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Identification
NameNADH
Accession NumberDB00157  (NUTR00041, DB01907, EXPT02287, DB03527)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsNutraceutical
DescriptionNADH is the reduced form of NAD+, and NAD+ is the oxidized form of NADH, a coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). It forms NADP with the addition of a phosphate group to the 2' position of the adenosyl nucleotide through an ester linkage. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
1,4-dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
DPNH
NAD reduced form
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced)
Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide, reduced
Reduced nicotinamide adenine diphosphate
Reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII4J24DQ0916
CAS number58-68-4
WeightAverage: 665.441
Monoisotopic: 665.124771695
Chemical FormulaC21H29N7O14P2
InChI KeyBOPGDPNILDQYTO-NNYOXOHSSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C21H29N7O14P2/c22-17-12-19(25-7-24-17)28(8-26-12)21-16(32)14(30)11(41-21)6-39-44(36,37)42-43(34,35)38-5-10-13(29)15(31)20(40-10)27-3-1-2-9(4-27)18(23)33/h1,3-4,7-8,10-11,13-16,20-21,29-32H,2,5-6H2,(H2,23,33)(H,34,35)(H,36,37)(H2,22,24,25)/t10-,11-,13-,14-,15-,16-,20-,21-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
[({[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy}(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy]({[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(3-carbamoyl-1,4-dihydropyridin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy})phosphinic acid
SMILES
NC(=O)C1=CN(C=CC1)[C@@H]1O[[email protected]](CO[P@](O)(=O)O[P@](O)(=O)OC[[email protected]]2O[[email protected]]([[email protected]](O)[C@@H]2O)N2C=NC3=C(N)N=CN=C23)[C@@H](O)[[email protected]]1O
Pharmacology
IndicationSome evidence suggests that NADH might be useful in treating Parkinson's disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular disease.
Structured Indications Not Available
PharmacodynamicsA coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). The action of supplemental NADH is unclear. Oral NADH supplementation has been used to combat simple fatigue as well as such mysterious and energy-sapping disorders as chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia. Researchers are also studying the value of NADH supplements for improving mental function in people with Alzheimer's disease, and minimizing physical disability and relieving depression in people with Parkinson's disease. Some healthy individuals also take NADH supplements orally to improve concentration and memory capacity, as well as to increase athletic endurance. However, to date there have been no published studies to indicate that using NADH is in any way effective or safe for these purposes.
Mechanism of actionNADH is synthesized by the body and thus is not an essential nutrient. It does require the essential nutrient nicotinamide for its synthesis, and its role in energy production is certainly an essential one. In addition to its role in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, NADH is produced in the cytosol. The mitochondrial membrane is impermeable to NADH, and this permeability barrier effectively separates the cytoplasmic from the mitochondrial NADH pools. However, cytoplasmic NADH can be used for biologic energy production. This occurs when the malate-aspartate shuttle introduces reducing equivalents from NADH in the cytosol to the electron transport chain of the mitochondria. This shuttle mainly occurs in the liver and heart.
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO60701 details
Alcohol dehydrogenase 1AProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP07327 details
Sorbitol dehydrogenaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ00796 details
Alcohol dehydrogenase 4ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP08319 details
Alcohol dehydrogenase 1CProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP00326 details
Alcohol dehydrogenase 1BProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP00325 details
Alcohol dehydrogenase class 4 mu/sigma chainProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP40394 details
Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(+)], cytoplasmicProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP21695 details
L-lactate dehydrogenase A-like 6AProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ6ZMR3 details
Alcohol dehydrogenase class-3ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP11766 details
Aldose reductaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP15121 details
3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase type-2ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ99714 details
Malate dehydrogenase, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP40926 details
L-lactate dehydrogenase A chainProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP00338 details
NAD-dependent malic enzyme, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP23368 details
Peroxisomal multifunctional enzyme type 2ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP51659 details
L-lactate dehydrogenase A-like 6BProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ9BYZ2 details
L-lactate dehydrogenase C chainProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP07864 details
L-lactate dehydrogenase B chainProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP07195 details
Peroxisomal bifunctional enzymeProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ08426 details
Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ16836 details
NADP-dependent malic enzyme, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ16798 details
D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ02338 details
Malate dehydrogenase, cytoplasmicProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP40925 details
3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP31937 details
Testosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase 3ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP37058 details
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP04035 details
NADP-dependent malic enzymeProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP48163 details
D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO43175 details
3-keto-steroid reductaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP56937 details
Isocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD] subunit gamma, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP51553 details
Isocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD] subunit beta, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO43837 details
Isocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD] subunit alpha, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP50213 details
Estradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP14061 details
Estradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 2ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP37059 details
11-cis retinol dehydrogenaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ92781 details
GDH/6PGL endoplasmic bifunctional proteinProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO95479 details
Estradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 8ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ92506 details
Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP17516 details
Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP12268 details
Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP42330 details
15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase [NAD(+)]ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP15428 details
GDP-L-fucose synthaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ13630 details
Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ04828 details
Corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP28845 details
3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta 5-->4-isomerase type 2ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP26439 details
3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta 5-->4-isomerase type 1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP14060 details
Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP20839 details
Trifunctional enzyme subunit alpha, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP40939 details
Aldehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP05091 details
Corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 2ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP80365 details
Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C2ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP52895 details
Sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase, decarboxylatingProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ15738 details
Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 3 member B2ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP48448 details
Methylmalonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [acylating], mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ02252 details
Aldehyde dehydrogenase, dimeric NADP-preferringProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP30838 details
Retinal dehydrogenase 1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP00352 details
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, testis-specificProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO14556 details
4-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP49189 details
Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP47895 details
Aldehyde dehydrogenase X, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP30837 details
Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 3 member B1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP43353 details
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP04406 details
Retinal dehydrogenase 2ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO94788 details
Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP51648 details
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP51649 details
Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP49419 details
Flavin reductase (NADPH)ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP30043 details
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 2ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ96C36 details
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP32322 details
Glutamate dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP00367 details
Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP11177 details
Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit alpha, testis-specific form, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP29803 details
Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit alpha, somatic form, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP08559 details
Biliverdin reductase AProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP53004 details
Short-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP16219 details
Dihydrofolate reductaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP00374 details
2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ02218 details
Glutamate dehydrogenase 2, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP49448 details
7-dehydrocholesterol reductaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ9UBM7 details
Ribosyldihydronicotinamide dehydrogenase [quinone]ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP16083 details
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 2Proteinunknown
binder
HumanP03891 details
Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ9UDR5 details
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 3Proteinunknown
binder
HumanP03897 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 7, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO75251 details
C-1-tetrahydrofolate synthase, cytoplasmicProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP11586 details
Bifunctional methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase/cyclohydrolase, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP13995 details
Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP30038 details
NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase 3ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP00387 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 11ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ86Y39 details
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 4ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP03905 details
Dihydropteridine reductaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP09417 details
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1Proteinunknown
binder
HumanP03886 details
NAD(P) transhydrogenase, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ13423 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 5ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ16718 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 9, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ16795 details
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 4LProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP03901 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 10, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO95299 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 7ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO95182 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO15239 details
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 6ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP03923 details
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 5ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP03915 details
Cytochrome c oxidase subunit NDUFA4ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO00483 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 6ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP56556 details
Acyl carrier protein, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO14561 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 2ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO43678 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 8ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP51970 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 3ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO95167 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 8, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO95169 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 subunit C2ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO95298 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO75438 details
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP28331 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 10ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO96000 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 4ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO95168 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 3ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO43676 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 2, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO95178 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 7ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP17568 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 9ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ9Y6M9 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 2, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO75306 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 5, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO43674 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 subunit C1, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO43677 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 6ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO95139 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein 3, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP56181 details
Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP09622 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 3, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO75489 details
Glutathione reductase, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP00390 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 12ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ9UI09 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 5ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO43920 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 4, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO43181 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein 1, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP49821 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein 2, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP19404 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 13ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ9P0J0 details
Cysteine dioxygenase type 1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ16878 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 6, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO75380 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 4-like 2ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ9NRX3 details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 8, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO00217 details
Cytochrome P450 4A11ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ02928 details
Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP10515 details
Aminomethyltransferase, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP48728 details
Methylsterol monooxygenase 1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ15800 details
Heme oxygenase 1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP09601 details
Heme oxygenase 2ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP30519 details
Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP05093 details
TyrosinaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP14679 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionUnclear how much of an administered dose is absorbed.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNo reports of overdose, however, high doses of NADH (10 mg a day or more) may cause jitteriness, anxiety, and insomnia.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Beta-Alanine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00007
Cysteine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00013
Phospholipid BiosynthesisMetabolicSMP00025
Caffeine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00028
Ketone Body MetabolismMetabolicSMP00071
Betaine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00123
Malate-Aspartate ShuttleMetabolicSMP00129
Cystathionine Beta-Synthase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00177
GalactosemiaDiseaseSMP00182
Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase Deficiency (GAMT Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00188
Short Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (SCAD Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00235
3-Methylcrotonyl Coa Carboxylase Deficiency Type IDiseaseSMP00237
Saccharopinuria/Hyperlysinemia IIDiseaseSMP00239
Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyria (CEP) or Gunther DiseaseDiseaseSMP00345
Porphyria Variegata (PV)DiseaseSMP00346
17-Beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase III DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00356
Hyperprolinemia Type IIDiseaseSMP00360
Arginine: Glycine Amidinotransferase Deficiency (AGAT Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00362
Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller SyndromeDiseaseSMP00365
Methadone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00408
Azathioprine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00427
Ifosfamide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00448
Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Long Chain Saturated Fatty AcidsMetabolicSMP00482
Sepiapterin reductase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00491
Galactosemia II (GALK)DiseaseSMP00495
Creatine deficiency, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00504
Hyperornithinemia with gyrate atrophy (HOGA)DiseaseSMP00505
Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria [HHH-syndrome]DiseaseSMP00506
L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00507
Xanthinuria type IIDiseaseSMP00513
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Youichi Niimura, Michio Kozaki, Hisashi Yamagata, Miki Ikuta, Yasurou Kurusu, Hideaki Yukawa, Makiko Kukushima, Masato Terasausa, “Process for producing NADH oxidase.” U.S. Patent US5416012, issued February, 1984.

US5416012
General References
  1. Belenky P, Bogan KL, Brenner C: NAD+ metabolism in health and disease. Trends Biochem Sci. 2007 Jan;32(1):12-9. Epub 2006 Dec 11. [PubMed:17161604 ]
  2. Pollak N, Dolle C, Ziegler M: The power to reduce: pyridine nucleotides--small molecules with a multitude of functions. Biochem J. 2007 Mar 1;402(2):205-18. [PubMed:17295611 ]
  3. Khan JA, Forouhar F, Tao X, Tong L: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolism as an attractive target for drug discovery. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2007 May;11(5):695-705. [PubMed:17465726 ]
  4. Lin SJ, Guarente L: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a metabolic regulator of transcription, longevity and disease. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2003 Apr;15(2):241-6. [PubMed:12648681 ]
  5. Biellmann JF, Lapinte C, Haid E, Weimann G: Structure of lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor generated from coenzyme. Biochemistry. 1979 Apr 3;18(7):1212-7. [PubMed:218616 ]
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (136 KB)
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.6017
Blood Brain Barrier+0.5641
Caco-2 permeable-0.7045
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.601
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7066
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.912
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9361
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8412
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8303
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5242
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7565
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.849
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8849
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8294
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8753
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8373
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8146
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9227
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9883
Rat acute toxicity2.8642 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9379
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.5992
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage formsNot Available
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Nicotinamide adenine powder154.53USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point140.0-142.0 °CNot Available
logP-5.1Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.95 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.4ALOGPS
logP-6.5ChemAxon
logS-2.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-7ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count16ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count8ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area317.62 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count11ChemAxon
Refractivity143 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability57.65 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0931104000-bf6579d19ee9bc297e13View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-0901000000-92672b1d4b96838f8652View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000i-1900000000-ef56d203da65089e145fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03e9-1900207000-f248eb28a7283de7118bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-1900100000-efadf1d6c54e9e86671dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a7i-3900000000-f258fc2bf1d8e54ac6daView in MoNA
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as (5'->5')-dinucleotides. These are dinucleotides where the two bases are connected via a (5'->5')-phosphodiester linkage.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
Class(5'->5')-dinucleotides
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct Parent(5'->5')-dinucleotides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • (5'->5')-dinucleotide
  • Purine nucleotide sugar
  • Purine ribonucleoside diphosphate
  • Nicotinamide-nucleotide
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • Glycosyl compound
  • Organic pyrophosphate
  • N-substituted nicotinamide
  • Monosaccharide phosphate
  • 6-aminopurine
  • Purine
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Dihydropyridinecarboxylic acid derivative
  • Monoalkyl phosphate
  • Dihydropyridine
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Pyrimidine
  • Primary aromatic amine
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Organic phosphate
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Monosaccharide
  • Hydropyridine
  • Saccharide
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Oxolane
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Tertiary amine
  • Secondary alcohol
  • 1,2-diol
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Enamine
  • Carboximidic acid derivative
  • Carboximidic acid
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Udp-glucose 6-dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycans; hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and heparan sulfate.
Gene Name:
UGDH
Uniprot ID:
O60701
Molecular Weight:
55023.545 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Castellani AA, De Luca G, Rindi S, Salvini R, Tira ME: Regulatory mechanisms of UDP-glucuronic acid biosynthesis in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Ital J Biochem. 1986 Sep-Oct;35(5):296-303. [PubMed:3804697 ]
  4. Alary J, Cravedi JP, Baradat M, Carrera G: Mechanism of cadmium-decreased glucuronidation in the rat. Biochem Pharmacol. 1992 Dec 1;44(11):2139-47. [PubMed:1472079 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1A
Uniprot ID:
P07327
Molecular Weight:
39858.37 Da
References
  1. Bieganowski P, Seidle HF, Wojcik M, Brenner C: Synthetic lethal and biochemical analyses of NAD and NADH kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae establish separation of cellular functions. J Biol Chem. 2006 Aug 11;281(32):22439-45. Epub 2006 Jun 7. [PubMed:16760478 ]
  2. Manriquez D, El-Sharkawy I, Flores FB, El-Yahyaoui F, Regad F, Bouzayen M, Latche A, Pech JC: Two highly divergent alcohol dehydrogenases of melon exhibit fruit ripening-specific expression and distinct biochemical characteristics. Plant Mol Biol. 2006 Jul;61(4-5):675-85. [PubMed:16897483 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Converts sorbitol to fructose. Part of the polyol pathway that plays an important role in sperm physiology. May play a role in the sperm motility by providing an energetic source for sperm.
Gene Name:
SORD
Uniprot ID:
Q00796
Molecular Weight:
38324.25 Da
References
  1. Ido Y: Pyridine nucleotide redox abnormalities in diabetes. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007 Jul;9(7):931-42. [PubMed:17508915 ]
  2. Klimacek M, Hellmer H, Nidetzky B: Catalytic mechanism of Zn2+-dependent polyol dehydrogenases: kinetic comparison of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase with wild-type and Glu154-->Cys forms of yeast xylitol dehydrogenase. Biochem J. 2007 Jun 15;404(3):421-9. [PubMed:17343568 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH4
Uniprot ID:
P08319
Molecular Weight:
40221.335 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Thielen J, Ciriacy M: Biochemical basis of mitochondrial acetaldehyde dismutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1991 Nov;173(21):7012-7. [PubMed:1938903 ]
  4. Plapp BV, Mitchell JL, Berst KB: Mouse alcohol dehydrogenase 4: kinetic mechanism, substrate specificity and simulation of effects of ethanol on retinoid metabolism. Chem Biol Interact. 2001 Jan 30;130-132(1-3):445-56. [PubMed:11306066 ]
  5. Widenius TV: Ethanol-induced inhibition of testosterone biosynthesis in vitro: lack of acetaldehyde effect. Alcohol Alcohol. 1987;22(1):17-22. [PubMed:3593480 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1C
Uniprot ID:
P00326
Molecular Weight:
39867.27 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Plapp BV, Berst KB: Specificity of human alcohol dehydrogenase 1C*2 (gamma2gamma2) for steroids and simulation of the uncompetitive inhibition of ethanol metabolism. Chem Biol Interact. 2003 Feb 1;143-144:183-93. [PubMed:12604203 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1B
Uniprot ID:
P00325
Molecular Weight:
39854.21 Da
References
  1. Manriquez D, El-Sharkawy I, Flores FB, El-Yahyaoui F, Regad F, Bouzayen M, Latche A, Pech JC: Two highly divergent alcohol dehydrogenases of melon exhibit fruit ripening-specific expression and distinct biochemical characteristics. Plant Mol Biol. 2006 Jul;61(4-5):675-85. [PubMed:16897483 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Could function in retinol oxidation for the synthesis of retinoic acid, a hormone important for cellular differentiation. Medium-chain (octanol) and aromatic (m-nitrobenzaldehyde) compounds are the best substrates. Ethanol is not a good substrate but at the high ethanol concentrations reached in the digestive tract, it plays a role in the ethanol oxidation and contributes to the first pass etha...
Gene Name:
ADH7
Uniprot ID:
P40394
Molecular Weight:
41480.985 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Dalfo D, Marques N, Albalat R: Analysis of the NADH-dependent retinaldehyde reductase activity of amphioxus retinol dehydrogenase enzymes enhances our understanding of the evolution of the retinol dehydrogenase family. FEBS J. 2007 Jul;274(14):3739-52. Epub 2007 Jul 2. [PubMed:17608724 ]
  4. Suzuki Y, Ishiguro S, Tamai M: Identification and immunohistochemistry of retinol dehydrogenase from bovine retinal pigment epithelium. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993 May 13;1163(2):201-8. [PubMed:8490052 ]
  5. Kim DS, Lee CB, Park YS, Ahn YH, Kim TW, Kee CS, Kang JS, Om AS: Effect of thyroid hormone on the alcohol dehydrogenase activities in rat tissues. J Korean Med Sci. 2001 Jun;16(3):313-6. [PubMed:11410692 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nad binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GPD1
Uniprot ID:
P21695
Molecular Weight:
37567.4 Da
References
  1. Fonvielle M, Therisod H, Hemery M, Therisod M: New competitive inhibitors of cytosolic (NADH-dependent) rabbit muscle glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007 Jan 15;17(2):410-3. Epub 2006 Oct 17. [PubMed:17088060 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
L-lactate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Displays an lactate dehydrogenase activity. Significantly increases the transcriptional activity of JUN, when overexpressed.
Gene Name:
LDHAL6A
Uniprot ID:
Q6ZMR3
Molecular Weight:
36507.015 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Class-III ADH is remarkably ineffective in oxidizing ethanol, but it readily catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain primary alcohols and the oxidation of S-(hydroxymethyl) glutathione.
Gene Name:
ADH5
Uniprot ID:
P11766
Molecular Weight:
39723.945 Da
References
  1. Schirwitz K, Schmidt A, Lamzin VS: High-resolution structures of formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii. Protein Sci. 2007 Jun;16(6):1146-56. [PubMed:17525463 ]
  2. Baumchen C, Roth AH, Biedendieck R, Malten M, Follmann M, Sahm H, Bringer-Meyer S, Jahn D: D-mannitol production by resting state whole cell biotrans-formation of D-fructose by heterologous mannitol and formate dehydrogenase gene expression in Bacillus megaterium. Biotechnol J. 2007 Nov;2(11):1408-16. [PubMed:17619232 ]
  3. Okochi M, Nakagawa I, Kobayashi T, Hayashi S, Furusaki S, Honda H: Enhanced activity of 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase by addition of the co-solvent 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (L)-lactate in aqueous phase of biphasic systems for reductive production of steroids. J Biotechnol. 2007 Feb 1;128(2):376-82. Epub 2006 Oct 12. [PubMed:17092593 ]
  4. Baron R, Lioubashevski O, Katz E, Niazov T, Willner I: Logic gates and elementary computing by enzymes. J Phys Chem A. 2006 Jul 13;110(27):8548-53. [PubMed:16821840 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Glyceraldehyde oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a wide variety of carbonyl-containing compounds to their corresponding alcohols with a broad range of catalytic efficiencies.
Gene Name:
AKR1B1
Uniprot ID:
P15121
Molecular Weight:
35853.125 Da
References
  1. Ido Y: Pyridine nucleotide redox abnormalities in diabetes. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007 Jul;9(7):931-42. [PubMed:17508915 ]
  2. Linster CL, Van Schaftingen E: Vitamin C. Biosynthesis, recycling and degradation in mammals. FEBS J. 2007 Jan;274(1):1-22. [PubMed:17222174 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Testosterone dehydrogenase [nad(p)] activity
Specific Function:
Functions in mitochondrial tRNA maturation. Part of mitochondrial ribonuclease P, an enzyme composed of MRPP1/TRMT10C, MRPP2/HSD17B10 and MRPP3/KIAA0391, which cleaves tRNA molecules in their 5'-ends. Catalyzes the beta-oxidation at position 17 of androgens and estrogens and has 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity with androsterone. Catalyzes the third step in the beta-oxidation of fa...
Gene Name:
HSD17B10
Uniprot ID:
Q99714
Molecular Weight:
26922.87 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
MDH2
Uniprot ID:
P40926
Molecular Weight:
35502.935 Da
References
  1. Baumchen C, Roth AH, Biedendieck R, Malten M, Follmann M, Sahm H, Bringer-Meyer S, Jahn D: D-mannitol production by resting state whole cell biotrans-formation of D-fructose by heterologous mannitol and formate dehydrogenase gene expression in Bacillus megaterium. Biotechnol J. 2007 Nov;2(11):1408-16. [PubMed:17619232 ]
  2. Gallarta F, Sainz FJ, Saenz C: Fluorescent sensing layer for the determination of L-malic acid in wine. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2007 Mar;387(6):2297-305. Epub 2007 Jan 4. [PubMed:17203264 ]
  3. Markova EV, Zotova NV, Savchenko AA, Titova NM, Slepov EV, Cherdantsev DV, Konovalenko AN: [Lymphocyte metabolism in patients with acute pancreatitis with different genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes]. Biomed Khim. 2006 May-Jun;52(3):317-26. [PubMed:16898590 ]
  4. Yennaco LJ, Hu Y, Holden JF: Characterization of malate dehydrogenase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum islandicum. Extremophiles. 2007 Sep;11(5):741-6. Epub 2007 May 9. [PubMed:17487443 ]
  5. Rzem R, Vincent MF, Van Schaftingen E, Veiga-da-Cunha M: L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria, a defect of metabolite repair. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2007 Oct;30(5):681-9. Epub 2007 Jun 21. [PubMed:17603759 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nad binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LDHA
Uniprot ID:
P00338
Molecular Weight:
36688.465 Da
References
  1. Semenza GL: Oxygen-dependent regulation of mitochondrial respiration by hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Biochem J. 2007 Jul 1;405(1):1-9. [PubMed:17555402 ]
  2. Draghia AC: Histochemical and histopathological study of the gastric mucosa in the portal hypertensive gastropathy. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2006;47(3):259-62. [PubMed:17308685 ]
  3. O'Brien J, Kla KM, Hopkins IB, Malecki EA, McKenna MC: Kinetic parameters and lactate dehydrogenase isozyme activities support possible lactate utilization by neurons. Neurochem Res. 2007 Apr-May;32(4-5):597-607. Epub 2006 Sep 28. [PubMed:17006762 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxaloacetate decarboxylase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ME2
Uniprot ID:
P23368
Molecular Weight:
65442.945 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Bifunctional enzyme acting on the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway for fatty acids. Catalyzes the formation of 3-ketoacyl-CoA intermediates from both straight-chain and 2-methyl-branched-chain fatty acids.
Gene Name:
HSD17B4
Uniprot ID:
P51659
Molecular Weight:
79685.715 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Haapalainen AM, Koski MK, Qin YM, Hiltunen JK, Glumoff T: Binary structure of the two-domain (3R)-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase from rat peroxisomal multifunctional enzyme type 2 at 2.38 A resolution. Structure. 2003 Jan;11(1):87-97. [PubMed:12517343 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
L-lactate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LDHAL6B
Uniprot ID:
Q9BYZ2
Molecular Weight:
41942.53 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
L-lactate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Possible role in sperm motility.
Gene Name:
LDHC
Uniprot ID:
P07864
Molecular Weight:
36310.965 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Spielmann H, Eibs HG, Mentzel C: Rapid purification of lactate dehydrogenase X from mouse testes by two steps of affinity chromatography on oxamate-sepharose. Experientia. 1976 Aug 15;32(8):1085-6. [PubMed:182529 ]
  4. Morris ID, Higgins C, Matlin SA: Inhibition of testicular LDH-X from laboratory animals and man by gossypol and its isomers. J Reprod Fertil. 1986 Jul;77(2):607-12. [PubMed:3735252 ]
  5. Gu Y, Davis DR, Lin YC: Developmental changes in lactate dehydrogenase-X activity in young jaundiced male rats. Arch Androl. 1989;22(2):131-6. [PubMed:2751392 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nad binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LDHB
Uniprot ID:
P07195
Molecular Weight:
36638.225 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Razeto A, Kochhar S, Hottinger H, Dauter M, Wilson KS, Lamzin VS: Domain closure, substrate specificity and catalysis of D-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus bulgaricus. J Mol Biol. 2002 Apr 19;318(1):109-19. [PubMed:12054772 ]
  4. Mdluli K, Booth MP, Brady RL, Rumsby G: A preliminary account of the properties of recombinant human Glyoxylate reductase (GRHPR), LDHA and LDHB with glyoxylate, and their potential roles in its metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005 Dec 1;1753(2):209-16. Epub 2005 Aug 22. [PubMed:16198644 ]
  5. Clausen J: Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes of sperm cells and tests. Biochem J. 1969 Jan;111(2):207-18. [PubMed:4303363 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
EHHADH
Uniprot ID:
Q08426
Molecular Weight:
79494.18 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nad+ binding
Specific Function:
Plays an essential role in the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of short chain fatty acids. Exerts it highest activity toward 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA.
Gene Name:
HADH
Uniprot ID:
Q16836
Molecular Weight:
34293.275 Da
References
  1. Norman JP, Perry SW, Kasischke KA, Volsky DJ, Gelbard HA: HIV-1 trans activator of transcription protein elicits mitochondrial hyperpolarization and respiratory deficit, with dysregulation of complex IV and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide homeostasis in cortical neurons. J Immunol. 2007 Jan 15;178(2):869-76. [PubMed:17202348 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxaloacetate decarboxylase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ME3
Uniprot ID:
Q16798
Molecular Weight:
67067.875 Da
References
  1. Luo C, Wang X, Long J, Liu J: An NADH-tetrazolium-coupled sensitive assay for malate dehydrogenase in mitochondria and crude tissue homogenates. J Biochem Biophys Methods. 2006 Aug 31;68(2):101-11. Epub 2006 Apr 26. [PubMed:16740313 ]
  2. Wei H, Dhanaraj AL, Arora R, Rowland LJ, Fu Y, Sun L: Identification of cold acclimation-responsive Rhododendron genes for lipid metabolism, membrane transport and lignin biosynthesis: importance of moderately abundant ESTs in genomic studies. Plant Cell Environ. 2006 Apr;29(4):558-70. [PubMed:17080607 ]
  3. Rzem R, Vincent MF, Van Schaftingen E, Veiga-da-Cunha M: L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria, a defect of metabolite repair. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2007 Oct;30(5):681-9. Epub 2007 Jun 21. [PubMed:17603759 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
BDH1
Uniprot ID:
Q02338
Molecular Weight:
38156.77 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Tabata M, Totani M: A chemiluminescence-flow injection analysis of serum 3-hydroxybutyrate using a bioreactor consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and NADH oxidase. Anal Biochem. 1995 Jul 20;229(1):133-8. [PubMed:8533882 ]
  4. Rudy B, Dubois H, Mink R, Trommer WE, McIntyre JO, Fleischer S: Coenzyme binding by 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, a lipid-requiring enzyme: lecithin acts as an allosteric modulator to enhance the affinity for coenzyme. Biochemistry. 1989 Jun 27;28(13):5354-66. [PubMed:2550053 ]
  5. Smith CM, Plaut GW: Activities of NAD-specific and NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenases in rat-liver mitochondria. Studies with D-threo-alpha-methylisocitrate. Eur J Biochem. 1979 Jun;97(1):283-95. [PubMed:38961 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nad binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
MDH1
Uniprot ID:
P40925
Molecular Weight:
36425.795 Da
References
  1. Drew DP, Lunde C, Lahnstein J, Fincher GB: Heterologous expression of cDNAs encoding monodehydroascorbate reductases from the moss, Physcomitrella patens and characterization of the expressed enzymes. Planta. 2007 Mar;225(4):945-54. [PubMed:16983536 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HIBADH
Uniprot ID:
P31937
Molecular Weight:
35328.515 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Testosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase (nadp+) activity
Specific Function:
Favors the reduction of androstenedione to testosterone. Uses NADPH while the two other EDH17B enzymes use NADH.
Gene Name:
HSD17B3
Uniprot ID:
P37058
Molecular Weight:
34515.345 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Inano H, Tamaoki B: Relationship between steroids and pyridine nucleotides in the oxido-reduction catalyzed by the 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase purified from the porcine testicular microsomal fraction. Eur J Biochem. 1975 May 6;53(2):319-26. [PubMed:237755 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadph binding
Specific Function:
Transmembrane glycoprotein that is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis as well as in the biosynthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids that are essential for normal cell function including ubiquinone and geranylgeranyl proteins.
Gene Name:
HMGCR
Uniprot ID:
P04035
Molecular Weight:
97475.155 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Huber R, Riepe MW: Improved posthypoxic recovery in vitro on treatment with drugs used for secondary stroke prevention. Neuropharmacology. 2005 Mar;48(4):558-65. [PubMed:15755483 ]
  4. Hedl M, Rodwell VW: Inhibition of the class II HMG-CoA reductase of Pseudomonas mevalonii. Protein Sci. 2004 Jun;13(6):1693-7. [PubMed:15152097 ]
  5. Li S, Wagner CA, Friesen JA, Borst DW: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase in the lobster mandibular organ: regulation by the eyestalk. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2003 Nov;134(2):147-55. [PubMed:14511985 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxaloacetate decarboxylase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ME1
Uniprot ID:
P48163
Molecular Weight:
64149.075 Da
References
  1. McKinlay JB, Shachar-Hill Y, Zeikus JG, Vieille C: Determining Actinobacillus succinogenes metabolic pathways and fluxes by NMR and GC-MS analyses of 13C-labeled metabolic product isotopomers. Metab Eng. 2007 Mar;9(2):177-92. Epub 2006 Nov 17. [PubMed:17197218 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PHGDH
Uniprot ID:
O43175
Molecular Weight:
56650.03 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Grant GA: A new family of 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989 Dec 29;165(3):1371-4. [PubMed:2692566 ]
  4. Goldsmith LA, O'Barr T: Serine biosynthesis in human hair follicles by the phosphorylated pathway: follicular 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. J Invest Dermatol. 1976 Jun;66(6):360-6. [PubMed:945314 ]
  5. Grant GA, Hu Z, Xu XL: Cofactor binding to Escherichia coli D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase induces multiple conformations which alter effector binding. J Biol Chem. 2002 Oct 18;277(42):39548-53. Epub 2002 Aug 14. [PubMed:12183470 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Estradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the reduction of the keto group on the C-3 of sterols.
Gene Name:
HSD17B7
Uniprot ID:
P56937
Molecular Weight:
38205.77 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nad binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
IDH3G
Uniprot ID:
P51553
Molecular Weight:
42793.97 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Stein AM, Stein JH, Kirkman SK: Diphosphopyridine nucleotide specific isocitric dehydrogenase of mammalian mitochondria. I. On the roles of pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase and the isocitric dehydrogenases in the respiration of mitochondria of normal and neoplastic tissues. Biochemistry. 1967 May;6(5):1370-9. [PubMed:4292141 ]
  4. SANWAL BD, ZINK MW, STACHOW CS: NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE-SPECIFIC ISOCITRIC DEHYDROGENASE. A POSSIBLE REGULATORY PROTEIN. J Biol Chem. 1964 May;239:1597-603. [PubMed:14189899 ]
  5. Rose ZB: The stereochemistry of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific isocitric dehydrogenase reaction. J Biol Chem. 1966 May 25;241(10):2311-3. [PubMed:4380379 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nad binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
IDH3B
Uniprot ID:
O43837
Molecular Weight:
42183.39 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Stein AM, Stein JH, Kirkman SK: Diphosphopyridine nucleotide specific isocitric dehydrogenase of mammalian mitochondria. I. On the roles of pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase and the isocitric dehydrogenases in the respiration of mitochondria of normal and neoplastic tissues. Biochemistry. 1967 May;6(5):1370-9. [PubMed:4292141 ]
  4. SANWAL BD, ZINK MW, STACHOW CS: NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE-SPECIFIC ISOCITRIC DEHYDROGENASE. A POSSIBLE REGULATORY PROTEIN. J Biol Chem. 1964 May;239:1597-603. [PubMed:14189899 ]
  5. Rose ZB: The stereochemistry of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific isocitric dehydrogenase reaction. J Biol Chem. 1966 May 25;241(10):2311-3. [PubMed:4380379 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nad binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
IDH3A
Uniprot ID:
P50213
Molecular Weight:
39591.365 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. PLAUT GW, SUNG SC: Diphosphopyridine nucleotide isocitric dehydrogenase from animal tissues. J Biol Chem. 1954 Mar;207(1):305-14. [PubMed:13152105 ]
  4. Stein AM, Stein JH, Kirkman SK: Diphosphopyridine nucleotide specific isocitric dehydrogenase of mammalian mitochondria. I. On the roles of pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase and the isocitric dehydrogenases in the respiration of mitochondria of normal and neoplastic tissues. Biochemistry. 1967 May;6(5):1370-9. [PubMed:4292141 ]
  5. Rose ZB: The stereochemistry of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific isocitric dehydrogenase reaction. J Biol Chem. 1966 May 25;241(10):2311-3. [PubMed:4380379 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Testosterone dehydrogenase (nad+) activity
Specific Function:
Favors the reduction of estrogens and androgens. Also has 20-alpha-HSD activity. Uses preferentially NADH.
Gene Name:
HSD17B1
Uniprot ID:
P14061
Molecular Weight:
34949.715 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Pineda JA, Murdock GL, Watson RJ, Warren JC: Stereospecificity of hydrogen transfer by bovine testicular 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. J Steroid Biochem. 1989 Dec;33(6):1223-8. [PubMed:2615366 ]
  4. Fukuda T, Hirato K, Yanaihara T, Nakayama T: Microsomal 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity for progesterone in human placenta. Endocrinol Jpn. 1986 Jun;33(3):361-8. [PubMed:3463506 ]
  5. Rimsay RL, Murphy GW, Martin CJ, Orr JC: The 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of Streptomyces hydrogenans. Eur J Biochem. 1988 Jun 1;174(2):437-42. [PubMed:3164265 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Testosterone dehydrogenase (nad+) activity
Specific Function:
Capable of catalyzing the interconversion of testosterone and androstenedione, as well as estradiol and estrone. Also has 20-alpha-HSD activity. Uses NADH while EDH17B3 uses NADPH.
Gene Name:
HSD17B2
Uniprot ID:
P37059
Molecular Weight:
42784.75 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Fukuda T, Hirato K, Yanaihara T, Nakayama T: Microsomal 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity for progesterone in human placenta. Endocrinol Jpn. 1986 Jun;33(3):361-8. [PubMed:3463506 ]
  4. Pineda JA, Murdock GL, Watson RJ, Warren JC: Stereospecificity of hydrogen transfer by bovine testicular 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. J Steroid Biochem. 1989 Dec;33(6):1223-8. [PubMed:2615366 ]
  5. Wintergalen N, Thole HH, Galla HJ, Schlegel W: Prostaglandin-E2 9-reductase from corpus luteum of pseudopregnant rabbit is a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily featuring 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. Eur J Biochem. 1995 Nov 15;234(1):264-70. [PubMed:8529651 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Retinol dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Stereospecific 11-cis retinol dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of 11-cis retinaldehyde, the universal chromophore of visual pigments. Also able to oxidize 9-cis-retinol and 13-cis-retinol, but not all-trans-retinol. Active in the presence of NAD as cofactor but not in the presence of NADP.
Gene Name:
RDH5
Uniprot ID:
Q92781
Molecular Weight:
34978.425 Da
References
  1. Dalfo D, Marques N, Albalat R: Analysis of the NADH-dependent retinaldehyde reductase activity of amphioxus retinol dehydrogenase enzymes enhances our understanding of the evolution of the retinol dehydrogenase family. FEBS J. 2007 Jul;274(14):3739-52. Epub 2007 Jul 2. [PubMed:17608724 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadp binding
Specific Function:
Oxidizes glucose-6-phosphate and glucose, as well as other hexose-6-phosphates.
Gene Name:
H6PD
Uniprot ID:
O95479
Molecular Weight:
88891.99 Da
References
  1. Siu E, Won K, Park CB: Electrochemical regeneration of NADH using conductive vanadia-silica xerogels. Biotechnol Prog. 2007 Jan-Feb;23(1):293-6. [PubMed:17269701 ]
  2. Lu Y, Mei L: Co-expression of P450 BM3 and glucose dehydrogenase by recombinant Escherichia coli and its application in an NADPH-dependent indigo production system. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007 Mar;34(3):247-53. Epub 2006 Dec 14. [PubMed:17171348 ]
  3. Takenaka M, Verbitskiy D, van der Merwe JA, Zehrmann A, Plessmann U, Urlaub H, Brennicke A: In vitro RNA editing in plant mitochondria does not require added energy. FEBS Lett. 2007 Jun 12;581(14):2743-7. Epub 2007 May 21. [PubMed:17531229 ]
  4. Markova EV, Zotova NV, Savchenko AA, Titova NM, Slepov EV, Cherdantsev DV, Konovalenko AN: [Lymphocyte metabolism in patients with acute pancreatitis with different genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes]. Biomed Khim. 2006 May-Jun;52(3):317-26. [PubMed:16898590 ]
  5. Zhang M, Mullens C, Gorski W: Coimmobilization of dehydrogenases and their cofactors in electrochemical biosensors. Anal Chem. 2007 Mar 15;79(6):2446-50. Epub 2007 Feb 14. [PubMed:17298031 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Testosterone dehydrogenase (nad+) activity
Specific Function:
NAD-dependent 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase with highest activity towards estradiol. Has very low activity towards testosterone. The heteroteramer with CBR4 has NADH-dependent 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase activity. May play a role in biosynthesis of fatty acids in mitochondria.
Gene Name:
HSD17B8
Uniprot ID:
Q92506
Molecular Weight:
26973.56 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Retinal dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the transformation of the potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) into the less active form, 5-alpha-androstan-3-alpha,17-beta-diol (3-alpha-diol). Also has some 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. The biotransformation of the pesticide chlordecone (kepone) to its corresponding alcohol leads to increased biliary excretion of the pesticide and concomitant reduction of its...
Gene Name:
AKR1C4
Uniprot ID:
P17516
Molecular Weight:
37066.52 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Atalla A, Breyer-Pfaff U, Maser E: Purification and characterization of oxidoreductases-catalyzing carbonyl reduction of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in human liver cytosol. Xenobiotica. 2000 Aug;30(8):755-69. [PubMed:11037109 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Rna binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of inosine 5'-phosphate (IMP) to xanthosine 5'-phosphate (XMP), the first committed and rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides, and therefore plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth. Could also have a single-stranded nucleic acid-binding activity and could play a role in RNA and/or DNA metabolism. It may also have a role in t...
Gene Name:
IMPDH2
Uniprot ID:
P12268
Molecular Weight:
55804.495 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Zeevi A, Webber S, Girnita DM, Addonizio L, Selby R, Hutchinson IV, Burckart GJ: A novel variant L263F in human inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 is associated with diminished enzyme activity. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007 Apr;17(4):283-90. [PubMed:17496727 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to alcohols. Catalyzes the reduction of prostaglandin (PG) D2, PGH2 and phenanthrenequinone (PQ) and the oxidation of 9-alpha,11-beta-PGF2 to PGD2. Functions as a bi-directional 3-alpha-, 17-beta- and 20-alpha HSD. Can interconvert active androgens, estrogens and progestins with their cognate inactive metabolites. Preferentially transforms andro...
Gene Name:
AKR1C3
Uniprot ID:
P42330
Molecular Weight:
36852.89 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Pineda JA, Murdock GL, Watson RJ, Warren JC: Stereospecificity of hydrogen transfer by bovine testicular 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. J Steroid Biochem. 1989 Dec;33(6):1223-8. [PubMed:2615366 ]
  4. Pineda JA, Murdock GL, Watson RJ, Warren JC: Stereospecificity of hydrogen transfer between progesterone and cofactor by human placental estradiol-17 beta dehydrogenase. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1990 Sep;37(1):65-70. [PubMed:2146972 ]
  5. Nicolas JC, Boussioux AM, Boularan AM, Descomps B, Crastes de Paulet A: Bioluminescent assay of femtomole levels of estrone and estradiol. Anal Biochem. 1983 Nov;135(1):141-5. [PubMed:6584048 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Prostaglandin inactivation. Contributes to the regulation of events that are under the control of prostaglandin levels. Catalyzes the NAD-dependent dehydrogenation of lipoxin A4 to form 15-oxo-lipoxin A4. Inhibits in vivo proliferation of colon cancer cells.
Gene Name:
HPGD
Uniprot ID:
P15428
Molecular Weight:
28977.105 Da
References
  1. Gao L, He P, Sha J, Liu C, Dai L, Hui N, Ni X: Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 and type 2 mediate differential effects on 15-hydroxy prostaglandin dehydrogenase expression in cultured human chorion trophoblasts. Endocrinology. 2007 Aug;148(8):3645-54. Epub 2007 Apr 26. [PubMed:17463062 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Isomerase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the two-step NADP-dependent conversion of GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-mannose to GDP-fucose, involving an epimerase and a reductase reaction.
Gene Name:
TSTA3
Uniprot ID:
Q13630
Molecular Weight:
35892.46 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Converts progesterone to its inactive form, 20-alpha-dihydroxyprogesterone (20-alpha-OHP). In the liver and intestine, may have a role in the transport of bile. May have a role in monitoring the intrahepatic bile acid concentration. Has a low bile-binding ability. May play a role in myelin formation.
Gene Name:
AKR1C1
Uniprot ID:
Q04828
Molecular Weight:
36788.02 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Pineda JA, Murdock GL, Watson RJ, Warren JC: Stereospecificity of hydrogen transfer by bovine testicular 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. J Steroid Biochem. 1989 Dec;33(6):1223-8. [PubMed:2615366 ]
  4. Fukuda T, Hirato K, Yanaihara T, Nakayama T: Microsomal 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity for progesterone in human placenta. Endocrinol Jpn. 1986 Jun;33(3):361-8. [PubMed:3463506 ]
  5. Burczynski ME, Sridhar GR, Palackal NT, Penning TM: The reactive oxygen species--and Michael acceptor-inducible human aldo-keto reductase AKR1C1 reduces the alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal to 1,4-dihydroxy-2-nonene. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jan 26;276(4):2890-7. Epub 2000 Nov 1. [PubMed:11060293 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [nad(p)] activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes reversibly the conversion of cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone. Catalyzes reversibly the conversion of 7-ketocholesterol to 7-beta-hydroxycholesterol. In intact cells, the reaction runs only in one direction, from 7-ketocholesterol to 7-beta-hydroxycholesterol (By similarity).
Gene Name:
HSD11B1
Uniprot ID:
P28845
Molecular Weight:
32400.665 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Diederich S, Hanke B, Oelkers W, Bahr V: Metabolism of dexamethasone in the human kidney: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent 11beta-reduction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 May;82(5):1598-602. [PubMed:9141556 ]
  4. Hermans JJ, Steckel B, Thijssen HH, Janssen BJ, Netter KJ, Maser E: Comparison of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats. Steroids. 1995 Nov;60(11):773-9. [PubMed:8585102 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Steroid delta-isomerase activity
Specific Function:
3-beta-HSD is a bifunctional enzyme, that catalyzes the oxidative conversion of Delta(5)-ene-3-beta-hydroxy steroid, and the oxidative conversion of ketosteroids. The 3-beta-HSD enzymatic system plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of all classes of hormonal steroids.
Gene Name:
HSD3B2
Uniprot ID:
P26439
Molecular Weight:
42051.845 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Widenius TV, Orava MM, Vihko RK, Ylikahri RH, Eriksson CJ: Inhibition of testosterone biosynthesis by ethanol: multiple sites and mechanisms in dispersed Leydig cells. J Steroid Biochem. 1987 Aug;28(2):185-8. [PubMed:3476810 ]
  4. Fan DF, Troen P: Studies of the human testis. VII. Conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1975 Sep;41(3):563-74. [PubMed:239964 ]
  5. Thomas JL, Myers RP, Strickler RC: Analysis of coenzyme binding by human placental 3 beta-hydroxy-5-ene-steroid dehydrogenase and steroid 5----4-ene-isomerase using 5'-[p-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl]adenosine, an affinity labeling cofactor analog. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1991 Oct;39(4A):471-7. [PubMed:1911436 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Steroid delta-isomerase activity
Specific Function:
3-beta-HSD is a bifunctional enzyme, that catalyzes the oxidative conversion of Delta(5)-ene-3-beta-hydroxy steroid, and the oxidative conversion of ketosteroids. The 3-beta-HSD enzymatic system plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of all classes of hormonal steroids. Efficiently catalyzes the transformation of pregnenolone to progesterone, 17-alpha-hydroxypregnenolone to 17-alpha-hydroxypr...
Gene Name:
HSD3B1
Uniprot ID:
P14060
Molecular Weight:
42251.25 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Widenius TV, Orava MM, Vihko RK, Ylikahri RH, Eriksson CJ: Inhibition of testosterone biosynthesis by ethanol: multiple sites and mechanisms in dispersed Leydig cells. J Steroid Biochem. 1987 Aug;28(2):185-8. [PubMed:3476810 ]
  4. Thomas JL, Myers RP, Rosik LO, Strickler RC: Affinity alkylation of human placental 3 beta-hydroxy-5-ene-steroid dehydrogenase and steroid 5----4-ene-isomerase by 2 alpha-bromoacetoxyprogesterone: evidence for separate dehydrogenase and isomerase sites on one protein. J Steroid Biochem. 1990 Jun;36(1-2):117-23. [PubMed:2362440 ]
  5. Ishii-Ohba H, Inano H, Tamaoki B: Testicular and adrenal 3 beta-hydroxy-5-ene-steroid dehydrogenase and 5-ene-4-ene isomerase. J Steroid Biochem. 1987;27(4-6):775-9. [PubMed:2961942 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Rna binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of inosine 5'-phosphate (IMP) to xanthosine 5'-phosphate (XMP), the first committed and rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides, and therefore plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth. Could also have a single-stranded nucleic acid-binding activity and could play a role in RNA and/or DNA metabolism. It may also have a role in t...
Gene Name:
IMPDH1
Uniprot ID:
P20839
Molecular Weight:
55405.365 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Bowne SJ, Sullivan LS, Mortimer SE, Hedstrom L, Zhu J, Spellicy CJ, Gire AI, Hughbanks-Wheaton D, Birch DG, Lewis RA, Heckenlively JR, Daiger SP: Spectrum and frequency of mutations in IMPDH1 associated with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa and leber congenital amaurosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Jan;47(1):34-42. [PubMed:16384941 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nad binding
Specific Function:
Bifunctional subunit.
Gene Name:
HADHA
Uniprot ID:
P40939
Molecular Weight:
82998.97 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Electron carrier activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDH2
Uniprot ID:
P05091
Molecular Weight:
56380.93 Da
References
  1. Quintanilla ME, Tampier L, Sapag A, Gerdtzen Z, Israel Y: Sex differences, alcohol dehydrogenase, acetaldehyde burst, and aversion to ethanol in the rat: a systems perspective. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Aug;293(2):E531-7. Epub 2007 May 8. [PubMed:17488809 ]
  2. Quintanilla ME, Israel Y, Sapag A, Tampier L: The UChA and UChB rat lines: metabolic and genetic differences influencing ethanol intake. Addict Biol. 2006 Sep;11(3-4):310-23. [PubMed:16961761 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Steroid binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone. Modulates intracellular glucocorticoid levels, thus protecting the nonselective mineralocorticoid receptor from occupation by glucocorticoids.
Gene Name:
HSD11B2
Uniprot ID:
P80365
Molecular Weight:
44126.06 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Mercer WR, Krozowski ZS: Localization of an 11 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity to the distal nephron. Evidence for the existence of two species of dehydrogenase in the rat kidney. Endocrinology. 1992 Jan;130(1):540-3. [PubMed:1727721 ]
  4. Hermans JJ, Steckel B, Thijssen HH, Janssen BJ, Netter KJ, Maser E: Comparison of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats. Steroids. 1995 Nov;60(11):773-9. [PubMed:8585102 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Works in concert with the 5-alpha/5-beta-steroid reductases to convert steroid hormones into the 3-alpha/5-alpha and 3-alpha/5-beta-tetrahydrosteroids. Catalyzes the inactivation of the most potent androgen 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5-alpha-DHT) to 5-alpha-androstane-3-alpha,17-beta-diol (3-alpha-diol). Has a high bile-binding ability.
Gene Name:
AKR1C2
Uniprot ID:
P52895
Molecular Weight:
36734.97 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Rizner TL, Lin HK, Peehl DM, Steckelbroeck S, Bauman DR, Penning TM: Human type 3 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (aldo-keto reductase 1C2) and androgen metabolism in prostate cells. Endocrinology. 2003 Jul;144(7):2922-32. [PubMed:12810547 ]
  4. Trauger JW, Jiang A, Stearns BA, LoGrasso PV: Kinetics of allopregnanolone formation catalyzed by human 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type III (AKR1C2). Biochemistry. 2002 Nov 12;41(45):13451-9. [PubMed:12416991 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the sequential removal of two C-4 methyl groups in post-squalene cholesterol biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
NSDHL
Uniprot ID:
Q15738
Molecular Weight:
41899.99 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Cunningham D, Swartzlander D, Liyanarachchi S, Davuluri RV, Herman GE: Changes in gene expression associated with loss of function of the NSDHL sterol dehydrogenase in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. J Lipid Res. 2005 Jun;46(6):1150-62. Epub 2005 Apr 1. [PubMed:15805545 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Aldehyde dehydrogenase [nad(p)+] activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDH3B2
Uniprot ID:
P48448
Molecular Weight:
42634.6 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Thiolester hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Plays a role in valine and pyrimidine metabolism. Binds fatty acyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
ALDH6A1
Uniprot ID:
Q02252
Molecular Weight:
57839.31 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Kedishvili NY, Popov KM, Harris RA: The effect of ligand binding on the proteolytic pattern of methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1991 Oct;290(1):21-6. [PubMed:1898092 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (nad+) activity
Specific Function:
ALDHs play a major role in the detoxification of alcohol-derived acetaldehyde. They are involved in the metabolism of corticosteroids, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, and lipid peroxidation. This protein preferentially oxidizes aromatic aldehyde substrates. It may play a role in the oxidation of toxic aldehydes.
Gene Name:
ALDH3A1
Uniprot ID:
P30838
Molecular Weight:
50394.57 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Wroczynski P, Nowak M, Wierzchowski J, Szubert A, Polanski J: Activities of cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in colon cancer: determination using selective, fluorimetric assays. Acta Pol Pharm. 2005 Nov-Dec;62(6):427-33. [PubMed:16583981 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Retinal dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Binds free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Can convert/oxidize retinaldehyde to retinoic acid (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH1A1
Uniprot ID:
P00352
Molecular Weight:
54861.44 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Wroczynski P, Nowak M, Wierzchowski J, Szubert A, Polanski J: Activities of cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in colon cancer: determination using selective, fluorimetric assays. Acta Pol Pharm. 2005 Nov-Dec;62(6):427-33. [PubMed:16583981 ]
  4. Russo J, Barnes A, Berger K, Desgrosellier J, Henderson J, Kanters A, Merkov L: 4-(N,N-dipropylamino)benzaldehyde inhibits the oxidation of all-trans retinal to all-trans retinoic acid by ALDH1A1, but not the differentiation of HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells exposed to all-trans retinal. BMC Pharmacol. 2002;2:4. Epub 2002 Feb 12. [PubMed:11872149 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadp binding
Specific Function:
May play an important role in regulating the switch between different pathways for energy production during spermiogenesis and in the spermatozoon. Required for sperm motility and male fertility (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GAPDHS
Uniprot ID:
O14556
Molecular Weight:
44500.835 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Maeda K, Nagata H, Nonaka A, Kataoka K, Tanaka M, Shizukuishi S: Oral streptococcal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mediates interaction with Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae. Microbes Infect. 2004 Nov;6(13):1163-70. [PubMed:15488735 ]
  4. Graciet E, Lebreton S, Camadro JM, Gontero B: Characterization of native and recombinant A4 glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Kinetic evidence for confromation changes upon association with the small protein CP12. Eur J Biochem. 2003 Jan;270(1):129-36. [PubMed:12492483 ]
  5. Ismail SA, Park HW: Structural analysis of human liver glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2005 Nov;61(Pt 11):1508-13. Epub 2005 Oct 19. [PubMed:16239728 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Converts gamma-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde into gamma-butyrobetaine. Catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of a broad range of aldehydes to the corresponding acids in an NAD-dependent reaction.
Gene Name:
ALDH9A1
Uniprot ID:
P49189
Molecular Weight:
53801.495 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Prieto MI, Martin J, Balana-Fouce R, Garrido-Pertierra A: Properties of gamma-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Biochimie. 1987 Nov-Dec;69(11-12):1161-8. [PubMed:3129020 ]
  4. Testore G, Colombatto S, Silvagno F, Bedino S: Purification and kinetic characterization of gamma-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase from rat liver. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1995 Nov;27(11):1201-10. [PubMed:7584606 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Thyroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
Recognizes as substrates free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Seems to be the key enzyme in the formation of an RA gradient along the dorso-ventral axis during the early eye development and also in the development of the olfactory system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH1A3
Uniprot ID:
P47895
Molecular Weight:
56107.995 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Graham CE, Brocklehurst K, Pickersgill RW, Warren MJ: Characterization of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 3. Biochem J. 2006 Feb 15;394(Pt 1):67-75. [PubMed:16241904 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Aldehyde dehydrogenase (nad) activity
Specific Function:
ALDHs play a major role in the detoxification of alcohol-derived acetaldehyde. They are involved in the metabolism of corticosteroids, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, and lipid peroxidation.
Gene Name:
ALDH1B1
Uniprot ID:
P30837
Molecular Weight:
57205.93 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Aldehyde dehydrogenase [nad(p)+] activity
Specific Function:
Oxidizes medium and long chain saturated and unsaturated aldehydes. Metabolizes also benzaldehyde. Low activity towards acetaldehyde and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde. May not metabolize short chain aldehydes. May use both NADP(+) and NAD(+) as cofactors. May have a protective role against the cytotoxicity induced by lipid peroxidation.
Gene Name:
ALDH3B1
Uniprot ID:
P43353
Molecular Weight:
51839.245 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Peptidyl-cysteine s-nitrosylase activity
Specific Function:
Has both glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and nitrosylase activities, thereby playing a role in glycolysis and nuclear functions, respectively. Participates in nuclear events including transcription, RNA transport, DNA replication and apoptosis. Nuclear functions are probably due to the nitrosylase activity that mediates cysteine S-nitrosylation of nuclear target proteins such as SIRT1,...
Gene Name:
GAPDH
Uniprot ID:
P04406
Molecular Weight:
36053.0 Da
References
  1. Markova EV, Zotova NV, Savchenko AA, Titova NM, Slepov EV, Cherdantsev DV, Konovalenko AN: [Lymphocyte metabolism in patients with acute pancreatitis with different genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes]. Biomed Khim. 2006 May-Jun;52(3):317-26. [PubMed:16898590 ]
  2. Ido Y: Pyridine nucleotide redox abnormalities in diabetes. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007 Jul;9(7):931-42. [PubMed:17508915 ]
  3. Trost P, Fermani S, Marri L, Zaffagnini M, Falini G, Scagliarini S, Pupillo P, Sparla F: Thioredoxin-dependent regulation of photosynthetic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: autonomous vs. CP12-dependent mechanisms. Photosynth Res. 2006 Sep;89(2-3):263-75. Epub 2006 Sep 22. [PubMed:17031544 ]
  4. Swearengin TA, Fibuch EE, Seidler NW: Sevoflurane modulates the activity of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2006 Oct;21(5):575-9. [PubMed:17194030 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Retinal dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Recognizes as substrates free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Does metabolize octanal and decanal but does not metabolize citral, benzaldehyde, acetaldehyde and propanal efficiently (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH1A2
Uniprot ID:
O94788
Molecular Weight:
56723.495 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Lamb AL, Newcomer ME: The structure of retinal dehydrogenase type II at 2.7 A resolution: implications for retinal specificity. Biochemistry. 1999 May 11;38(19):6003-11. [PubMed:10320326 ]
  4. Russo J, Barnes A, Berger K, Desgrosellier J, Henderson J, Kanters A, Merkov L: 4-(N,N-dipropylamino)benzaldehyde inhibits the oxidation of all-trans retinal to all-trans retinoic acid by ALDH1A1, but not the differentiation of HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells exposed to all-trans retinal. BMC Pharmacol. 2002;2:4. Epub 2002 Feb 12. [PubMed:11872149 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Medium-chain-aldehyde dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain aliphatic aldehydes to fatty acids. Active on a variety of saturated and unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes between 6 and 24 carbons in length. Responsible for conversion of the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) degradation product hexadecenal to hexadecenoic acid.
Gene Name:
ALDH3A2
Uniprot ID:
P51648
Molecular Weight:
54847.36 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Bognar A, Meighen E: Mechanism of a long-chain fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase induced during the development of bioluminescence in Beneckea harveyi. Can J Biochem Cell Biol. 1983 May;61(5):301-6. [PubMed:6603890 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [nad(p)+] activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes one step in the degradation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
Gene Name:
ALDH5A1
Uniprot ID:
P51649
Molecular Weight:
57214.23 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
L-aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Multifunctional enzyme mediating important protective effects. Metabolizes betaine aldehyde to betaine, an important cellular osmolyte and methyl donor. Protects cells from oxidative stress by metabolizing a number of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes. Involved in lysine catabolism.
Gene Name:
ALDH7A1
Uniprot ID:
P49419
Molecular Weight:
58486.74 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. de La Fuente JL, Rumbero A, Martin JF, Liras P: Delta-1-piperideine-6-carboxylate dehydrogenase, a new enzyme that forms alpha-aminoadipate in Streptomyces clavuligerus and other cephamycin C-producing actinomycetes. Biochem J. 1997 Oct 1;327 ( Pt 1):59-64. [PubMed:9355735 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Riboflavin reductase (nadph) activity
Specific Function:
Broad specificity oxidoreductase that catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a variety of flavins, such as riboflavin, FAD or FMN, biliverdins, methemoglobin and PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone). Contributes to heme catabolism and metabolizes linear tetrapyrroles. Can also reduce the complexed Fe(3+) iron to Fe(2+) in the presence of FMN and NADPH. In the liver, converts biliverdin to bilirubin.
Gene Name:
BLVRB
Uniprot ID:
P30043
Molecular Weight:
22119.215 Da
References
  1. Deng D, Li X, Fang X, Sun G: Characterization of two components of the 2-naphthoate monooxygenase system from Burkholderia sp. strain JT1500. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007 Aug;273(1):22-7. Epub 2007 Jun 7. [PubMed:17559398 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase activity
Specific Function:
Housekeeping enzyme that catalyzes the last step in proline biosynthesis. In some cell types, such as erythrocytes, its primary function may be the generation of NADP(+). Can utilize both NAD and NADP. Has higher affinity for NADP, but higher catalytic efficiency with NADH (PubMed:2722838, PubMed:6894153). Involved in cellular response to oxidative stress (PubMed:25865492).
Gene Name:
PYCR2
Uniprot ID:
Q96C36
Molecular Weight:
33636.815 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Murahama M, Yoshida T, Hayashi F, Ichino T, Sanada Y, Wada K: Purification and characterization of Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase isoenzymes, indicating differential distribution in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves. Plant Cell Physiol. 2001 Jul;42(7):742-50. [PubMed:11479381 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase activity
Specific Function:
Housekeeping enzyme that catalyzes the last step in proline biosynthesis. Can utilize both NAD and NADP, but has higher affinity for NAD. Involved in the cellular response to oxidative stress.
Gene Name:
PYCR1
Uniprot ID:
P32322
Molecular Weight:
33360.27 Da
References
  1. Wang ZQ, Yuan YZ, Ou JQ, Lin QH, Zhang CF: Glutamine synthetase and glutamate dehydrogenase contribute differentially to proline accumulation in leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings exposed to different salinity. J Plant Physiol. 2007 Jun;164(6):695-701. Epub 2006 Jun 14. [PubMed:16777263 ]
  2. Forlani G, Giberti S, Berlicki L, Petrollino D, Kafarski P: Plant P5C reductase as a new target for aminomethylenebisphosphonates. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 May 30;55(11):4340-7. Epub 2007 May 3. [PubMed:17474756 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nad+ binding
Specific Function:
Mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase that converts L-glutamate into alpha-ketoglutarate. Plays a key role in glutamine anaplerosis by producing alpha-ketoglutarate, an important intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. May be involved in learning and memory reactions by increasing the turnover of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GLUD1
Uniprot ID:
P00367
Molecular Weight:
61397.315 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
PDHB
Uniprot ID:
P11177
Molecular Weight:
39233.1 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Taylor SI, Mukherjee C, Jungas RL: Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in isolated rat liver mitochondria. Effects of octanoate, oxidation-reduction state, and adenosine triphosphate to adenosine diphosphate ratio. J Biol Chem. 1975 Mar 25;250(6):2028-35. [PubMed:1116996 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) activity
Specific Function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
PDHA2
Uniprot ID:
P29803
Molecular Weight:
42932.855 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
PDHA1
Uniprot ID:
P08559
Molecular Weight:
43295.255 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reduces the gamma-methene bridge of the open tetrapyrrole, biliverdin IX alpha, to bilirubin with the concomitant oxidation of a NADH or NADPH cofactor.
Gene Name:
BLVRA
Uniprot ID:
P53004
Molecular Weight:
33428.225 Da
References
  1. Franklin E, Browne S, Hayes J, Boland C, Dunne A, Elliot G, Mantle TJ: Activation of biliverdin-IXalpha reductase by inorganic phosphate and related anions. Biochem J. 2007 Jul 1;405(1):61-7. [PubMed:17402939 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Flavin adenine dinucleotide binding
Specific Function:
Introduces a double bond at position 2 in saturated acyl-CoA's of short chain length, i.e. less than 6 carbon atoms.
Gene Name:
ACADS
Uniprot ID:
P16219
Molecular Weight:
44296.705 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadph binding
Specific Function:
Key enzyme in folate metabolism. Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway. Catalyzes an essential reaction for de novo glycine and purine synthesis, and for DNA precursor synthesis. Binds its own mRNA and that of DHFRL1.
Gene Name:
DHFR
Uniprot ID:
P00374
Molecular Weight:
21452.61 Da
References
  1. Argyrou A, Jin L, Siconilfi-Baez L, Angeletti RH, Blanchard JS: Proteome-wide profiling of isoniazid targets in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Biochemistry. 2006 Nov 28;45(47):13947-53. [PubMed:17115689 ]
  2. Vickers TJ, Orsomando G, de la Garza RD, Scott DA, Kang SO, Hanson AD, Beverley SM: Biochemical and genetic analysis of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in Leishmania metabolism and virulence. J Biol Chem. 2006 Dec 15;281(50):38150-8. Epub 2006 Oct 10. [PubMed:17032644 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Thiamine pyrophosphate binding
Specific Function:
The 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components: 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3).
Gene Name:
OGDH
Uniprot ID:
Q02218
Molecular Weight:
115934.37 Da
References
  1. Mailloux RJ, Beriault R, Lemire J, Singh R, Chenier DR, Hamel RD, Appanna VD: The tricarboxylic acid cycle, an ancient metabolic network with a novel twist. PLoS One. 2007 Aug 1;2(8):e690. [PubMed:17668068 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Leucine binding
Specific Function:
Important for recycling the chief excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, during neurotransmission.
Gene Name:
GLUD2
Uniprot ID:
P49448
Molecular Weight:
61433.465 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
7-dehydrocholesterol reductase activity
Specific Function:
Production of cholesterol by reduction of C7-C8 double bond of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC).
Gene Name:
DHCR7
Uniprot ID:
Q9UBM7
Molecular Weight:
54488.98 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadph dehydrogenase (quinone) activity
Specific Function:
The enzyme apparently serves as a quinone reductase in connection with conjugation reactions of hydroquinones involved in detoxification pathways as well as in biosynthetic processes such as the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation of glutamate residues in prothrombin synthesis.
Gene Name:
NQO2
Uniprot ID:
P16083
Molecular Weight:
25918.4 Da
References
  1. Jamieson D, Tung AT, Knox RJ, Boddy AV: Reduction of mitomycin C is catalysed by human recombinant NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 using reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as an electron donating co-factor. Br J Cancer. 2006 Nov 6;95(9):1229-33. Epub 2006 Oct 10. [PubMed:17031400 ]
  2. Iskander K, Li J, Han S, Zheng B, Jaiswal AK: NQO1 and NQO2 regulation of humoral immunity and autoimmunity. J Biol Chem. 2006 Oct 13;281(41):30917-24. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16905546 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
binder
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND2
Uniprot ID:
P03891
Molecular Weight:
38960.47 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Nikonova EV, Vijayasarathy C, Zhang L, Cater JR, Galante RJ, Ward SE, Avadhani NG, Pack AI: Differences in activity of cytochrome C oxidase in brain between sleep and wakefulness. Sleep. 2005 Jan;28(1):21-7. [PubMed:15700717 ]
  4. Zhang HB, Chen SL, Liu JZ, Xiao B, Chen ZB, Wang HJ: [The changes of gene expression in multiple myeloma treated with thalidomide]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 2003 May;42(5):300-2. [PubMed:12882707 ]
  5. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Saccharopine dehydrogenase (nadp+, l-lysine-forming) activity
Specific Function:
Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the first two steps in lysine degradation. The N-terminal and the C-terminal contain lysine-ketoglutarate reductase and saccharopine dehydrogenase activity, respectively.
Gene Name:
AASS
Uniprot ID:
Q9UDR5
Molecular Weight:
102130.895 Da
References
  1. Xu H, West AH, Cook PF: Determinants of substrate specificity for saccharopine dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochemistry. 2007 Jun 26;46(25):7625-36. Epub 2007 Jun 2. [PubMed:17542618 ]
  2. Xu H, West AH, Cook PF: Overall kinetic mechanism of saccharopine dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochemistry. 2006 Oct 3;45(39):12156-66. [PubMed:17002315 ]
  3. Xu H, Alguindigue SS, West AH, Cook PF: A proposed proton shuttle mechanism for saccharopine dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochemistry. 2007 Jan 23;46(3):871-82. [PubMed:17223709 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
binder
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND3
Uniprot ID:
P03897
Molecular Weight:
13185.87 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Quinone binding
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NDUFS7
Uniprot ID:
O75251
Molecular Weight:
23563.3 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Schuler F, Yano T, Di Bernardo S, Yagi T, Yankovskaya V, Singer TP, Casida JE: NADH-quinone oxidoreductase: PSST subunit couples electron transfer from iron-sulfur cluster N2 to quinone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Mar 30;96(7):4149-53. [PubMed:10097178 ]
  4. Hyslop SJ, Duncan AM, Pitkanen S, Robinson BH: Assignment of the PSST subunit gene of human mitochondrial complex I to chromosome 19p13. Genomics. 1996 Nov 1;37(3):375-80. [PubMed:8938450 ]
  5. Albracht SP: Intimate relationships of the large and the small subunits of all nickel hydrogenases with two nuclear-encoded subunits of mitochondrial NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993 Sep 13;1144(2):221-4. [PubMed:8369340 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase [nad(p)+] activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
MTHFD1
Uniprot ID:
P11586
Molecular Weight:
101558.37 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Phosphate ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
MTHFD2
Uniprot ID:
P13995
Molecular Weight:
37894.775 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Identical protein binding
Specific Function:
Irreversible conversion of delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), derived either from proline or ornithine, to glutamate. This is a necessary step in the pathway interconnecting the urea and tricarboxylic acid cycles. The preferred substrate is glutamic gamma-semialdehyde, other substrates include succinic, glutaric and adipic semialdehydes.
Gene Name:
ALDH4A1
Uniprot ID:
P30038
Molecular Weight:
61718.93 Da
References
  1. Inagaki E, Ohshima N, Takahashi H, Kuroishi C, Yokoyama S, Tahirov TH: Crystal structure of Thermus thermophilus Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase. J Mol Biol. 2006 Sep 22;362(3):490-501. Epub 2006 Jul 29. [PubMed:16934832 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nad binding
Specific Function:
Desaturation and elongation of fatty acids, cholesterol biosynthesis, drug metabolism, and, in erythrocyte, methemoglobin reduction.
Gene Name:
CYB5R3
Uniprot ID:
P00387
Molecular Weight:
34234.55 Da
References
  1. Roma GW, Crowley LJ, Barber MJ: Expression and characterization of a functional canine variant of cytochrome b5 reductase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2006 Aug 1;452(1):69-82. Epub 2006 May 24. [PubMed:16814740 ]
  2. Nussenzveig RH, Lingam HB, Gaikwad A, Zhu Q, Jing N, Prchal JT: A novel mutation of the cytochrome-b5 reductase gene in an Indian patient: the molecular basis of type I methemoglobinemia. Haematologica. 2006 Nov;91(11):1542-5. [PubMed:17082011 ]
  3. Kim S, Suga M, Ogasahara K, Ikegami T, Minami Y, Yubisui T, Tsukihara T: Structure of Physarum polycephalum cytochrome b5 reductase at 1.56 A resolution. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2007 Apr 1;63(Pt 4):274-9. Epub 2007 Mar 23. [PubMed:17401193 ]
  4. Kurian JR, Chin NA, Longlais BJ, Hayes KL, Trepanier LA: Reductive detoxification of arylhydroxylamine carcinogens by human NADH cytochrome b5 reductase and cytochrome b5. Chem Res Toxicol. 2006 Oct;19(10):1366-73. [PubMed:17040106 ]
  5. Ikegami T, Kameyama E, Yamamoto SY, Minami Y, Yubisui T: Structure and properties of the recombinant NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase of Physarum polycephalum. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007 Mar;71(3):783-90. Epub 2007 Mar 7. [PubMed:17341833 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NDUFA11
Uniprot ID:
Q86Y39
Molecular Weight:
14851.96 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND4
Uniprot ID:
P03905
Molecular Weight:
51580.26 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Shen XY, Zacal N, Singh G, Rainbow AJ: Alterations in mitochondrial and apoptosis-regulating gene expression in photodynamic therapy-resistant variants of HT29 colon carcinoma cells. Photochem Photobiol. 2005 Mar-Apr;81(2):306-13. [PubMed:15560738 ]
  4. Carper DA, Sun JK, Iwata T, Zigler JS Jr, Ibaraki N, Lin LR, Reddy V: Oxidative stress induces differential gene expression in a human lens epithelial cell line. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999 Feb;40(2):400-6. [PubMed:9950599 ]
  5. Dzelzkalns VA, Obinger C, Regelsberger G, Niederhauser H, Kamensek M, Peschek GA, Bogorad L: Deletion of the structural gene for the NADH-dehydrogenase subunit 4 of Synechocystis 6803 alters respiratory properties. Plant Physiol. 1994 Dec;106(4):1435-42. [PubMed:7846157 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadph binding
Specific Function:
The product of this enzyme, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH-4), is an essential cofactor for phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan hydroxylases.
Gene Name:
QDPR
Uniprot ID:
P09417
Molecular Weight:
25789.295 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Nakanishi N, Ozawa K, Yamada S: Determination of NADPH-specific dihydropteridine reductase in extract from human, monkey, and bovine livers by single radial immunodiffusion: selective assay differentiating NADPH- and NADH-specific enzymes. J Biochem. 1986 May;99(5):1311-5. [PubMed:3086306 ]
  4. van der Heiden C, Brink W: Spectral studies of the interaction of the substrate 'quinonoid' 6-methyl dihydropterine and the coenzyme NADH used as marker in the dihydropteridine reductase assay. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1982;5(3):132-6. [PubMed:6820434 ]
  5. Lee PL, Halloran C, Cross AR, Beutler E: NADH-ferric reductase activity associated with dihydropteridine reductase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 May 19;271(3):788-95. [PubMed:10814540 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
binder
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND1
Uniprot ID:
P03886
Molecular Weight:
35660.055 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadp binding
Specific Function:
The transhydrogenation between NADH and NADP is coupled to respiration and ATP hydrolysis and functions as a proton pump across the membrane. May play a role in reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification in the adrenal gland.
Gene Name:
NNT
Uniprot ID:
Q13423
Molecular Weight:
113894.595 Da
References
  1. Kabus A, Georgi T, Wendisch VF, Bott M: Expression of the Escherichia coli pntAB genes encoding a membrane-bound transhydrogenase in Corynebacterium glutamicum improves L-lysine formation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007 May;75(1):47-53. Epub 2007 Jan 11. [PubMed:17216441 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFA5
Uniprot ID:
Q16718
Molecular Weight:
13458.605 Da
References
  1. Chen CL, Zhang L, Yeh A, Chen CA, Green-Church KB, Zweier JL, Chen YR: Site-specific S-glutathiolation of mitochondrial NADH ubiquinone reductase. Biochemistry. 2007 May 15;46(19):5754-65. Epub 2007 Apr 20. [PubMed:17444656 ]
  2. Belevich G, Euro L, Wikstrom M, Verkhovskaya M: Role of the conserved arginine 274 and histidine 224 and 228 residues in the NuoCD subunit of complex I from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2007 Jan 16;46(2):526-33. [PubMed:17209562 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein complex binding
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFA9
Uniprot ID:
Q16795
Molecular Weight:
42509.18 Da
References
  1. Barker CD, Reda T, Hirst J: The flavoprotein subcomplex of complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) from bovine heart mitochondria: insights into the mechanisms of NADH oxidation and NAD+ reduction from protein film voltammetry. Biochemistry. 2007 Mar 20;46(11):3454-64. Epub 2007 Feb 27. [PubMed:17323923 ]
  2. Balaban RS: Maintenance of the metabolic homeostasis of the heart: developing a systems analysis approach. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Oct;1080:140-53. [PubMed:17132781 ]
  3. Matsuzaki S, Szweda LI: Inhibition of complex I by Ca2+ reduces electron transport activity and the rate of superoxide anion production in cardiac submitochondrial particles. Biochemistry. 2007 Feb 6;46(5):1350-7. [PubMed:17260964 ]
  4. Fisher N, Bray PG, Ward SA, Biagini GA: The malaria parasite type II NADH:quinone oxidoreductase: an alternative enzyme for an alternative lifestyle. Trends Parasitol. 2007 Jul;23(7):305-10. Epub 2007 May 10. [PubMed:17499024 ]
  5. Liu Y, Qiao DR, Zheng HB, Dai XL, Bai LH, Zeng J, Cao Y: Cloning and sequence analysis of the gene encoding 19-kD subunit of Complex I from Dunaliella salina. Mol Biol Rep. 2008 Sep;35(3):397-403. Epub 2007 May 26. [PubMed:17530440 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND4L
Uniprot ID:
P03901
Molecular Weight:
10741.005 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFA10
Uniprot ID:
O95299
Molecular Weight:
40750.28 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Structural constituent of ribosome
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFA7
Uniprot ID:
O95182
Molecular Weight:
12551.27 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFA1
Uniprot ID:
O15239
Molecular Weight:
8072.325 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Au HC, Seo BB, Matsuno-Yagi A, Yagi T, Scheffler IE: The NDUFA1 gene product (MWFE protein) is essential for activity of complex I in mammalian mitochondria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Apr 13;96(8):4354-9. [PubMed:10200266 ]
  4. Raha S, Myint AT, Johnstone L, Robinson BH: Control of oxygen free radical formation from mitochondrial complex I: roles for protein kinase A and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002 Mar 1;32(5):421-30. [PubMed:11864782 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND6
Uniprot ID:
P03923
Molecular Weight:
18622.045 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND5
Uniprot ID:
P03915
Molecular Weight:
67025.67 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Johnson WE, O'Brien SJ: Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Felidae using 16S rRNA and NADH-5 mitochondrial genes. J Mol Evol. 1997;44 Suppl 1:S98-116. [PubMed:9071018 ]
  4. Bao HG, Zhao CJ, Li JY, Wu Ch: Association of MT-ND5 gene variation with mitochondrial respiratory control ratio and NADH dehydrogenase activity in Tibet chicken embryos. Anim Genet. 2007 Oct;38(5):514-6. Epub 2007 Jul 5. [PubMed:17614984 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein complex binding
Specific Function:
Cytochrome c oxidase (COX, complex IV) is the terminal component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. Required for complex IV maintenance.
Gene Name:
NDUFA4
Uniprot ID:
O00483
Molecular Weight:
9369.78 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed to be not involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFA6
Uniprot ID:
P56556
Molecular Weight:
17870.715 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Carrier of the growing fatty acid chain in fatty acid biosynthesis in mitochondria. Accessory and non-catalytic subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), which functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NDUFAB1
Uniprot ID:
O14561
Molecular Weight:
17417.095 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFA2
Uniprot ID:
O43678
Molecular Weight:
10921.45 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein complex binding
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFA8
Uniprot ID:
P51970
Molecular Weight:
20104.875 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Triepels R, van den Heuvel L, Loeffen J, Smeets R, Trijbels F, Smeitink J: The nuclear-encoded human NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase NDUFA8 subunit: cDNA cloning, chromosomal localization, tissue distribution, and mutation detection in complex-I-deficient patients. Hum Genet. 1998 Nov;103(5):557-63. [PubMed:9860297 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFA3
Uniprot ID:
O95167
Molecular Weight:
9278.785 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFB8
Uniprot ID:
O95169
Molecular Weight:
21765.665 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFC2
Uniprot ID:
O95298
Molecular Weight:
14187.33 Da
References
  1. Gyan S, Shiohira Y, Sato I, Takeuchi M, Sato T: Regulatory loop between redox sensing of the NADH/NAD(+) ratio by Rex (YdiH) and oxidation of NADH by NADH dehydrogenase Ndh in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 2006 Oct;188(20):7062-71. [PubMed:17015645 ]
  2. Quiles MJ: Stimulation of chlororespiration by heat and high light intensity in oat plants. Plant Cell Environ. 2006 Aug;29(8):1463-70. [PubMed:16898010 ]
  3. Brooijmans RJ, Poolman B, Schuurman-Wolters GK, de Vos WM, Hugenholtz J: Generation of a membrane potential by Lactococcus lactis through aerobic electron transport. J Bacteriol. 2007 Jul;189(14):5203-9. Epub 2007 May 11. [PubMed:17496098 ]
  4. Bao HG, Zhao CJ, Li JY, Wu Ch: Association of MT-ND5 gene variation with mitochondrial respiratory control ratio and NADH dehydrogenase activity in Tibet chicken embryos. Anim Genet. 2007 Oct;38(5):514-6. Epub 2007 Jul 5. [PubMed:17614984 ]
  5. Zhu X, Liu B, Zhou S, Chen YR, Deng Y, Zweier JL, He G: Ischemic preconditioning prevents in vivo hyperoxygenation in postischemic myocardium with preservation of mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Sep;293(3):H1442-50. Epub 2007 May 18. [PubMed:17513495 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFB1
Uniprot ID:
O75438
Molecular Weight:
6961.165 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity). This is the largest subunit of complex I and it is a...
Gene Name:
NDUFS1
Uniprot ID:
P28331
Molecular Weight:
79466.77 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFB10
Uniprot ID:
O96000
Molecular Weight:
20776.545 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFB4
Uniprot ID:
O95168
Molecular Weight:
15208.4 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFB3
Uniprot ID:
O43676
Molecular Weight:
11401.945 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFB2
Uniprot ID:
O95178
Molecular Weight:
12058.36 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFB7
Uniprot ID:
P17568
Molecular Weight:
16401.82 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Raha S, Myint AT, Johnstone L, Robinson BH: Control of oxygen free radical formation from mitochondrial complex I: roles for protein kinase A and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002 Mar 1;32(5):421-30. [PubMed:11864782 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed to be not involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFB9
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6M9
Molecular Weight:
21830.75 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NDUFS2
Uniprot ID:
O75306
Molecular Weight:
52545.26 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFB5
Uniprot ID:
O43674
Molecular Weight:
21750.05 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFC1
Uniprot ID:
O43677
Molecular Weight:
8734.155 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFB6
Uniprot ID:
O95139
Molecular Weight:
15489.145 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFV3
Uniprot ID:
P56181
Molecular Weight:
11940.435 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nad binding
Specific Function:
Lipoamide dehydrogenase is a component of the glycine cleavage system as well as of the alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes. Involved in the hyperactivation of spermatazoa during capacitation and in the spermatazoal acrosome reaction.
Gene Name:
DLD
Uniprot ID:
P09622
Molecular Weight:
54176.91 Da
References
  1. Yan LJ, Yang SH, Shu H, Prokai L, Forster MJ: Histochemical staining and quantification of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase diaphorase activity using blue native PAGE. Electrophoresis. 2007 Apr;28(7):1036-45. [PubMed:17315258 ]
  2. Gutierrez-Correa J: Trypanosoma cruzi dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase as target for phenothiazine cationic radicals. Effect of antioxidants. Curr Drug Targets. 2006 Sep;7(9):1155-79. [PubMed:17017892 ]
  3. Islam MM, Wallin R, Wynn RM, Conway M, Fujii H, Mobley JA, Chuang DT, Hutson SM: A novel branched-chain amino acid metabolon. Protein-protein interactions in a supramolecular complex. J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 20;282(16):11893-903. Epub 2007 Feb 21. [PubMed:17314104 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NDUFS3
Uniprot ID:
O75489
Molecular Weight:
30241.245 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadp binding
Specific Function:
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol.
Gene Name:
GSR
Uniprot ID:
P00390
Molecular Weight:
56256.565 Da
References
  1. Knapp KG, Swartz JR: Evidence for an additional disulfide reduction pathway in Escherichia coli. J Biosci Bioeng. 2007 Apr;103(4):373-6. [PubMed:17502280 ]
  2. Aon MA, Cortassa S, Maack C, O'Rourke B: Sequential opening of mitochondrial ion channels as a function of glutathione redox thiol status. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jul 27;282(30):21889-900. Epub 2007 May 31. [PubMed:17540766 ]
  3. Wan C, Li S, Wen L, Kong J, Wang K, Zhu Y: Damage of oxidative stress on mitochondria during microspores development in Honglian CMS line of rice. Plant Cell Rep. 2007 Mar;26(3):373-82. Epub 2006 Oct 12. [PubMed:17053903 ]
  4. Cheng Z, Arscott LD, Ballou DP, Williams CH Jr: The relationship of the redox potentials of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase from Drosophila melanogaster to the enzymatic mechanism: reduced thioredoxin is the reductant of glutathione in Drosophila. Biochemistry. 2007 Jul 3;46(26):7875-85. Epub 2007 Jun 6. [PubMed:17550271 ]
  5. Gazaryan IG, Krasinskaya IP, Kristal BS, Brown AM: Zinc irreversibly damages major enzymes of energy production and antioxidant defense prior to mitochondrial permeability transition. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 17;282(33):24373-80. Epub 2007 Jun 12. [PubMed:17565998 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFA12
Uniprot ID:
Q9UI09
Molecular Weight:
17114.43 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFS5
Uniprot ID:
O43920
Molecular Weight:
12517.415 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Loeffen J, Smeets R, Smeitink J, Triepels R, Sengers R, Trijbels F, van den Heuvel L: The human NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase NDUFS5 (15 kDa) subunit: cDNA cloning, chromosomal localization, tissue distribution and the absence of mutations in isolated complex I-deficient patients. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1999 Feb;22(1):19-28. [PubMed:10070614 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFS4
Uniprot ID:
O43181
Molecular Weight:
20107.84 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Papa S, Sardanelli AM, Scacco S, Petruzzella V, Technikova-Dobrova Z, Vergari R, Signorile A: The NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) of the mammalian respiratory chain and the cAMP cascade. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2002 Feb;34(1):1-10. [PubMed:11860175 ]
  4. Petruzzella V, Vergari R, Puzziferri I, Boffoli D, Lamantea E, Zeviani M, Papa S: A nonsense mutation in the NDUFS4 gene encoding the 18 kDa (AQDQ) subunit of complex I abolishes assembly and activity of the complex in a patient with Leigh-like syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2001 Mar 1;10(5):529-35. [PubMed:11181577 ]
  5. Raha S, Myint AT, Johnstone L, Robinson BH: Control of oxygen free radical formation from mitochondrial complex I: roles for protein kinase A and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002 Mar 1;32(5):421-30. [PubMed:11864782 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NDUFV1
Uniprot ID:
P49821
Molecular Weight:
50816.685 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Schuelke M, Loeffen J, Mariman E, Smeitink J, van den Heuvel L: Cloning of the human mitochondrial 51 kDa subunit (NDUFV1) reveals a 100% antisense homology of its 3'UTR with the 5'UTR of the gamma-interferon inducible protein (IP-30) precursor: is this a link between mitochondrial myopathy and inflammation? Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Apr 17;245(2):599-606. [PubMed:9571201 ]
  4. Ali ST, Duncan AM, Schappert K, Heng HH, Tsui LC, Chow W, Robinson BH: Chromosomal localization of the human gene encoding the 51-kDa subunit of mitochondrial complex I (NDUFV1) to 11q13. Genomics. 1993 Nov;18(2):435-9. [PubMed:8288251 ]
  5. Grad LI, Lemire BD: Mitochondrial complex I mutations in Caenorhabditis elegans produce cytochrome c oxidase deficiency, oxidative stress and vitamin-responsive lactic acidosis. Hum Mol Genet. 2004 Feb 1;13(3):303-14. Epub 2003 Dec 8. [PubMed:14662656 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NDUFV2
Uniprot ID:
P19404
Molecular Weight:
27391.36 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Paunesku T, Chang-Liu CM, Shearin-Jones P, Watson C, Milton J, Oryhon J, Salbego D, Milosavljevic A, Woloschak GE: Identification of genes regulated by UV/salicylic acid. Int J Radiat Biol. 2000 Feb;76(2):189-98. [PubMed:10716640 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone. Involved in the interferon/all-trans-retinoic acid (IFN/RA) induced cell death. This ap...
Gene Name:
NDUFA13
Uniprot ID:
Q9P0J0
Molecular Weight:
16698.175 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Ferrous iron binding
Specific Function:
Initiates several important metabolic pathways related to pyruvate and several sulfurate compounds including sulfate, hypotaurine and taurine. Critical regulator of cellular cysteine concentrations. Has an important role in maintaining the hepatic concentation of intracellular free cysteine within a proper narrow range.
Gene Name:
CDO1
Uniprot ID:
Q16878
Molecular Weight:
22971.745 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFS6
Uniprot ID:
O75380
Molecular Weight:
13711.535 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
NDUFA4L2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NRX3
Molecular Weight:
9965.58 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity). May donate electrons to ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFS8
Uniprot ID:
O00217
Molecular Weight:
23704.795 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Albracht SP, Hedderich R: Learning from hydrogenases: location of a proton pump and of a second FMN in bovine NADH--ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I). FEBS Lett. 2000 Nov 17;485(1):1-6. [PubMed:11086155 ]
  4. Loeffen J, Smeitink J, Triepels R, Smeets R, Schuelke M, Sengers R, Trijbels F, Hamel B, Mullaart R, van den Heuvel L: The first nuclear-encoded complex I mutation in a patient with Leigh syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 1998 Dec;63(6):1598-608. [PubMed:9837812 ]
  5. Jose Quiles M, Cuello J: Association of ferredoxin-NADP oxidoreductase with the chloroplastic pyridine nucleotide dehydrogenase complex in barley leaves Plant Physiol. 1998 May;117(1):235-44. [PubMed:9576793 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Leukotriene-b4 20-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the omega- and (omega-1)-hydroxylation of various fatty acids such as laurate, myristate and palmitate. Has little activity toward prostaglandins A1 and E1. Oxidizes arachidonic acid to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE).
Gene Name:
CYP4A11
Uniprot ID:
Q02928
Molecular Weight:
59347.31 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Ngo S, Kong S, Kirlich A, McKinnon RA, Stupans I: Cytochrome P450 4A, peroxisomal enzymes and nicotinamide cofactors in koala liver. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;127(3):327-34. [PubMed:11246504 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
DLAT
Uniprot ID:
P10515
Molecular Weight:
68996.03 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Shi S, Ehrt S: Dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase is critical for Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis. Infect Immun. 2006 Jan;74(1):56-63. [PubMed:16368957 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transaminase activity
Specific Function:
The glycine cleavage system catalyzes the degradation of glycine.
Gene Name:
AMT
Uniprot ID:
P48728
Molecular Weight:
43945.65 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Iron ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
MSMO1
Uniprot ID:
Q15800
Molecular Weight:
35215.42 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function:
Heme oxygenase cleaves the heme ring at the alpha methene bridge to form biliverdin. Biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. Under physiological conditions, the activity of heme oxygenase is highest in the spleen, where senescent erythrocytes are sequestrated and destroyed. Exhibits cytoprotective effects since excess of free heme sensitizes cells to undergo a...
Gene Name:
HMOX1
Uniprot ID:
P09601
Molecular Weight:
32818.345 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Calo LA, Pagnin E, Davis PA, Sartori M, Semplicini A: Oxidative stress-related factors in Bartter's and Gitelman's syndromes: relevance for angiotensin II signalling. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003 Aug;18(8):1518-25. [PubMed:12897089 ]
  4. Auclair K, Huang HW, Moenne-Loccoz P, Ortiz de Montellano PR: Cloning and expression of a heme binding protein from the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Protein Expr Purif. 2003 Apr;28(2):340-9. [PubMed:12699699 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Heme oxygenase cleaves the heme ring at the alpha methene bridge to form biliverdin. Biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. Under physiological conditions, the activity of heme oxygenase is highest in the spleen, where senescent erythrocytes are sequestrated and destroyed. Heme oxygenase 2 could be implicated in the production of carbon monoxide in brain wher...
Gene Name:
HMOX2
Uniprot ID:
P30519
Molecular Weight:
36032.615 Da
References
  1. Tanaka M, Ohkubo K, Fukuzumi S: DNA cleavage by UVA irradiation of NADH with dioxygen via radical chain processes. J Phys Chem A. 2006 Sep 28;110(38):11214-8. [PubMed:16986858 ]
  2. Goldstone AB, Liochev SI, Fridovich I: Inactivation of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase by H2O2 : mechanism of protection. Free Radic Biol Med. 2006 Dec 15;41(12):1860-3. Epub 2006 Sep 19. [PubMed:17157188 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Steroid 17-alpha-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Conversion of pregnenolone and progesterone to their 17-alpha-hydroxylated products and subsequently to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione. Catalyzes both the 17-alpha-hydroxylation and the 17,20-lyase reaction. Involved in sexual development during fetal life and at puberty.
Gene Name:
CYP17A1
Uniprot ID:
P05093
Molecular Weight:
57369.995 Da
References
  1. Pandey AV, Kempna P, Hofer G, Mullis PE, Fluck CE: Modulation of human CYP19A1 activity by mutant NADPH P450 oxidoreductase. Mol Endocrinol. 2007 Oct;21(10):2579-95. Epub 2007 Jun 26. [PubMed:17595315 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
This is a copper-containing oxidase that functions in the formation of pigments such as melanins and other polyphenolic compounds. Catalyzes the rate-limiting conversions of tyrosine to DOPA, DOPA to DOPA-quinone and possibly 5,6-dihydroxyindole to indole-5,6 quinone.
Gene Name:
TYR
Uniprot ID:
P14679
Molecular Weight:
60392.69 Da
References
  1. Jadhav JP, Parshetti GK, Kalme SD, Govindwar SP: Decolourization of azo dye methyl red by Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 463. Chemosphere. 2007 Jun;68(2):394-400. Epub 2007 Feb 9. [PubMed:17292452 ]
  2. Zafar KS, Siegel D, Ross D: A potential role for cyclized quinones derived from dopamine, DOPA, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in proteasomal inhibition. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Sep;70(3):1079-86. Epub 2006 Jun 21. [PubMed:16790533 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Xanthine oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Gene Name:
XDH
Uniprot ID:
P47989
Molecular Weight:
146422.99 Da
References
  1. Kalimuthu P, Leimkuhler S, Bernhardt PV: Xanthine dehydrogenase electrocatalysis: autocatalysis and novel activity. J Phys Chem B. 2011 Mar 24;115(11):2655-62. doi: 10.1021/jp111809f. Epub 2011 Mar 1. [PubMed:21361328 ]
  2. Al-Gonaiah M, Smith RA, Stone TW: Xanthine oxidase-induced neuronal death via the oxidation of NADH: prevention by micromolar EDTA. Brain Res. 2009 Jul 14;1280:33-42. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2009.05.024. Epub 2009 May 18. [PubMed:19450565 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Xanthine dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Oxidase with broad substrate specificity, oxidizing aromatic azaheterocycles, such as N1-methylnicotinamide and N-methylphthalazinium, as well as aldehydes, such as benzaldehyde, retinal, pyridoxal, and vanillin. Plays a key role in the metabolism of xenobiotics and drugs containing aromatic azaheterocyclic substituents. Participates in the bioactivation of prodrugs such as famciclovir, catalyz...
Gene Name:
AOX1
Uniprot ID:
Q06278
Molecular Weight:
147916.735 Da
References
  1. Mantle D, Preedy VR: Free radicals as mediators of alcohol toxicity. Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev. 1999 Nov;18(4):235-52. [PubMed:10687026 ]
  2. Li H, Kundu TK, Zweier JL: Characterization of the magnitude and mechanism of aldehyde oxidase-mediated nitric oxide production from nitrite. J Biol Chem. 2009 Dec 4;284(49):33850-8. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.019125. Epub 2009 Sep 28. [PubMed:19801639 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateactivator
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH6
Uniprot ID:
P28332
Molecular Weight:
39088.335 Da
References
  1. Plapp BV: Conformational changes and catalysis by alcohol dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Jan 1;493(1):3-12. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2009.07.001. Epub 2009 Jul 5. [PubMed:19583966 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
L-glucuronate reductase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. Catalyzes the reduction of mevaldate to mevalonic acid and of glyceraldehyde to glycerol. Has broad substrate specificity. In vitro substrates include succinic semialdehyde, 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, 1,2-naphthoquinone, methylglyoxal, and D-glucuronic acid. Plays a role in the ac...
Gene Name:
AKR1A1
Uniprot ID:
P14550
Molecular Weight:
36572.71 Da
References
  1. Plapp BV: Conformational changes and catalysis by alcohol dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Jan 1;493(1):3-12. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2009.07.001. Epub 2009 Jul 5. [PubMed:19583966 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1A
Uniprot ID:
P07327
Molecular Weight:
39858.37 Da
References
  1. Plapp BV: Conformational changes and catalysis by alcohol dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Jan 1;493(1):3-12. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2009.07.001. Epub 2009 Jul 5. [PubMed:19583966 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1B
Uniprot ID:
P00325
Molecular Weight:
39854.21 Da
References
  1. Plapp BV: Conformational changes and catalysis by alcohol dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Jan 1;493(1):3-12. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2009.07.001. Epub 2009 Jul 5. [PubMed:19583966 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH4
Uniprot ID:
P08319
Molecular Weight:
40221.335 Da
References
  1. Plapp BV: Conformational changes and catalysis by alcohol dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Jan 1;493(1):3-12. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2009.07.001. Epub 2009 Jul 5. [PubMed:19583966 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Class-III ADH is remarkably ineffective in oxidizing ethanol, but it readily catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain primary alcohols and the oxidation of S-(hydroxymethyl) glutathione.
Gene Name:
ADH5
Uniprot ID:
P11766
Molecular Weight:
39723.945 Da
References
  1. Plapp BV: Conformational changes and catalysis by alcohol dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Jan 1;493(1):3-12. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2009.07.001. Epub 2009 Jul 5. [PubMed:19583966 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Could function in retinol oxidation for the synthesis of retinoic acid, a hormone important for cellular differentiation. Medium-chain (octanol) and aromatic (m-nitrobenzaldehyde) compounds are the best substrates. Ethanol is not a good substrate but at the high ethanol concentrations reached in the digestive tract, it plays a role in the ethanol oxidation and contributes to the first pass etha...
Gene Name:
ADH7
Uniprot ID:
P40394
Molecular Weight:
41480.985 Da
References
  1. Plapp BV: Conformational changes and catalysis by alcohol dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Jan 1;493(1):3-12. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2009.07.001. Epub 2009 Jul 5. [PubMed:19583966 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23