedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis5
3CompletedTreatmentSystemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)1
3RecruitingTreatmentBladder Cancers / Transitional Cell Carcinoma / Ureteral Cancer1
3TerminatedPreventionBlood Loss / Pregnancy termination therapy1
3Unknown StatusNot AvailableAnemias / Low Birth Weight / Neonatal Mortality1
3Unknown StatusPreventionCongenital Malformations1
3Unknown StatusPreventionEpilepsies1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Down Syndrome (DS)1
3WithdrawnTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4Active Not RecruitingBasic SciencePsoriasis1
4CompletedNot AvailableMetabolic Syndromes1
4CompletedPreventionAnovulatory cycle / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) / Hemodialysis Treatment / Hyperhomocysteinaemia / Uremia1
4CompletedPreventionPostpartum Haemorrhage (PPH)1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Hyperhomocysteinaemia1
4CompletedTreatmentDepression1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain (DPN)1
4CompletedTreatmentHyperemesis Gravidarum / Morning Sickness / Nausea / Pregnancy / Vomiting1
4CompletedTreatmentHyperpigmentation1
4CompletedTreatmentNegative Symptoms / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentPregnancy1
4CompletedTreatmentRecurrent Miscarriages1
4CompletedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis2
4CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentUnipolar Depression1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFaltering Growth / Primary Malnurtrition1
4RecruitingPreventionKidney Diseases / Urologic Diseases1
4RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4RecruitingTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
4TerminatedDiagnosticTransplantation, Kidney1
4TerminatedTreatmentAnemias1
4TerminatedTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified1
4TerminatedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentNonulcer Dyspepsia1
4WithdrawnTreatmentNephritis / Proteinuria / Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableAtherosclerosis / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Inflammatory Reaction1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnemias1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticCoronary Artery Disease / Major Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionNeural Tube Defects (NTDs)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionNeural Tube Defects - Spina Bifida and Anencephaly1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionSpina Bifida and Anencephaly1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiabetic Nephropathies / Hyperhomocysteinaemia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) / Hyperhomocysteinaemia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHyperandrogenism / Menstrual Pattern / Metabolic Features / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHyperhomocysteinaemia / Inflammatory Reaction / The Mortality Rate1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionPost Operative Cognitive Dysfunction1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentAbortion, Therapeutic / Pregnancy Trimester, Second1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAbnormal Uterine Bleeding Unrelated to Menstrual Cycle1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentFolic acid antagonist overdose1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionStrokes / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Ben venue laboratories inc
  • Wyeth pharmaceuticals inc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Cadista pharmaceuticals inc
  • Contract pharmacal corp
  • Everylife
  • Excellium pharmaceutical inc
  • Halsey drug co inc
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Invagen pharmaceuticals inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Lannett co inc
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Mk laboratories inc
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Nexgen pharma inc
  • Pharmax group inc
  • Pharmeral inc
  • Pioneer pharmaceuticals inc
  • Purepac pharmaceutical co
  • Sandoz inc
  • Tablicaps inc
  • Udl laboratories inc
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Valeant pharmaceuticals international
  • Vangard laboratories inc div midway medical co
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals inc
  • Watson laboratories
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • West ward pharmaceutical corp
  • Whiteworth towne paulsen inc
  • Mission pharmacal co
Packagers
  • Accucaps Industries Ltd.
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • Ajanta Pharma Ltd.
  • Amend
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Apace Packaging
  • Apotheca Inc.
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Avkare Incorporated
  • Avpak
  • Blu Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Breckenridge Pharmaceuticals
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Cadista Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Cardinal Health
  • Carlisle Laboratories Inc.
  • Chemins Co. Inc.
  • Comprehensive Consultant Services Inc.
  • Consolidated Midland Corp.
  • Contract Pharm
  • Coupler Enterprises Inc.
  • CVS Pharmacy
  • Cypress Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • DAVA Pharmaceuticals
  • Deca Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Dept Health Central Pharmacy
  • DHHS Program Support Center Supply Service Center
  • Direct Dispensing Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • ESI Lederle
  • Excellium Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • JLM Pharmatech
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Liberty Pharmaceuticals
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Merit Pharmaceuticals
  • Mission Pharmacal
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Nexgen Pharma Inc.
  • Nnodum Pharmaceutical Corporation
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • PCA LLC
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Pharmics Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Prepackage Specialists
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Qualitest
  • Re Por Laboratories
  • Remedy Repack
  • Richmond Pharmacy
  • Rising Pharmaceuticals
  • Rugby Laboratories
  • Sandhills Packaging Inc.
  • Savage Labs
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Tya Pharmaceuticals
  • UDL Laboratories
  • US Pharmaceutical Corp.
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
  • Walgreen Co.
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
  • West-Ward Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral5 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral
SolutionOral
Granule, effervescentOral
Capsule, liquid filledOral
Tablet, effervescentOral
Capsule, delayed release pelletsOral
PowderOral
KitOral
LiquidOral
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous5 mg/1mL
TabletOral1 mg/1
TabletOral0.4 mg
TabletOral1 mg
TabletOral1.0 mg
TabletOral.4 mg
TabletOral.8 mg
CapsuleOral1 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral800 mcg
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous5 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous5 mg
TabletOral25 mg
TabletOral0.8 mg
Tablet, coatedOral
Solution / dropsOral
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntravenous
TabletOral
Tablet, chewableOral
LiquidIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral
Kit100 mg/1
Injection, solutionIntravenous
Tablet, film coatedOral
PillOral
WaferOral
Powder, for solutionOral
LozengeOral
Capsule, extended releaseOral
CapsuleOral
Kit
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Folic acid 5 mg/ml vial2.14USD ml
Folic Acid 5 mg/ml2.04USD ml
Folic acid powder1.68USD g
Folvite 5 mg/ml vial1.38USD ml
Folic Acid 1 mg tablet0.15USD tablet
Folic acid 400 mcg tablet0.07USD tablet
Apo-Folic 5 mg Tablet0.04USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy folic acid 800 mcg tablet0.02USD tablet
Folic acid 0.4 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
Folic acid 0.8 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)250 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility1.6 mg/L (at 25 °C)MERCK INDEX (1983)
logP-2.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0761 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.04ALOGPS
logP-0.68ChemAxon
logS-3.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.37ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.09ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count12ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area208.99 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity111.01 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability42.06 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.7956
Blood Brain Barrier+0.7609
Caco-2 permeable-0.844
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.687
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9795
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9969
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.876
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8276
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7947
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6212
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9281
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9435
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.916
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9075
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.974
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8724
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9521
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9191
Rat acute toxicity2.4490 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9529
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8444
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0006-9410000000-7cba521e870757539424
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0000900000-4208ea3c2f5d9026c19f
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0050900000-2c8ad037dc3b270765c4
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0007-0090300000-ebdec84cbb7fe5afbc0b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0007-0903600000-e5d91e4f2ab79d130b76
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0007-0903600000-e5d91e4f2ab79d130b76
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-002b-0960000000-108d96993dc78f1e4b61
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glutamic acid and derivatives. These are compounds containing glutamic acid or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of glutamic acid at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Glutamic acid and derivatives
Alternative Parents
N-acyl-alpha amino acids / Hippuric acids / Pterins and derivatives / Aminobenzamides / Phenylalkylamines / Aniline and substituted anilines / Benzoyl derivatives / Secondary alkylarylamines / Hydroxypyrimidines / Pyrazines
show 10 more
Substituents
Glutamic acid or derivatives / N-acyl-alpha-amino acid / N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives / Hippuric acid / Hippuric acid or derivatives / Pterin / Aminobenzamide / Aminobenzoic acid or derivatives / Pteridine / Benzamide
show 30 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
N-acyl-amino acid, folic acids (CHEBI:27470) / Water-soluble vitamins (C00504)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Methotrexate binding
Specific Function
Binds to folate and reduced folic acid derivatives and mediates delivery of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and folate analogs into the interior of cells. Has high affinity for folate and folic acid analo...
Gene Name
FOLR2
Uniprot ID
P14207
Uniprot Name
Folate receptor beta
Molecular Weight
29279.31 Da
References
  1. Dixit V, Van den Bossche J, Sherman DM, Thompson DH, Andres RP: Synthesis and grafting of thioctic acid-PEG-folate conjugates onto Au nanoparticles for selective targeting of folate receptor-positive tumor cells. Bioconjug Chem. 2006 May-Jun;17(3):603-9. [PubMed:16704197]
  2. Wlodarczyk BJ, Cabrera RM, Hill DS, Bozinov D, Zhu H, Finnell RH: Arsenic-induced gene expression changes in the neural tube of folate transport defective mouse embryos. Neurotoxicology. 2006 Jul;27(4):547-57. Epub 2006 Apr 18. [PubMed:16620997]
  3. Boyles AL, Billups AV, Deak KL, Siegel DG, Mehltretter L, Slifer SH, Bassuk AG, Kessler JA, Reed MC, Nijhout HF, George TM, Enterline DS, Gilbert JR, Speer MC: Neural tube defects and folate pathway genes: family-based association tests of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Oct;114(10):1547-52. [PubMed:17035141]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Folic acid binding
Specific Function
Binds to folate and reduced folic acid derivatives and mediates delivery of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to the interior of cells. Isoform Short does not bind folate.
Gene Name
FOLR3
Uniprot ID
P41439
Uniprot Name
Folate receptor gamma
Molecular Weight
27638.0 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Shen F, Ross JF, Wang X, Ratnam M: Identification of a novel folate receptor, a truncated receptor, and receptor type beta in hematopoietic cells: cDNA cloning, expression, immunoreactivity, and tissue specificity. Biochemistry. 1994 Feb 8;33(5):1209-15. [PubMed:8110752]
  4. Shen F, Wu M, Ross JF, Miller D, Ratnam M: Folate receptor type gamma is primarily a secretory protein due to lack of an efficient signal for glycosylphosphatidylinositol modification: protein characterization and cell type specificity. Biochemistry. 1995 Apr 25;34(16):5660-5. [PubMed:7727426]
  5. Prasad PD, Ramamoorthy S, Moe AJ, Smith CH, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: Selective expression of the high-affinity isoform of the folate receptor (FR-alpha) in the human placental syncytiotrophoblast and choriocarcinoma cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Aug 11;1223(1):71-5. [PubMed:8061055]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Receptor activity
Specific Function
Binds to folate and reduced folic acid derivatives and mediates delivery of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and folate analogs into the interior of cells. Has high affinity for folate and folic acid analo...
Gene Name
FOLR1
Uniprot ID
P15328
Uniprot Name
Folate receptor alpha
Molecular Weight
29818.94 Da
References
  1. Wang L, Desmoulin SK, Cherian C, Polin L, White K, Kushner J, Fulterer A, Chang MH, Mitchell-Ryan S, Stout M, Romero MF, Hou Z, Matherly LH, Gangjee A: Synthesis, biological, and antitumor activity of a highly potent 6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine thienoyl antifolate inhibitor with proton-coupled folate transporter and folate receptor selectivity over the reduced folate carrier that inhibits beta-glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase. J Med Chem. 2011 Oct 27;54(20):7150-64. doi: 10.1021/jm200739e. Epub 2011 Sep 22. [PubMed:21879757]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID
P05181
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Omega peptidase activity
Specific Function
Hydrolyzes the polyglutamate sidechains of pteroylpolyglutamates. Progressively removes gamma-glutamyl residues from pteroylpoly-gamma-glutamate to yield pteroyl-alpha-glutamate (folic acid) and fr...
Gene Name
GGH
Uniprot ID
Q92820
Uniprot Name
Gamma-glutamyl hydrolase
Molecular Weight
35964.045 Da
References
  1. Schneider E, Ryan TJ: Gamma-glutamyl hydrolase and drug resistance. Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Dec;374(1-2):25-32. Epub 2006 Jun 10. [PubMed:16859665]
  2. Eisele LE, Chave KJ, Lehning AC, Ryan TJ: Characterization of Human gamma-glutamyl hydrolase in solution demonstrates that the enzyme is a non-dissociating homodimer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Sep;1764(9):1479-86. Epub 2006 Jul 12. [PubMed:16945597]
  3. Chen L, Eitenmiller RR: Optimization of the trienzyme extraction for the microbiological assay of folate in vegetables. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 May 16;55(10):3884-8. Epub 2007 Apr 17. [PubMed:17439143]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Protein complex binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a co-substrate for homocysteine remethylation to methionine.
Gene Name
MTHFR
Uniprot ID
P42898
Uniprot Name
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase
Molecular Weight
74595.895 Da
References
  1. West AA, Caudill MA: Genetic variation: impact on folate (and choline) bioefficacy. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2010 Oct;80(4-5):319-29. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000040. [PubMed:21462116]
  2. Kim YI: Role of the MTHFR polymorphisms in cancer risk modification and treatment. Future Oncol. 2009 May;5(4):523-42. doi: 10.2217/fon.09.26. [PubMed:19450180]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Christensen U, Holm J, Hansen SI: Stopped-flow kinetic studies of the interaction of bovine folate binding protein (FBP) and folate. Biosci Rep. 2006 Aug;26(4):291-9. [PubMed:17029005]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
May act as an inducible transporter in the biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Acts as an alternative route for the export of bile acids and glucuronides from cholestatic hepatocyte...
Gene Name
ABCC3
Uniprot ID
O15438
Uniprot Name
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2
Molecular Weight
169341.14 Da
References
  1. Zeng H, Chen ZS, Belinsky MG, Rea PA, Kruh GD: Transport of methotrexate (MTX) and folates by multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 3 and MRP1: effect of polyglutamylation on MTX transport. Cancer Res. 2001 Oct 1;61(19):7225-32. [PubMed:11585759]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Purine nucleotide transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Participates in physiological processes involving bile acids, conjugated steroids and cyclic nucleotides. Enhances the cellular extrusion of cAMP and cGMP. Stimulates the ATP-dependent uptake of a ...
Gene Name
ABCC11
Uniprot ID
Q96J66
Uniprot Name
ATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 11
Molecular Weight
154299.625 Da
References
  1. Chen ZS, Guo Y, Belinsky MG, Kotova E, Kruh GD: Transport of bile acids, sulfated steroids, estradiol 17-beta-D-glucuronide, and leukotriene C4 by human multidrug resistance protein 8 (ABCC11). Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Feb;67(2):545-57. Epub 2004 Nov 10. [PubMed:15537867]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one ...
Gene Name
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID
Q4U2R8
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 6
Molecular Weight
61815.78 Da
References
  1. Kuze K, Graves P, Leahy A, Wilson P, Stuhlmann H, You G: Heterologous expression and functional characterization of a mouse renal organic anion transporter in mammalian cells. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jan 15;274(3):1519-24. [PubMed:9880528]
  2. Uwai Y, Okuda M, Takami K, Hashimoto Y, Inui K: Functional characterization of the rat multispecific organic anion transporter OAT1 mediating basolateral uptake of anionic drugs in the kidney. FEBS Lett. 1998 Nov 6;438(3):321-4. [PubMed:9827570]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function
May be an organic anion pump relevant to cellular detoxification.
Gene Name
ABCC4
Uniprot ID
O15439
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4
Molecular Weight
149525.33 Da
References
  1. Chen ZS, Lee K, Walther S, Raftogianis RB, Kuwano M, Zeng H, Kruh GD: Analysis of methotrexate and folate transport by multidrug resistance protein 4 (ABCC4): MRP4 is a component of the methotrexate efflux system. Cancer Res. 2002 Jun 1;62(11):3144-50. [PubMed:12036927]
  2. Rius M, Nies AT, Hummel-Eisenbeiss J, Jedlitschky G, Keppler D: Cotransport of reduced glutathione with bile salts by MRP4 (ABCC4) localized to the basolateral hepatocyte membrane. Hepatology. 2003 Aug;38(2):374-84. [PubMed:12883481]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both fro...
Gene Name
ABCG2
Uniprot ID
Q9UNQ0
Uniprot Name
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2
Molecular Weight
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Chen ZS, Robey RW, Belinsky MG, Shchaveleva I, Ren XQ, Sugimoto Y, Ross DD, Bates SE, Kruh GD: Transport of methotrexate, methotrexate polyglutamates, and 17beta-estradiol 17-(beta-D-glucuronide) by ABCG2: effects of acquired mutations at R482 on methotrexate transport. Cancer Res. 2003 Jul 15;63(14):4048-54. [PubMed:12874005]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Methotrexate transporter activity
Specific Function
Has been shown to act both as an intestinal proton-coupled high-affinity folate transporter and as an intestinal heme transporter which mediates heme uptake from the gut lumen into duodenal epithel...
Gene Name
SLC46A1
Uniprot ID
Q96NT5
Uniprot Name
Proton-coupled folate transporter
Molecular Weight
49770.04 Da
References
  1. Nakai Y, Inoue K, Abe N, Hatakeyama M, Ohta KY, Otagiri M, Hayashi Y, Yuasa H: Functional characterization of human proton-coupled folate transporter/heme carrier protein 1 heterologously expressed in mammalian cells as a folate transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Aug;322(2):469-76. Epub 2007 May 2. [PubMed:17475902]
  2. Ashokkumar B, Mohammed ZM, Vaziri ND, Said HM: Effect of folate oversupplementation on folate uptake by human intestinal and renal epithelial cells. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul;86(1):159-66. [PubMed:17616776]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Folic acid transporter activity
Specific Function
Transports folate across the inner membranes of mitochondria.
Gene Name
SLC25A32
Uniprot ID
Q9H2D1
Uniprot Name
Mitochondrial folate transporter/carrier
Molecular Weight
35406.83 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 14, 2018 12:39