Identification

Name
Lamotrigine
Accession Number
DB00555  (APRD00570)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug belonging in the phenyltriazine class used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. For epilepsy it is used to treat partial seizures, primary and secondary tonic-clonic seizures, and seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Lamotrigine also acts as a mood stabilizer. It is the first medication since lithium granted Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the maintenance treatment of bipolar type I. In the US, lamotrigine is available as oral tablets under the market name Lamictal. Chemically unrelated to other anticonvulsants, lamotrigine has relatively few side-effects and does not require blood monitoring. While lamotrigine is primarily indicated for epilepsy and bipolar disorders, there is evidence that it could have some clinical efficacy in some neuropathic pain states. Lamotrigine is also used as an off-label drug in treating other neurologic and psychiatric pathologies like borderline personality disorder [6]. The exact mechanism of action of lamotrigine is not fully elucidated, as it may have multiple cellular actions that contribute to its broad clinical efficacy.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 3,5-Diamino-6-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,2,4-triazine
  • Lamotrigina
  • Lamotrigine
  • Lamotriginum
External IDs
BW 430 C / BW 430C / BW-430C / GW 273293
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
LamictalTablet100 mg/1OralGlaxosmithkline Inc1995-01-17Not applicableUs00173 0642 55 nlmimage10 c518e287
LamictalTablet25 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2011-02-16Not applicableUs54868 467320180907 15195 1qybger
LamictalTablet150 mgOralGlaxosmithkline Inc1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
LamictalTablet200 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2007-05-27Not applicableUs54868 491620180907 15195 1wqw7hd
LamictalTablet25 mgOralGlaxosmithkline Inc1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
LamictalTablet100 mg/1OralLake Erie Medical &Surgical Supply Dba Quality Care Products Llc2012-02-292014-12-31Us
LamictalTablet200 mg/1OralGlaxosmithkline Inc1995-01-18Not applicableUs00173 0644 60 nlmimage10 b218d956
LamictalTablet2 mgOralGlaxosmithkline Inc2001-09-13Not applicableCanada
LamictalTablet100 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2016-12-09Not applicableUs
LamictalTablet200 mg/1OralLake Erie Medical &Surgical Supply Dba Quality Care Products Llc2012-02-292017-06-01Us
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-lamotrigineTablet25 mgOralApotex Corporation2002-03-18Not applicableCanada
Apo-lamotrigineTablet100 mgOralApotex Corporation2002-03-18Not applicableCanada
Apo-lamotrigineTablet150 mgOralApotex Corporation2002-03-18Not applicableCanada
Auro-lamotrigineTablet100 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2012-06-13Not applicableCanada
Auro-lamotrigineTablet150 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2012-06-13Not applicableCanada
Auro-lamotrigineTablet25 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2012-06-13Not applicableCanada
Dom-lamotrigineTablet25 mgOralDominion PharmacalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Dom-lamotrigineTablet150 mgOralDominion PharmacalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Dom-lamotrigineTablet100 mgOralDominion PharmacalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
LamotrigineTablet, orally disintegrating100 mg/1OralImpax Generics2015-01-09Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
LamictalLamotrigine (100 mg/1) + Lamotrigine (25 mg/1)KitGlaxosmithkline Inc2003-09-29Not applicableUs
LamictalLamotrigine (100 mg/1) + Lamotrigine (25 mg/1)KitGlaxosmithkline Inc2003-09-29Not applicableUs
LamictalLamotrigine (100 mg/1) + Lamotrigine (25 mg/1)KitGlaxosmithkline Inc2003-09-29Not applicableUs
LamictalLamotrigine (100 mg/1) + Lamotrigine (25 mg/1)KitGlaxosmithkline Inc2003-09-29Not applicableUs
Lamictal ODTLamotrigine (25 mg/1) + Lamotrigine (50 mg/1) + Lamotrigine (100 mg/1)KitGlaxosmithkline Inc2009-06-05Not applicableUs00173 0778 61 nlmimage10 ec19764b
Lamictal ODTLamotrigine (25 mg/1) + Lamotrigine (50 mg/1) + Lamotrigine (100 mg/1)KitGlaxosmithkline Inc2009-06-05Not applicableUs00173 0778 61 nlmimage10 ec19764b
Lamictal ODTLamotrigine (50 mg/1) + Lamotrigine (25 mg/1)KitGlaxosmithkline Inc2009-06-05Not applicableUs
Lamictal ODTLamotrigine (50 mg/1) + Lamotrigine (100 mg/1)KitGlaxosmithkline Inc2009-06-05Not applicableUs
Lamictal ODTLamotrigine (25 mg/1) + Lamotrigine (50 mg/1) + Lamotrigine (100 mg/1)KitGlaxosmithkline Inc2009-06-05Not applicableUs00173 0778 61 nlmimage10 ec19764b
Lamictal ODTLamotrigine (50 mg/1) + Lamotrigine (25 mg/1)KitGlaxosmithkline Inc2009-06-05Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Convulsan (Actavis) / Crisomet (Juste) / Dafex (Phoenix) / Daksol (Pharmavita) / Danoptin (Pliva) / Dezepil (Rafarm) / Elmendos (GlaxoSmithKline) / Epilepax (Ivax) / Epimil (Ivax) / Epiral (Zentiva) / Epitec (Cipla Medpro) / Epitrigine (Actavis) / Labileno (GlaxoSmithKline) / Lambipol (GlaxoSmithKline) / Lamect (PharmaSwiss) / Lameptil (Sandoz) / Lameptil S (Sandoz) / Lametec (Vitalchem) / Lamez (Intas) / Lamictal / Lamictal CD (GlaxoSmithKline) / Lamictin (GlaxoSmithKline) / Lamotrix (Glenmark) / Larig (Rowex) / Medotrigin (Medochemie) / Mogine (Douglas) / Trimolep (Psicofarma) / Trogine (Ranbaxy) / Xebarin (Dr Reddys)
Categories
UNII
U3H27498KS
CAS number
84057-84-1
Weight
Average: 256.091
Monoisotopic: 255.007850663
Chemical Formula
C9H7Cl2N5
InChI Key
PYZRQGJRPPTADH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C9H7Cl2N5/c10-5-3-1-2-4(6(5)11)7-8(12)14-9(13)16-15-7/h1-3H,(H4,12,13,14,16)
IUPAC Name
6-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,2,4-triazine-3,5-diamine
SMILES
NC1=NC(N)=C(N=N1)C1=C(Cl)C(Cl)=CC=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

Indicated as adjunctive therapy for the following seizure types in patients ≥2 years of age: partial seizures/primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures/generalized seizures of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome [Label].

Indicated for conversion to monotherapy in adults (≥16 years of age) with partial seizures who are receiving treatment with carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, or valproate as the single antiepileptic drug (AED)[Label].

Indicated for the maintenance treatment of Bipolar I Disorder to delay the time to occurrence of mood episodes (depression, mania, hypomania, mixed episodes) in adults (≥18 years of age) treated for acute mood episodes with standard therapy [Label].

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Lamotrigine, an antiepileptic drug (AED) of the phenyltriazine class, is chemically unrelated to existing antiepileptic drugs. Lamotrigine displays a broader therapeutic profile than earilier antiepileptic drugs with significant efficacy against absence seizures [7]. Lamotrigine is thought to exert its anticonvulsant effect by stabilizing presynaptic neuronal membranes. Lamotrigine inhibits sodium currents by selectively binding to the inactivated state of the sodium channel and subsequently suppresses the release of the excilatory amino acid, glutamate. The mechanism of action of lamotrigine in reducing anticonvulsant activity is assumed to be the same for reducing biopolar depression. Lamotrigine demonstrates effectiveness in preventing the recurrence of mania and depression [7].

Lamotrigine binds to melanin-containing tissues such as eyes and pigmented skin [Label]. The metabolite of lamotrigine formed by glucuronidation, 2-N-methyl metabolite, is reported to cause dose-dependent prolongations of the PR interval, widening of the QRS complex, and, at higher doses, complete AV conduction block. Although the metabolite is only found in trace amounts in humans, the plasma concentrations of this metabolite may be increased in conditions where the extent of glucuronidation is reduced, such as liver disease [Label].

Mechanism of action

Although chemically unrelated, lamotrigine resembles the actions of phenytoin and carbamazepine in inhibiting voltage-sensitive sodium channes thereby stabilizing neuronal membranes and consequently modulating presynaptic transmitter release of excitatory amino acids such as glutamate and aspartate [Label]. Studies on lamotrigine show binding to sodium channels similar to local anesthetics, which could explain potential clinical benefit of lamotrigine in some neuropathic pain states [7].

Lamotrigine displays binding properties to several different receptors. It mediates a weak inhibitory effect on serotonin 5-HT3 receptor with IC50 of 18 µM [Label]. It also weakly binds to Adenosine A1/A2 receptors, α1/α2/β adrenergic receptors, dopamine D1/D2 receptors, GABA A/B receptors, histamine H1 receptors, κ-opioid receptor (KOR), mACh receptors and serotonin 5-HT2 receptors with an IC50>100 µM [Label]. Lamotrigine had weak effects at sigma opioid receptors (IC50 = 145 µM) [Label]. A study demonstrated an evidence in vivo that lamotrigine inhibits Cav2.3 (R-type) calcium currents that could also contribute to its anticonvulsant activity [6]. This inhibition of calcium currents is also observed in topiramate.

TargetActionsOrganism
AVoltage-dependent R-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1E
inhibitor
Human
USodium channel protein type 2 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Human
UAdenosine receptor A1
inhibitor
Human
UAdenosine receptor A2a
inhibitor
Human
UAlpha-1A adrenergic receptor
inhibitor
Human
UAlpha-2A adrenergic receptor
inhibitor
Human
UBeta-1 adrenergic receptor
inhibitor
Human
UD(1) dopamine receptor
inhibitor
Human
UD(2) dopamine receptor
inhibitor
Human
UGABA-A receptor (anion channel)
inhibitor
Human
UGABA-A receptor (benzodiazepine site)
inhibitor
Human
UHistamine H1 receptor
inhibitor
Human
UKappa-type opioid receptor
inhibitor
Human
UMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor
inhibitor
Human
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A
inhibitor
Human
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A
inhibitor
Human
Absorption

Lamotrigine is rapidly and completely absorbed with negligible first-pass metabolism. Its oral absolute bioavailability is 98% which is not affected by food intake. Peak plasma concentrations is reached anywhere from 1.4 to 4.8 hours following drug administration, which varies depending on the dosing regimen of lamotrigine, concomitant medications, and epileptic states [Label].

Volume of distribution

The mean apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F) of lamotrigine following oral administration ranges from 0.9 to 1.3 L/kg and is independent of dose administered [Label]. Lamotrigine accumulated in the kidney of the male rat, which is atttributable to α-2 microglobulin [Label].

Protein binding

The fraction of plasma protein is 55% in vitro. Lamotrigine is not expected to undergo clinically significant interactions with other drugs through competition for protein binding sites [Label].

Metabolism

Lamotrigine predominantly undergoes glucuronidation to form 2-N-glucuronide conjugate, which is pharmacologically inactive. Of total radioactivity detected in urine following oral administration of 240 mg lamotrigine, the components recovered consisted of unchanged lamotrigine (10%), the 2-N-glucuronide (76%), a 5-N-glucuronide (10%), a 2-N-methyl metabolite (0.14%), and other unidentified minor metabolites (4%) [Label].

Route of elimination

Following oral administration of 240 mg radiolabelled lamotrigine, about 94% of total drug and its metabolites administered is recovered in the urine and 2% is recovered in the feces [Label].

Half life

The mean elimination half life ranges from 12-59 hours. The value is dependent on dosing regimen, concomitant antiepileptic medications, and disease state of the individual.

Clearance

The mean apparent plasma clearance (Cl/F) ranges from 0.18 to 1.21 mL/min/kg. The values vary depending on dosing regimen, concomitant antiepileptic medications, and disease state of the individual [Label].

Toxicity

Some fatal cases of overdose involving quantities up to 15 g have been reported. Overdose has resulted in ataxia, nystagmus, increased seizures, decreased level of consciousness, coma, and intraventricular conduction delay. While there is no known antidote for lamotrigine, hospitalization and general supportive care is recommended in case of suspected overdose. If indicated, gastric lavage and emesis may be required with appropriate precautions made to protect the airway. It is uncertain whether hemodialysis is an effective means of removing lamotrigine from the blood [Label].

Oral TDLO in man is 19 mg/kg and oral TDLO (intermittent) in woman is 2 mg/kg/30H [MSDS]. Oral LD50 in mouse and rat is 205 mg/kg and 245 mg/kg, respectively [MSDS]. In animal studies, lamotrigine was not found to be teratogenic. However it decreased fetal folate concentrations in rats, an effect known to be associated with teratogenesis in animals and humans [Label]. There is no evidence of carcinogenic or mutagenic potential for lamotrigine and effect of lamotrigine on human fertility is unknown [Label].

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Lamotrigine.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Lamotrigine.
1,10-PhenanthrolineThe therapeutic efficacy of Lamotrigine can be decreased when used in combination with 1,10-Phenanthroline.
2,4-thiazolidinedioneThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Lamotrigine is combined with 2,4-thiazolidinedione.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lamotrigine is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineLamotrigine may increase the excretion rate of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lamotrigine is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Lamotrigine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lamotrigine is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Lamotrigine.
Food Interactions
  • Take without regard to meals.

References

Synthesis Reference

Grahame Roy Lee, "Process for the preparation of lamotrigine." U.S. Patent US5925755, issued January, 1981.

US5925755
General References
  1. Backonja M: Neuromodulating drugs for the symptomatic treatment of neuropathic pain. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2004 Jun;8(3):212-6. [PubMed:15115640]
  2. Barbosa L, Berk M, Vorster M: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of augmentation with lamotrigine or placebo in patients concomitantly treated with fluoxetine for resistant major depressive episodes. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003 Apr;64(4):403-7. [PubMed:12716240]
  3. Jensen TS: Anticonvulsants in neuropathic pain: rationale and clinical evidence. Eur J Pain. 2002;6 Suppl A:61-8. [PubMed:11888243]
  4. Pappagallo M: Newer antiepileptic drugs: possible uses in the treatment of neuropathic pain and migraine. Clin Ther. 2003 Oct;25(10):2506-38. [PubMed:14667954]
  5. Tehrani SP, Daryaafzoon M, Bakhtiarian A, Ejtemaeemehr S, Sahraei H: The effects of lamotrigine on the acquisition and expression of morphine-induced place preference in mice. Pak J Biol Sci. 2009 Jan 1;12(1):33-9. [PubMed:19579915]
  6. Dibue-Adjei M, Kamp MA, Alpdogan S, Tevoufouet EE, Neiss WF, Hescheler J, Schneider T: Cav2.3 (R-Type) Calcium Channels are Critical for Mediating Anticonvulsive and Neuroprotective Properties of Lamotrigine In Vivo. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;44(3):935-947. doi: 10.1159/000485361. Epub 2017 Nov 24. [PubMed:29176325]
  7. 44. (2012). In Rang and Dale's Pharmacology (7th ed., pp. 544, 549). Edinburgh: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone. [ISBN:978-0-7020-3471-8]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014695
KEGG Drug
D00354
PubChem Compound
3878
PubChem Substance
46505408
ChemSpider
3741
BindingDB
50031299
ChEBI
6367
ChEMBL
CHEMBL741
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000039
PharmGKB
PA450164
IUPHAR
2622
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Lamotrigine
ATC Codes
N03AX09 — Lamotrigine
AHFS Codes
  • 28:12.92 — Miscellaneous Anticonvulsants
FDA label
Download (1.12 MB)
MSDS
Download (24.7 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1Active Not RecruitingBasic SciencePsychiatric Disorder NOS1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers8
1CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentBipolar Affective Disorders / Bipolar Disorder (BD)1
1CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
1CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Epilepsies1
1CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies6
1CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies / Seizure, Absence1
1CompletedTreatmentFasting State1
1CompletedTreatmentFed1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers8
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers / Psychiatric Disorder NOS2
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceEpilepsies1
1TerminatedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Healthy Volunteers1
1, 2CompletedDiagnosticBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression, Bipolar / Epilepsies / Seizures1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentBrain Injury1
2CompletedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Moods Disorders / Psychotic Disorder NOS1
2CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
2CompletedTreatmentBipolar II Disorder, Most Recent Episode Major Depressive1
2CompletedTreatmentCocaine-Related Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentDermatillomania / Neurotic Excoriation / Pathologic Skin Picking / Psychogenic Excoriation1
2CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies2
2CompletedTreatmentMixed Mania Bipolar Disorder1
2CompletedTreatmentNeurotic Disorders / Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
2CompletedTreatmentSecondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (SPMS)1
2RecruitingTreatmentImpaired Cognition / Impaired Synaptic Plasticity / Noonan Syndrome, Neurofibromatosis Type 11
2TerminatedTreatmentBipolar 1 Disorder1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentRelapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentOpioid-Related Disorders1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAddictions1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentTrigeminal Neuralgia (TN)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentNeurofibromatosis Type 11
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdverse Effects / Epilepsy, Localization Related1
3CompletedNot AvailableSeizures1
3CompletedDiagnosticBipolar Disorder (BD)1
3CompletedSupportive CareNeurologic toxicity / Pain NOS / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
3CompletedTreatmentBinge Eating Disorder (BED) / BMI >30 kg/m21
3CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)7
3CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression, Bipolar2
3CompletedTreatmentChildhood Absence Epilepsy / Epilepsies / Petit Mal Epilepsy / Seizures1
3CompletedTreatmentDepression1
3CompletedTreatmentDepression, Bipolar1
3CompletedTreatmentDystrophia Myotonica Type 1 / Myotonia Congenita / Paralysis, Hyperkalemic Periodic / Paramyotonia Congenita / Potassium-Aggravated Myotonia1
3CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies6
3CompletedTreatmentEpilepsy, Localization Related2
3CompletedTreatmentMenière's Disease / Ménière's Vertigo / Vertigo, Aural / Vertigo, Intermittent1
3CompletedTreatmentMoods Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders2
3TerminatedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Dementias / Depression / Psychosomatic Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
3TerminatedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
3TerminatedTreatmentEpilepsies1
3WithdrawnTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression / Depression, Bipolar / Lamotrigine / Melancholic Depression1
4CompletedNot AvailableHippocampal Atrophy Due to Corticosteroid / Hypomania Due to Corticosteroid Use / Memory Impairment Due to Corticosteroid Use1
4CompletedBasic ScienceEpilepsies1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchMemory Disturbances1
4CompletedPreventionBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)8
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Dependence, Cocaine1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Mania1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar I Disorder / Bipolar II Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentBorderline Personality Disorder (BPD)1
4CompletedTreatmentBronchial Asthma1
4CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies6
4CompletedTreatmentEpilepsy, Localization Related2
4CompletedTreatmentEpilepsy, Tonic-Clonic1
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceBariatric Surgery Candidate1
4Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceEpilepsies1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentEpilepsy, Localization Related1
4RecruitingNot AvailableEpilepsies1
4RecruitingTreatmentEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) / Hepatitis C Viral Infection1
4RecruitingTreatmentEpilepsies1
4TerminatedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Bipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression / Mania / Psychosis1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentEpilepsies1
Not AvailableAvailableNot AvailableAcute and Chronic Pain Following Modified Radical Mastectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBipolar Disorder (BD)3
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEpilepsies5
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDepression, Bipolar1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression / Psychotic Disorder NOS / Schizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEpilepsies1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFacial Neuropathy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentTrigeminal Neuralgia (TN)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentUnipolar Depression1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableBipolar Disorder (BD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableBipolar Disorder (BD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableDepression / Suicidal Thoughts1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableEpilepsies1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableObesity, Morbid1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression, Bipolar / Unipolar Depression1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentAdolescent Depression1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAdults With Tonic Clonic Seizures and/or Partial Seizures1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Glaxosmithkline
  • Aurobindo pharma ltd
  • Dr reddys laboratories ltd
  • Glenmark generics ltd
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Taro pharmaceutical industries ltd
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Zydus pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Smithkline beecham corp
  • Smithkline beecham corp dba glaxosmithkline
  • Apotex inc
  • Cadista pharmaceuticals inc
  • Lupin ltd
  • Matrix laboratories ltd
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Torrent pharmaceuticals ltd
  • Upsher smith laboratories inc
  • Wockhardt ltd
Packagers
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Apotex Inc.
  • Atlantic Biologicals Corporation
  • Aurobindo Pharma Ltd.
  • Cadila Healthcare Ltd.
  • Cadista Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Cardinal Health
  • Caremark LLC
  • Cobalt Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Compass Pharma Services LLC
  • Comprehensive Consultant Services Inc.
  • Doctor Reddys Laboratories Ltd.
  • DSM Corp.
  • GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
  • Glenmark Generics Ltd.
  • Greenstone LLC
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mylan
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pharmacy Service Center
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Remedy Repack
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Sandoz
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Taro Pharmaceuticals USA
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Torrent Pharmaceuticals
  • UDL Laboratories
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
  • Zydus Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral100 mg
TabletOral150 mg
TabletOral2 mg
TabletOral25 mg
TabletOral5 mg
Tablet, chewableOral2 mg/1
TabletOral200 mg
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral250 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral300 mg/1
Kit
TabletOral100 mg/1
TabletOral150 mg/1
TabletOral200 mg/1
TabletOral25 mg/1
Tablet, chewableOral25 mg/1
Tablet, chewableOral5 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral100 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral200 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral25 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral250 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral300 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral50 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral100 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral200 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral25 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral50 mg/1
Tablet, for suspensionOral25 mg/1
Tablet, for suspensionOral5 mg/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral100 mg/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral200 mg/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral25 mg/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral50 mg/1
TabletOral250 mg/1
TabletOral300 mg/1
TabletOral50 mg/1
Kit25 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
LaMICtal Starter 98 25 (84)-100(14)mg Kit Box556.69USD box
LaMICtal XR 200 mg 24 Hour tablet12.11USD tablet
Lamictal xr 200 mg tablet11.65USD tablet
LaMICtal XR 100 mg 24 Hour tablet11.36USD tablet
Lamictal xr 100 mg tablet10.92USD tablet
Lamictal xr 50 mg tablet10.2USD tablet
Lamictal 200 mg tablet7.44USD tablet
Lamictal odt start kt (orange)7.28USD tablet
Lamictal xr start kit (orange)7.28USD tablet
Lamictal odt 200 mg tablet6.95USD tablet
Lamictal odt 100 mg tablet5.82USD tablet
Lamotrigine 200 mg tablet5.78USD tablet
LaMICtal 25 mg Chew Tabs5.63USD tab
Lamictal odt 50 mg tablet5.46USD tablet
Lamictal tab start kit (green)5.46USD tablet
Lamictal 150 mg tablet5.38USD tablet
Lamictal odt 25 mg tablet5.1USD tablet
Lamictal xr 25 mg tablet5.1USD tablet
Lamictal 100 mg tablet4.72USD tablet
Lamotrigine tablet starter kit4.24USD tablet
Lamotrigine 150 mg tablet3.98USD tablet
Lamictal 25 mg tablet3.78USD tablet
Lamotrigine 100 mg tablet3.52USD tablet
LamoTRIgine 25 mg Chew Tabs3.33USD tab
LamoTRIgine 5 mg Chew Tabs3.18USD tab
Lamotrigine 25 mg tablet2.9USD tablet
Apo-Lamotrigine 150 mg Tablet1.31USD tablet
Mylan-Lamotrigine 150 mg Tablet1.31USD tablet
Novo-Lamotrigine 150 mg Tablet1.31USD tablet
Pms-Lamotrigine 150 mg Tablet1.31USD tablet
Ratio-Lamotrigine 150 mg Tablet1.31USD tablet
Apo-Lamotrigine 100 mg Tablet0.88USD tablet
Mylan-Lamotrigine 100 mg Tablet0.88USD tablet
Novo-Lamotrigine 100 mg Tablet0.88USD tablet
Pms-Lamotrigine 100 mg Tablet0.88USD tablet
Ratio-Lamotrigine 100 mg Tablet0.88USD tablet
Apo-Lamotrigine 25 mg Tablet0.22USD tablet
Mylan-Lamotrigine 25 mg Tablet0.22USD tablet
Novo-Lamotrigine 25 mg Tablet0.22USD tablet
Pms-Lamotrigine 25 mg Tablet0.22USD tablet
Ratio-Lamotrigine 25 mg Tablet0.22USD tablet
Lamictal 5 mg Chewable Tablet0.18USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5698226No1997-12-162012-07-29Us
CA2277722No2001-03-272012-01-29Canada
US9144547No2015-09-292023-09-22Us
US8637512No2014-01-282028-06-14Us
US8840925No2014-09-232028-07-02Us
US7919115No2011-04-052029-01-04Us
US9339504No2016-05-172028-07-02Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)216-218 °C (uncorr)Not Available
logP2.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.488 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.87ALOGPS
logP1.93ChemAxon
logS-2.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.98ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)5.87ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area90.71 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity66.62 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability23.1 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9382
Caco-2 permeable+0.8867
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7155
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.911
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9604
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8176
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.9162
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9055
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6862
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.611
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.7007
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8594
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7678
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5515
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8202
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7895
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.7556 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9168
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8735
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-0ca7be847ef73a25032b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0c09-0890000000-f7244245bf6816d03dc7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-97d10d3ad5d45edcaeba
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-b2dbf89c13423bc1b59f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-d26cb5886894916aa1d8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0590000000-528845465e0a140f6b60
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0930000000-9a68c83a3573a48cf6c2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0kmi-0900000000-bb97e1aecda1747cbf29
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-97d10d3ad5d45edcaeba
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-97d10d3ad5d45edcaeba
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-1e756e80b9a7d4b0dd18
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0490000000-a29a09ef58e19c7e62e1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0940000000-85279d67921a0106c4e2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0kmi-0900000000-eba38744d927d1c39a74
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ab9-0790000000-036c53ed1835e3d33348
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0290000000-26664a56093e292ec551
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0190000000-33187897c9fb0b0a178f
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-2940000000-1a4f3a098b426ac4febb

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dichlorobenzenes. These are compounds containing a benzene with exactly two chlorine atoms attached to it.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Halobenzenes
Direct Parent
Dichlorobenzenes
Alternative Parents
Aminotriazines / Imidolactams / Aryl chlorides / 1,2,4-triazines / Heteroaromatic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Primary amines / Organopnictogen compounds / Organochlorides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
1,2-dichlorobenzene / Aminotriazine / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / Triazine / Imidolactam / 1,2,4-triazine / Heteroaromatic compound / Organoheterocyclic compound / Azacycle
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
dichlorobenzene, primary arylamine, 1,2,4-triazines (CHEBI:6367)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1E gives rise to R-type calcium currents. R-type calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group and are blocked by nickel, and partially by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to dihydropyridines (DHP), omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA), and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). Calcium channels containing alpha-1E subunit could be involved in the modulation of firing patterns of neurons which is important for information processing.
Specific Function
Calcium channel activity
Gene Name
CACNA1E
Uniprot ID
Q15878
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent R-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1E
Molecular Weight
261729.05 Da
References
  1. Dibue-Adjei M, Kamp MA, Alpdogan S, Tevoufouet EE, Neiss WF, Hescheler J, Schneider T: Cav2.3 (R-Type) Calcium Channels are Critical for Mediating Anticonvulsive and Neuroprotective Properties of Lamotrigine In Vivo. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;44(3):935-947. doi: 10.1159/000485361. Epub 2017 Nov 24. [PubMed:29176325]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a...
Gene Name
SCN2A
Uniprot ID
Q99250
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 2 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
227972.64 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Lipkind GM, Fozzard HA: Molecular modeling of local anesthetic drug binding by voltage-gated sodium channels. Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Dec;68(6):1611-22. Epub 2005 Sep 20. [PubMed:16174788]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
IC50>100 µM
General Function
Purine nucleoside binding
Specific Function
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
ADORA1
Uniprot ID
P30542
Uniprot Name
Adenosine receptor A1
Molecular Weight
36511.325 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
IC50>100 µM
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
ADORA2A
Uniprot ID
P29274
Uniprot Name
Adenosine receptor A2a
Molecular Weight
44706.925 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
IC50>100 µM
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) prot...
Gene Name
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID
P35348
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
51486.005 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
IC50>100 µM
General Function
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazo...
Gene Name
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID
P08913
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
48956.275 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
IC50>100 µM
General Function
Receptor signaling protein activity
Specific Function
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. This receptor binds epinephrine and norepinephrine with approximately e...
Gene Name
ADRB1
Uniprot ID
P08588
Uniprot Name
Beta-1 adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
51322.1 Da
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
IC50>100 µM
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.

Components:
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
IC50>100 µM
General Function
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD2
Uniprot ID
P14416
Uniprot Name
D(2) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
50618.91 Da
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
IC50>100 µM
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...

Components:
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
IC50>100 µM
General Function
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function
In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamin...
Gene Name
HRH1
Uniprot ID
P35367
Uniprot Name
Histamine H1 receptor
Molecular Weight
55783.61 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
IC50>100 µM
General Function
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled opioid receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous alpha-neoendorphins and dynorphins, but has low affinity for beta-endorphins. Also functions as receptor for various synt...
Gene Name
OPRK1
Uniprot ID
P41145
Uniprot Name
Kappa-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
42644.665 Da
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
IC50>100 µM
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...

Components:
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
IC50>100 µM
General Function
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodop...
Gene Name
HTR2A
Uniprot ID
P28223
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A
Molecular Weight
52602.58 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
IC50 = 18 µM
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gate...
Gene Name
HTR3A
Uniprot ID
P46098
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A
Molecular Weight
55279.835 Da

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the...
Gene Name
UGT1A4
Uniprot ID
P22310
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4
Molecular Weight
60024.535 Da
References
  1. Argikar UA, Senekeo-Effenberger K, Larson EE, Tukey RH, Remmel RP: Studies on induction of lamotrigine metabolism in transgenic UGT1 mice. Xenobiotica. 2009 Nov;39(11):826-35. doi: 10.3109/00498250903188985. [PubMed:19845433]
  2. Chen H, Yang K, Choi S, Fischer JH, Jeong H: Up-regulation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A4 by 17beta-estradiol: a potential mechanism of increased lamotrigine elimination in pregnancy. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Sep;37(9):1841-7. doi: 10.1124/dmd.109.026609. Epub 2009 Jun 22. [PubMed:19546240]
  3. Argikar UA, Remmel RP: Variation in glucuronidation of lamotrigine in human liver microsomes. Xenobiotica. 2009 May;39(5):355-63. doi: 10.1080/00498250902745082. [PubMed:19387891]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Nadph binding
Specific Function
Key enzyme in folate metabolism. Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway. Catalyzes an essential reaction for de novo glycine and purine synthesis, and for DNA pre...
Gene Name
DHFR
Uniprot ID
P00374
Uniprot Name
Dihydrofolate reductase
Molecular Weight
21452.61 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative reg...
Gene Name
UGT1A3
Uniprot ID
P35503
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3
Molecular Weight
60337.835 Da
References
  1. Argikar UA, Remmel RP: Variation in glucuronidation of lamotrigine in human liver microsomes. Xenobiotica. 2009 May;39(5):355-63. doi: 10.1080/00498250902745082. [PubMed:19387891]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the...
Gene Name
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID
P22309
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1
Molecular Weight
59590.91 Da
References
  1. Williams JA, Hyland R, Jones BC, Smith DA, Hurst S, Goosen TC, Peterkin V, Koup JR, Ball SE: Drug-drug interactions for UDP-glucuronosyltransferase substrates: a pharmacokinetic explanation for typically observed low exposure (AUCi/AUC) ratios. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Nov;32(11):1201-8. doi: 10.1124/dmd.104.000794. Epub 2004 Aug 10. [PubMed:15304429]
  2. Interactions [Link]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Luna-Tortos C, Fedrowitz M, Loscher W: Several major antiepileptic drugs are substrates for human P-glycoprotein. Neuropharmacology. 2008 Dec;55(8):1364-75. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2008.08.032. Epub 2008 Sep 11. [PubMed:18824002]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creat...
Gene Name
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID
O15244
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 2
Molecular Weight
62579.99 Da
References
  1. dofetilide - Drug Summary [Link]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 12, 2018 07:06