Identification

Name
NADH
Accession Number
DB00157  (NUTR00041, DB01907, EXPT02287, DB03527)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical
Description

NADH is the reduced form of NAD+, and NAD+ is the oxidized form of NADH, a coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). It forms NADP with the addition of a phosphate group to the 2' position of the adenosyl nucleotide through an ester linkage. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 1,4-dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
  • DPNH
  • NAD reduced form
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced)
  • Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide, reduced
  • Reduced nicotinamide adenine diphosphate
  • Reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
EnBrace HRNADH (25 ug/1) + 1,2-docosahexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine calcium (6.4 mg/1) + 1,2-icosapentoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine calcium (800 ug/1) + Cobamamide (50 ug/1) + Cocarboxylase (25 ug/1) + Ferrous cysteine glycinate (13.6 mg/1) + Flavin adenine dinucleotide (25 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Glycine betaine (500 ug/1) + Leucovorin (2.5 mg/1) + Levomefolate magnesium (5.23 mg/1) + Phosphatidyl serine (12 mg/1) + Pyridoxal Phosphate (25 ug/1) + Magnesium L-threonate (1 mg/1) + Magnesium ascorbate (24 mg/1) + Zinc ascorbate (1 mg/1)Capsule, delayed release pelletsOralJaymac Pharmaceuticals, Llc2015-04-08Not applicableUs
EnLyteNADH (25 ug/1) + 1,2-docosahexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine calcium (6.4 mg/1) + 1,2-icosapentoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine calcium (800 ug/1) + Citric acid monohydrate (1.83 mg/1) + Cobamamide (50 ug/1) + Cocarboxylase (25 ug/1) + Ferrous cysteine glycinate (13.6 mg/1) + Flavin adenine dinucleotide (25 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Glycine betaine (500 ug/1) + Leucovorin (2.5 mg/1) + Levomefolate magnesium (7 mg/1) + Phosphatidyl serine (12 mg/1) + Pyridoxal Phosphate (25 ug/1) + Sodium Citrate (3.67 mg/1) + Magnesium L-threonate (1 mg/1) + Magnesium ascorbate (24 mg/1) + Zinc ascorbate (1 mg/1)Capsule, delayed release pelletsOralJaymac Pharmaceuticals Llc2011-10-01Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
4J24DQ0916
CAS number
58-68-4
Weight
Average: 665.441
Monoisotopic: 665.124771695
Chemical Formula
C21H29N7O14P2
InChI Key
BOPGDPNILDQYTO-NNYOXOHSSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C21H29N7O14P2/c22-17-12-19(25-7-24-17)28(8-26-12)21-16(32)14(30)11(41-21)6-39-44(36,37)42-43(34,35)38-5-10-13(29)15(31)20(40-10)27-3-1-2-9(4-27)18(23)33/h1,3-4,7-8,10-11,13-16,20-21,29-32H,2,5-6H2,(H2,23,33)(H,34,35)(H,36,37)(H2,22,24,25)/t10-,11-,13-,14-,15-,16-,20-,21-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
[({[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy}(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy]({[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(3-carbamoyl-1,4-dihydropyridin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy})phosphinic acid
SMILES

Pharmacology

Indication

Some evidence suggests that NADH might be useful in treating Parkinson's disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular disease.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). The action of supplemental NADH is unclear. Oral NADH supplementation has been used to combat simple fatigue as well as such mysterious and energy-sapping disorders as chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia. Researchers are also studying the value of NADH supplements for improving mental function in people with Alzheimer's disease, and minimizing physical disability and relieving depression in people with Parkinson's disease. Some healthy individuals also take NADH supplements orally to improve concentration and memory capacity, as well as to increase athletic endurance. However, to date there have been no published studies to indicate that using NADH is in any way effective or safe for these purposes.

Mechanism of action

NADH is synthesized by the body and thus is not an essential nutrient. It does require the essential nutrient nicotinamide for its synthesis, and its role in energy production is certainly an essential one. In addition to its role in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, NADH is produced in the cytosol. The mitochondrial membrane is impermeable to NADH, and this permeability barrier effectively separates the cytoplasmic from the mitochondrial NADH pools. However, cytoplasmic NADH can be used for biologic energy production. This occurs when the malate-aspartate shuttle introduces reducing equivalents from NADH in the cytosol to the electron transport chain of the mitochondria. This shuttle mainly occurs in the liver and heart.

TargetActionsOrganism
UUDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenaseNot AvailableHuman
UAlcohol dehydrogenase 1ANot AvailableHuman
USorbitol dehydrogenaseNot AvailableHuman
UAlcohol dehydrogenase 4Not AvailableHuman
UAlcohol dehydrogenase 1CNot AvailableHuman
UAlcohol dehydrogenase 1BNot AvailableHuman
UAlcohol dehydrogenase class 4 mu/sigma chainNot AvailableHuman
UGlycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(+)], cytoplasmicNot AvailableHuman
UL-lactate dehydrogenase A-like 6ANot AvailableHuman
UAlcohol dehydrogenase class-3Not AvailableHuman
UAldose reductaseNot AvailableHuman
U3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase type-2Not AvailableHuman
UMalate dehydrogenase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UL-lactate dehydrogenase A chainNot AvailableHuman
UNAD-dependent malic enzyme, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UPeroxisomal multifunctional enzyme type 2Not AvailableHuman
UL-lactate dehydrogenase A-like 6BNot AvailableHuman
UL-lactate dehydrogenase C chainNot AvailableHuman
UL-lactate dehydrogenase B chainNot AvailableHuman
UPeroxisomal bifunctional enzymeNot AvailableHuman
UHydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UNADP-dependent malic enzyme, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UD-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UMalate dehydrogenase, cytoplasmicNot AvailableHuman
U3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UTestosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase 3Not AvailableHuman
U3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductaseNot AvailableHuman
UNADP-dependent malic enzymeNot AvailableHuman
UD-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenaseNot AvailableHuman
U3-keto-steroid reductaseNot AvailableHuman
UIsocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD] subunit gamma, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UIsocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD] subunit beta, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UIsocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD] subunit alpha, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UEstradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 1Not AvailableHuman
UEstradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 2Not AvailableHuman
U11-cis retinol dehydrogenaseNot AvailableHuman
UGDH/6PGL endoplasmic bifunctional proteinNot AvailableHuman
UEstradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 8Not AvailableHuman
UAldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4Not AvailableHuman
UInosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2Not AvailableHuman
UAldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3Not AvailableHuman
U15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase [NAD(+)]Not AvailableHuman
UGDP-L-fucose synthaseNot AvailableHuman
UAldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1Not AvailableHuman
UCorticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 1Not AvailableHuman
U3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta 5-->4-isomerase type 2Not AvailableHuman
U3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta 5-->4-isomerase type 1Not AvailableHuman
UInosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 1Not AvailableHuman
UTrifunctional enzyme subunit alpha, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UAldehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UCorticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 2Not AvailableHuman
UAldo-keto reductase family 1 member C2Not AvailableHuman
USterol-4-alpha-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase, decarboxylatingNot AvailableHuman
UAldehyde dehydrogenase family 3 member B2Not AvailableHuman
UMethylmalonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [acylating], mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UAldehyde dehydrogenase, dimeric NADP-preferringNot AvailableHuman
URetinal dehydrogenase 1Not AvailableHuman
UGlyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, testis-specificNot AvailableHuman
U4-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenaseNot AvailableHuman
UAldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3Not AvailableHuman
UAldehyde dehydrogenase X, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UAldehyde dehydrogenase family 3 member B1Not AvailableHuman
UGlyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenaseNot AvailableHuman
URetinal dehydrogenase 2Not AvailableHuman
UFatty aldehyde dehydrogenaseNot AvailableHuman
USuccinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UAlpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenaseNot AvailableHuman
UFlavin reductase (NADPH)Not AvailableHuman
UPyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 2Not AvailableHuman
UPyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UGlutamate dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UPyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UPyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit alpha, testis-specific form, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UPyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit alpha, somatic form, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UBiliverdin reductase ANot AvailableHuman
UShort-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UDihydrofolate reductaseNot AvailableHuman
U2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UGlutamate dehydrogenase 2, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
U7-dehydrocholesterol reductaseNot AvailableHuman
URibosyldihydronicotinamide dehydrogenase [quinone]Not AvailableHuman
UNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 2
binder
Human
UAlpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 3
binder
Human
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 7, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UC-1-tetrahydrofolate synthase, cytoplasmicNot AvailableHuman
UBifunctional methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase/cyclohydrolase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UDelta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UNADH-cytochrome b5 reductase 3Not AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 11Not AvailableHuman
UNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 4Not AvailableHuman
UDihydropteridine reductaseNot AvailableHuman
UNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1
binder
Human
UNAD(P) transhydrogenase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 5Not AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 9, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 4LNot AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 10, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 7Not AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 1Not AvailableHuman
UNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 6Not AvailableHuman
UNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 5Not AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 4Not AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 6Not AvailableHuman
UAcyl carrier protein, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 2Not AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 8Not AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 3Not AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 8, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 subunit C2Not AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 1Not AvailableHuman
UNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 10Not AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 4Not AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 3Not AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 2, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 7Not AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 9Not AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 2, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 5, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 subunit C1, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 6Not AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein 3, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UDihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 3, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UGlutathione reductase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 12Not AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 5Not AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 4, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein 1, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein 2, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 13Not AvailableHuman
UCysteine dioxygenase type 1Not AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 6, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 4-like 2Not AvailableHuman
UNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 8, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UCytochrome P450 4A11Not AvailableHuman
UDihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UAminomethyltransferase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UMethylsterol monooxygenase 1Not AvailableHuman
UHeme oxygenase 1Not AvailableHuman
UHeme oxygenase 2Not AvailableHuman
USteroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyaseNot AvailableHuman
UTyrosinaseNot AvailableHuman
Absorption

Unclear how much of an administered dose is absorbed.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

No reports of overdose, however, high doses of NADH (10 mg a day or more) may cause jitteriness, anxiety, and insomnia.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/a-25:0/i-17:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-12:0/a-25:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-12:0/i-14:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-12:0/i-18:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-12:0/i-19:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-12:0/i-20:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-12:0/i-22:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-12:0/i-24:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-13:0/i-12:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-14:0/i-12:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-14:0/i-20:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-15:0/a-13:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-15:0/i-13:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-15:0/i-15:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-15:0/i-21:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-15:0/i-24:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-16:0/i-13:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-16:0/i-19:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-17:0/18:2(9Z,11Z))Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-17:0/a-17:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-17:0/i-18:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-18:0/a-15:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-18:0/a-17:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-18:0/i-13:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-18:0/i-15:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-18:0/i-18:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-18:0/i-21:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-19:0/18:2(9Z,11Z))Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-19:0/i-19:0)Disease
Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-20:0/i-19:0/i-20:0)Disease
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Youichi Niimura, Michio Kozaki, Hisashi Yamagata, Miki Ikuta, Yasurou Kurusu, Hideaki Yukawa, Makiko Kukushima, Masato Terasausa, "Process for producing NADH oxidase." U.S. Patent US5416012, issued February, 1984.

US5416012
General References
  1. Belenky P, Bogan KL, Brenner C: NAD+ metabolism in health and disease. Trends Biochem Sci. 2007 Jan;32(1):12-9. Epub 2006 Dec 11. [PubMed:17161604]
  2. Pollak N, Dolle C, Ziegler M: The power to reduce: pyridine nucleotides--small molecules with a multitude of functions. Biochem J. 2007 Mar 1;402(2):205-18. [PubMed:17295611]
  3. Khan JA, Forouhar F, Tao X, Tong L: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolism as an attractive target for drug discovery. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2007 May;11(5):695-705. [PubMed:17465726]
  4. Lin SJ, Guarente L: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a metabolic regulator of transcription, longevity and disease. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2003 Apr;15(2):241-6. [PubMed:12648681]
  5. Biellmann JF, Lapinte C, Haid E, Weimann G: Structure of lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor generated from coenzyme. Biochemistry. 1979 Apr 3;18(7):1212-7. [PubMed:218616]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB01487
KEGG Compound
C00004
PubChem Compound
439153
PubChem Substance
46504879
ChemSpider
388299
ChEBI
16908
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001291
PharmGKB
PA164755085
HET
NAI
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Nicotinamide_adenine_dinucleotide
PDB Entries
1ahi / 1arz / 1c1d / 1dlj / 1e3e / 1e3i / 1ek6 / 1f17 / 1fmc / 1giq
show 200 more
MSDS
Download (136 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsule, delayed release pelletsOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Nicotinamide adenine powder154.53USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)140.0-142.0 °CNot Available
logP-5.1Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.95 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.4ALOGPS
logP-6.5ChemAxon
logS-2.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-7ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count16ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count8ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area317.62 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count11ChemAxon
Refractivity143 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability57.65 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.6017
Blood Brain Barrier+0.5641
Caco-2 permeable-0.7045
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.601
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7066
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.912
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9361
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8412
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8303
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5242
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7565
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.849
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8849
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8294
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8753
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8373
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8146
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9227
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9883
Rat acute toxicity2.8642 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9379
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.5992
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0931104000-bf6579d19ee9bc297e13
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0901000000-92672b1d4b96838f8652
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-1900000000-ef56d203da65089e145f
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-03e9-1900207000-f248eb28a7283de7118b
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-1900100000-efadf1d6c54e9e86671d
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0a7i-3900000000-f258fc2bf1d8e54ac6da

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as (5'->5')-dinucleotides. These are dinucleotides where the two bases are connected via a (5'->5')-phosphodiester linkage.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Nucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
Class
(5'->5')-dinucleotides
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
(5'->5')-dinucleotides
Alternative Parents
Purine nucleotide sugars / Purine ribonucleoside diphosphates / Purine ribonucleoside monophosphates / Nicotinamide nucleotides / Pentose phosphates / Glycosylamines / 6-aminopurines / Monosaccharide phosphates / N-substituted nicotinamides / Organic pyrophosphates
show 19 more
Substituents
(5'->5')-dinucleotide / Purine nucleotide sugar / Purine ribonucleoside diphosphate / Purine ribonucleoside monophosphate / Nicotinamide-nucleotide / Pentose phosphate / Pentose-5-phosphate / Glycosyl compound / N-glycosyl compound / 6-aminopurine
show 42 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
NAD, NAD(P)H (CHEBI:16908)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Udp-glucose 6-dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Involved in the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycans; hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and heparan sulfate.
Gene Name
UGDH
Uniprot ID
O60701
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase
Molecular Weight
55023.545 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Castellani AA, De Luca G, Rindi S, Salvini R, Tira ME: Regulatory mechanisms of UDP-glucuronic acid biosynthesis in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Ital J Biochem. 1986 Sep-Oct;35(5):296-303. [PubMed:3804697]
  4. Alary J, Cravedi JP, Baradat M, Carrera G: Mechanism of cadmium-decreased glucuronidation in the rat. Biochem Pharmacol. 1992 Dec 1;44(11):2139-47. [PubMed:1472079]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ADH1A
Uniprot ID
P07327
Uniprot Name
Alcohol dehydrogenase 1A
Molecular Weight
39858.37 Da
References
  1. Bieganowski P, Seidle HF, Wojcik M, Brenner C: Synthetic lethal and biochemical analyses of NAD and NADH kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae establish separation of cellular functions. J Biol Chem. 2006 Aug 11;281(32):22439-45. Epub 2006 Jun 7. [PubMed:16760478]
  2. Manriquez D, El-Sharkawy I, Flores FB, El-Yahyaoui F, Regad F, Bouzayen M, Latche A, Pech JC: Two highly divergent alcohol dehydrogenases of melon exhibit fruit ripening-specific expression and distinct biochemical characteristics. Plant Mol Biol. 2006 Jul;61(4-5):675-85. [PubMed:16897483]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Converts sorbitol to fructose. Part of the polyol pathway that plays an important role in sperm physiology. May play a role in the sperm motility by providing an energetic source for sperm.
Gene Name
SORD
Uniprot ID
Q00796
Uniprot Name
Sorbitol dehydrogenase
Molecular Weight
38324.25 Da
References
  1. Ido Y: Pyridine nucleotide redox abnormalities in diabetes. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007 Jul;9(7):931-42. [PubMed:17508915]
  2. Klimacek M, Hellmer H, Nidetzky B: Catalytic mechanism of Zn2+-dependent polyol dehydrogenases: kinetic comparison of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase with wild-type and Glu154-->Cys forms of yeast xylitol dehydrogenase. Biochem J. 2007 Jun 15;404(3):421-9. [PubMed:17343568]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ADH4
Uniprot ID
P08319
Uniprot Name
Alcohol dehydrogenase 4
Molecular Weight
40221.335 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Thielen J, Ciriacy M: Biochemical basis of mitochondrial acetaldehyde dismutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1991 Nov;173(21):7012-7. [PubMed:1938903]
  4. Plapp BV, Mitchell JL, Berst KB: Mouse alcohol dehydrogenase 4: kinetic mechanism, substrate specificity and simulation of effects of ethanol on retinoid metabolism. Chem Biol Interact. 2001 Jan 30;130-132(1-3):445-56. [PubMed:11306066]
  5. Widenius TV: Ethanol-induced inhibition of testosterone biosynthesis in vitro: lack of acetaldehyde effect. Alcohol Alcohol. 1987;22(1):17-22. [PubMed:3593480]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ADH1C
Uniprot ID
P00326
Uniprot Name
Alcohol dehydrogenase 1C
Molecular Weight
39867.27 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Plapp BV, Berst KB: Specificity of human alcohol dehydrogenase 1C*2 (gamma2gamma2) for steroids and simulation of the uncompetitive inhibition of ethanol metabolism. Chem Biol Interact. 2003 Feb 1;143-144:183-93. [PubMed:12604203]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ADH1B
Uniprot ID
P00325
Uniprot Name
Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B
Molecular Weight
39854.21 Da
References
  1. Manriquez D, El-Sharkawy I, Flores FB, El-Yahyaoui F, Regad F, Bouzayen M, Latche A, Pech JC: Two highly divergent alcohol dehydrogenases of melon exhibit fruit ripening-specific expression and distinct biochemical characteristics. Plant Mol Biol. 2006 Jul;61(4-5):675-85. [PubMed:16897483]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Could function in retinol oxidation for the synthesis of retinoic acid, a hormone important for cellular differentiation. Medium-chain (octanol) and aromatic (m-nitrobenzaldehyde) compounds are the...
Gene Name
ADH7
Uniprot ID
P40394
Uniprot Name
Alcohol dehydrogenase class 4 mu/sigma chain
Molecular Weight
41480.985 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Dalfo D, Marques N, Albalat R: Analysis of the NADH-dependent retinaldehyde reductase activity of amphioxus retinol dehydrogenase enzymes enhances our understanding of the evolution of the retinol dehydrogenase family. FEBS J. 2007 Jul;274(14):3739-52. Epub 2007 Jul 2. [PubMed:17608724]
  4. Suzuki Y, Ishiguro S, Tamai M: Identification and immunohistochemistry of retinol dehydrogenase from bovine retinal pigment epithelium. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993 May 13;1163(2):201-8. [PubMed:8490052]
  5. Kim DS, Lee CB, Park YS, Ahn YH, Kim TW, Kee CS, Kang JS, Om AS: Effect of thyroid hormone on the alcohol dehydrogenase activities in rat tissues. J Korean Med Sci. 2001 Jun;16(3):313-6. [PubMed:11410692]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nad binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
GPD1
Uniprot ID
P21695
Uniprot Name
Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(+)], cytoplasmic
Molecular Weight
37567.4 Da
References
  1. Fonvielle M, Therisod H, Hemery M, Therisod M: New competitive inhibitors of cytosolic (NADH-dependent) rabbit muscle glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007 Jan 15;17(2):410-3. Epub 2006 Oct 17. [PubMed:17088060]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
L-lactate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Displays an lactate dehydrogenase activity. Significantly increases the transcriptional activity of JUN, when overexpressed.
Gene Name
LDHAL6A
Uniprot ID
Q6ZMR3
Uniprot Name
L-lactate dehydrogenase A-like 6A
Molecular Weight
36507.015 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Class-III ADH is remarkably ineffective in oxidizing ethanol, but it readily catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain primary alcohols and the oxidation of S-(hydroxymethyl) glutathione.
Gene Name
ADH5
Uniprot ID
P11766
Uniprot Name
Alcohol dehydrogenase class-3
Molecular Weight
39723.945 Da
References
  1. Schirwitz K, Schmidt A, Lamzin VS: High-resolution structures of formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii. Protein Sci. 2007 Jun;16(6):1146-56. [PubMed:17525463]
  2. Baumchen C, Roth AH, Biedendieck R, Malten M, Follmann M, Sahm H, Bringer-Meyer S, Jahn D: D-mannitol production by resting state whole cell biotrans-formation of D-fructose by heterologous mannitol and formate dehydrogenase gene expression in Bacillus megaterium. Biotechnol J. 2007 Nov;2(11):1408-16. [PubMed:17619232]
  3. Okochi M, Nakagawa I, Kobayashi T, Hayashi S, Furusaki S, Honda H: Enhanced activity of 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase by addition of the co-solvent 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (L)-lactate in aqueous phase of biphasic systems for reductive production of steroids. J Biotechnol. 2007 Feb 1;128(2):376-82. Epub 2006 Oct 12. [PubMed:17092593]
  4. Baron R, Lioubashevski O, Katz E, Niazov T, Willner I: Logic gates and elementary computing by enzymes. J Phys Chem A. 2006 Jul 13;110(27):8548-53. [PubMed:16821840]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Glyceraldehyde oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a wide variety of carbonyl-containing compounds to their corresponding alcohols with a broad range of catalytic efficiencies.
Gene Name
AKR1B1
Uniprot ID
P15121
Uniprot Name
Aldose reductase
Molecular Weight
35853.125 Da
References
  1. Ido Y: Pyridine nucleotide redox abnormalities in diabetes. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007 Jul;9(7):931-42. [PubMed:17508915]
  2. Linster CL, Van Schaftingen E: Vitamin C. Biosynthesis, recycling and degradation in mammals. FEBS J. 2007 Jan;274(1):1-22. [PubMed:17222174]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Testosterone dehydrogenase [nad(p)] activity
Specific Function
Functions in mitochondrial tRNA maturation. Part of mitochondrial ribonuclease P, an enzyme composed of MRPP1/TRMT10C, MRPP2/HSD17B10 and MRPP3/KIAA0391, which cleaves tRNA molecules in their 5'-en...
Gene Name
HSD17B10
Uniprot ID
Q99714
Uniprot Name
3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase type-2
Molecular Weight
26922.87 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
MDH2
Uniprot ID
P40926
Uniprot Name
Malate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
35502.935 Da
References
  1. Baumchen C, Roth AH, Biedendieck R, Malten M, Follmann M, Sahm H, Bringer-Meyer S, Jahn D: D-mannitol production by resting state whole cell biotrans-formation of D-fructose by heterologous mannitol and formate dehydrogenase gene expression in Bacillus megaterium. Biotechnol J. 2007 Nov;2(11):1408-16. [PubMed:17619232]
  2. Gallarta F, Sainz FJ, Saenz C: Fluorescent sensing layer for the determination of L-malic acid in wine. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2007 Mar;387(6):2297-305. Epub 2007 Jan 4. [PubMed:17203264]
  3. Markova EV, Zotova NV, Savchenko AA, Titova NM, Slepov EV, Cherdantsev DV, Konovalenko AN: [Lymphocyte metabolism in patients with acute pancreatitis with different genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes]. Biomed Khim. 2006 May-Jun;52(3):317-26. [PubMed:16898590]
  4. Yennaco LJ, Hu Y, Holden JF: Characterization of malate dehydrogenase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum islandicum. Extremophiles. 2007 Sep;11(5):741-6. Epub 2007 May 9. [PubMed:17487443]
  5. Rzem R, Vincent MF, Van Schaftingen E, Veiga-da-Cunha M: L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria, a defect of metabolite repair. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2007 Oct;30(5):681-9. Epub 2007 Jun 21. [PubMed:17603759]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nad binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
LDHA
Uniprot ID
P00338
Uniprot Name
L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain
Molecular Weight
36688.465 Da
References
  1. Semenza GL: Oxygen-dependent regulation of mitochondrial respiration by hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Biochem J. 2007 Jul 1;405(1):1-9. [PubMed:17555402]
  2. Draghia AC: Histochemical and histopathological study of the gastric mucosa in the portal hypertensive gastropathy. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2006;47(3):259-62. [PubMed:17308685]
  3. O'Brien J, Kla KM, Hopkins IB, Malecki EA, McKenna MC: Kinetic parameters and lactate dehydrogenase isozyme activities support possible lactate utilization by neurons. Neurochem Res. 2007 Apr-May;32(4-5):597-607. Epub 2006 Sep 28. [PubMed:17006762]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Oxaloacetate decarboxylase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ME2
Uniprot ID
P23368
Uniprot Name
NAD-dependent malic enzyme, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
65442.945 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Receptor binding
Specific Function
Bifunctional enzyme acting on the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway for fatty acids. Catalyzes the formation of 3-ketoacyl-CoA intermediates from both straight-chain and 2-methyl-branched-chain fa...
Gene Name
HSD17B4
Uniprot ID
P51659
Uniprot Name
Peroxisomal multifunctional enzyme type 2
Molecular Weight
79685.715 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Haapalainen AM, Koski MK, Qin YM, Hiltunen JK, Glumoff T: Binary structure of the two-domain (3R)-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase from rat peroxisomal multifunctional enzyme type 2 at 2.38 A resolution. Structure. 2003 Jan;11(1):87-97. [PubMed:12517343]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
L-lactate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
LDHAL6B
Uniprot ID
Q9BYZ2
Uniprot Name
L-lactate dehydrogenase A-like 6B
Molecular Weight
41942.53 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
L-lactate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Possible role in sperm motility.
Gene Name
LDHC
Uniprot ID
P07864
Uniprot Name
L-lactate dehydrogenase C chain
Molecular Weight
36310.965 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Spielmann H, Eibs HG, Mentzel C: Rapid purification of lactate dehydrogenase X from mouse testes by two steps of affinity chromatography on oxamate-sepharose. Experientia. 1976 Aug 15;32(8):1085-6. [PubMed:182529]
  4. Morris ID, Higgins C, Matlin SA: Inhibition of testicular LDH-X from laboratory animals and man by gossypol and its isomers. J Reprod Fertil. 1986 Jul;77(2):607-12. [PubMed:3735252]
  5. Gu Y, Davis DR, Lin YC: Developmental changes in lactate dehydrogenase-X activity in young jaundiced male rats. Arch Androl. 1989;22(2):131-6. [PubMed:2751392]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nad binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
LDHB
Uniprot ID
P07195
Uniprot Name
L-lactate dehydrogenase B chain
Molecular Weight
36638.225 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Razeto A, Kochhar S, Hottinger H, Dauter M, Wilson KS, Lamzin VS: Domain closure, substrate specificity and catalysis of D-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus bulgaricus. J Mol Biol. 2002 Apr 19;318(1):109-19. [PubMed:12054772]
  4. Mdluli K, Booth MP, Brady RL, Rumsby G: A preliminary account of the properties of recombinant human Glyoxylate reductase (GRHPR), LDHA and LDHB with glyoxylate, and their potential roles in its metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005 Dec 1;1753(2):209-16. Epub 2005 Aug 22. [PubMed:16198644]
  5. Clausen J: Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes of sperm cells and tests. Biochem J. 1969 Jan;111(2):207-18. [PubMed:4303363]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Receptor binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
EHHADH
Uniprot ID
Q08426
Uniprot Name
Peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme
Molecular Weight
79494.18 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nad+ binding
Specific Function
Plays an essential role in the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of short chain fatty acids. Exerts it highest activity toward 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA.
Gene Name
HADH
Uniprot ID
Q16836
Uniprot Name
Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
34293.275 Da
References
  1. Norman JP, Perry SW, Kasischke KA, Volsky DJ, Gelbard HA: HIV-1 trans activator of transcription protein elicits mitochondrial hyperpolarization and respiratory deficit, with dysregulation of complex IV and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide homeostasis in cortical neurons. J Immunol. 2007 Jan 15;178(2):869-76. [PubMed:17202348]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Oxaloacetate decarboxylase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ME3
Uniprot ID
Q16798
Uniprot Name
NADP-dependent malic enzyme, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
67067.875 Da
References
  1. Luo C, Wang X, Long J, Liu J: An NADH-tetrazolium-coupled sensitive assay for malate dehydrogenase in mitochondria and crude tissue homogenates. J Biochem Biophys Methods. 2006 Aug 31;68(2):101-11. Epub 2006 Apr 26. [PubMed:16740313]
  2. Wei H, Dhanaraj AL, Arora R, Rowland LJ, Fu Y, Sun L: Identification of cold acclimation-responsive Rhododendron genes for lipid metabolism, membrane transport and lignin biosynthesis: importance of moderately abundant ESTs in genomic studies. Plant Cell Environ. 2006 Apr;29(4):558-70. [PubMed:17080607]
  3. Rzem R, Vincent MF, Van Schaftingen E, Veiga-da-Cunha M: L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria, a defect of metabolite repair. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2007 Oct;30(5):681-9. Epub 2007 Jun 21. [PubMed:17603759]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
BDH1
Uniprot ID
Q02338
Uniprot Name
D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
38156.77 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Tabata M, Totani M: A chemiluminescence-flow injection analysis of serum 3-hydroxybutyrate using a bioreactor consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and NADH oxidase. Anal Biochem. 1995 Jul 20;229(1):133-8. [PubMed:8533882]
  4. Rudy B, Dubois H, Mink R, Trommer WE, McIntyre JO, Fleischer S: Coenzyme binding by 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, a lipid-requiring enzyme: lecithin acts as an allosteric modulator to enhance the affinity for coenzyme. Biochemistry. 1989 Jun 27;28(13):5354-66. [PubMed:2550053]
  5. Smith CM, Plaut GW: Activities of NAD-specific and NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenases in rat-liver mitochondria. Studies with D-threo-alpha-methylisocitrate. Eur J Biochem. 1979 Jun;97(1):283-95. [PubMed:38961]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nad binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
MDH1
Uniprot ID
P40925
Uniprot Name
Malate dehydrogenase, cytoplasmic
Molecular Weight
36425.795 Da
References
  1. Drew DP, Lunde C, Lahnstein J, Fincher GB: Heterologous expression of cDNAs encoding monodehydroascorbate reductases from the moss, Physcomitrella patens and characterization of the expressed enzymes. Planta. 2007 Mar;225(4):945-54. [PubMed:16983536]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
HIBADH
Uniprot ID
P31937
Uniprot Name
3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
35328.515 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Testosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase (nadp+) activity
Specific Function
Favors the reduction of androstenedione to testosterone. Uses NADPH while the two other EDH17B enzymes use NADH.
Gene Name
HSD17B3
Uniprot ID
P37058
Uniprot Name
Testosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase 3
Molecular Weight
34515.345 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Inano H, Tamaoki B: Relationship between steroids and pyridine nucleotides in the oxido-reduction catalyzed by the 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase purified from the porcine testicular microsomal fraction. Eur J Biochem. 1975 May 6;53(2):319-26. [PubMed:237755]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadph binding
Specific Function
Transmembrane glycoprotein that is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis as well as in the biosynthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids that are essential for normal cell function including...
Gene Name
HMGCR
Uniprot ID
P04035
Uniprot Name
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase
Molecular Weight
97475.155 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Huber R, Riepe MW: Improved posthypoxic recovery in vitro on treatment with drugs used for secondary stroke prevention. Neuropharmacology. 2005 Mar;48(4):558-65. [PubMed:15755483]
  4. Hedl M, Rodwell VW: Inhibition of the class II HMG-CoA reductase of Pseudomonas mevalonii. Protein Sci. 2004 Jun;13(6):1693-7. [PubMed:15152097]
  5. Li S, Wagner CA, Friesen JA, Borst DW: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase in the lobster mandibular organ: regulation by the eyestalk. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2003 Nov;134(2):147-55. [PubMed:14511985]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Oxaloacetate decarboxylase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ME1
Uniprot ID
P48163
Uniprot Name
NADP-dependent malic enzyme
Molecular Weight
64149.075 Da
References
  1. McKinlay JB, Shachar-Hill Y, Zeikus JG, Vieille C: Determining Actinobacillus succinogenes metabolic pathways and fluxes by NMR and GC-MS analyses of 13C-labeled metabolic product isotopomers. Metab Eng. 2007 Mar;9(2):177-92. Epub 2006 Nov 17. [PubMed:17197218]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
PHGDH
Uniprot ID
O43175
Uniprot Name
D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase
Molecular Weight
56650.03 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Grant GA: A new family of 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989 Dec 29;165(3):1371-4. [PubMed:2692566]
  4. Goldsmith LA, O'Barr T: Serine biosynthesis in human hair follicles by the phosphorylated pathway: follicular 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. J Invest Dermatol. 1976 Jun;66(6):360-6. [PubMed:945314]
  5. Grant GA, Hu Z, Xu XL: Cofactor binding to Escherichia coli D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase induces multiple conformations which alter effector binding. J Biol Chem. 2002 Oct 18;277(42):39548-53. Epub 2002 Aug 14. [PubMed:12183470]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Estradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the reduction of the keto group on the C-3 of sterols.
Gene Name
HSD17B7
Uniprot ID
P56937
Uniprot Name
3-keto-steroid reductase
Molecular Weight
38205.77 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nad binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
IDH3G
Uniprot ID
P51553
Uniprot Name
Isocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD] subunit gamma, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
42793.97 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Stein AM, Stein JH, Kirkman SK: Diphosphopyridine nucleotide specific isocitric dehydrogenase of mammalian mitochondria. I. On the roles of pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase and the isocitric dehydrogenases in the respiration of mitochondria of normal and neoplastic tissues. Biochemistry. 1967 May;6(5):1370-9. [PubMed:4292141]
  4. SANWAL BD, ZINK MW, STACHOW CS: NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE-SPECIFIC ISOCITRIC DEHYDROGENASE. A POSSIBLE REGULATORY PROTEIN. J Biol Chem. 1964 May;239:1597-603. [PubMed:14189899]
  5. Rose ZB: The stereochemistry of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific isocitric dehydrogenase reaction. J Biol Chem. 1966 May 25;241(10):2311-3. [PubMed:4380379]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nad binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
IDH3B
Uniprot ID
O43837
Uniprot Name
Isocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD] subunit beta, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
42183.39 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Stein AM, Stein JH, Kirkman SK: Diphosphopyridine nucleotide specific isocitric dehydrogenase of mammalian mitochondria. I. On the roles of pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase and the isocitric dehydrogenases in the respiration of mitochondria of normal and neoplastic tissues. Biochemistry. 1967 May;6(5):1370-9. [PubMed:4292141]
  4. SANWAL BD, ZINK MW, STACHOW CS: NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE-SPECIFIC ISOCITRIC DEHYDROGENASE. A POSSIBLE REGULATORY PROTEIN. J Biol Chem. 1964 May;239:1597-603. [PubMed:14189899]
  5. Rose ZB: The stereochemistry of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific isocitric dehydrogenase reaction. J Biol Chem. 1966 May 25;241(10):2311-3. [PubMed:4380379]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nad binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
IDH3A
Uniprot ID
P50213
Uniprot Name
Isocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD] subunit alpha, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
39591.365 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. PLAUT GW, SUNG SC: Diphosphopyridine nucleotide isocitric dehydrogenase from animal tissues. J Biol Chem. 1954 Mar;207(1):305-14. [PubMed:13152105]
  4. Stein AM, Stein JH, Kirkman SK: Diphosphopyridine nucleotide specific isocitric dehydrogenase of mammalian mitochondria. I. On the roles of pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase and the isocitric dehydrogenases in the respiration of mitochondria of normal and neoplastic tissues. Biochemistry. 1967 May;6(5):1370-9. [PubMed:4292141]
  5. Rose ZB: The stereochemistry of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific isocitric dehydrogenase reaction. J Biol Chem. 1966 May 25;241(10):2311-3. [PubMed:4380379]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Testosterone dehydrogenase (nad+) activity
Specific Function
Favors the reduction of estrogens and androgens. Also has 20-alpha-HSD activity. Uses preferentially NADH.
Gene Name
HSD17B1
Uniprot ID
P14061
Uniprot Name
Estradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 1
Molecular Weight
34949.715 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Pineda JA, Murdock GL, Watson RJ, Warren JC: Stereospecificity of hydrogen transfer by bovine testicular 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. J Steroid Biochem. 1989 Dec;33(6):1223-8. [PubMed:2615366]
  4. Fukuda T, Hirato K, Yanaihara T, Nakayama T: Microsomal 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity for progesterone in human placenta. Endocrinol Jpn. 1986 Jun;33(3):361-8. [PubMed:3463506]
  5. Rimsay RL, Murphy GW, Martin CJ, Orr JC: The 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of Streptomyces hydrogenans. Eur J Biochem. 1988 Jun 1;174(2):437-42. [PubMed:3164265]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Testosterone dehydrogenase (nad+) activity
Specific Function
Capable of catalyzing the interconversion of testosterone and androstenedione, as well as estradiol and estrone. Also has 20-alpha-HSD activity. Uses NADH while EDH17B3 uses NADPH.
Gene Name
HSD17B2
Uniprot ID
P37059
Uniprot Name
Estradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 2
Molecular Weight
42784.75 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Fukuda T, Hirato K, Yanaihara T, Nakayama T: Microsomal 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity for progesterone in human placenta. Endocrinol Jpn. 1986 Jun;33(3):361-8. [PubMed:3463506]
  4. Pineda JA, Murdock GL, Watson RJ, Warren JC: Stereospecificity of hydrogen transfer by bovine testicular 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. J Steroid Biochem. 1989 Dec;33(6):1223-8. [PubMed:2615366]
  5. Wintergalen N, Thole HH, Galla HJ, Schlegel W: Prostaglandin-E2 9-reductase from corpus luteum of pseudopregnant rabbit is a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily featuring 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. Eur J Biochem. 1995 Nov 15;234(1):264-70. [PubMed:8529651]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Retinol dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Stereospecific 11-cis retinol dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of 11-cis retinaldehyde, the universal chromophore of visual pigments. Also able to oxidize 9-cis-ret...
Gene Name
RDH5
Uniprot ID
Q92781
Uniprot Name
11-cis retinol dehydrogenase
Molecular Weight
34978.425 Da
References
  1. Dalfo D, Marques N, Albalat R: Analysis of the NADH-dependent retinaldehyde reductase activity of amphioxus retinol dehydrogenase enzymes enhances our understanding of the evolution of the retinol dehydrogenase family. FEBS J. 2007 Jul;274(14):3739-52. Epub 2007 Jul 2. [PubMed:17608724]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadp binding
Specific Function
Oxidizes glucose-6-phosphate and glucose, as well as other hexose-6-phosphates.
Gene Name
H6PD
Uniprot ID
O95479
Uniprot Name
GDH/6PGL endoplasmic bifunctional protein
Molecular Weight
88891.99 Da
References
  1. Siu E, Won K, Park CB: Electrochemical regeneration of NADH using conductive vanadia-silica xerogels. Biotechnol Prog. 2007 Jan-Feb;23(1):293-6. [PubMed:17269701]
  2. Lu Y, Mei L: Co-expression of P450 BM3 and glucose dehydrogenase by recombinant Escherichia coli and its application in an NADPH-dependent indigo production system. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007 Mar;34(3):247-53. Epub 2006 Dec 14. [PubMed:17171348]
  3. Takenaka M, Verbitskiy D, van der Merwe JA, Zehrmann A, Plessmann U, Urlaub H, Brennicke A: In vitro RNA editing in plant mitochondria does not require added energy. FEBS Lett. 2007 Jun 12;581(14):2743-7. Epub 2007 May 21. [PubMed:17531229]
  4. Markova EV, Zotova NV, Savchenko AA, Titova NM, Slepov EV, Cherdantsev DV, Konovalenko AN: [Lymphocyte metabolism in patients with acute pancreatitis with different genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes]. Biomed Khim. 2006 May-Jun;52(3):317-26. [PubMed:16898590]
  5. Zhang M, Mullens C, Gorski W: Coimmobilization of dehydrogenases and their cofactors in electrochemical biosensors. Anal Chem. 2007 Mar 15;79(6):2446-50. Epub 2007 Feb 14. [PubMed:17298031]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Testosterone dehydrogenase (nad+) activity
Specific Function
NAD-dependent 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase with highest activity towards estradiol. Has very low activity towards testosterone. The heteroteramer with CBR4 has NADH-dependent 3-ketoacyl-acy...
Gene Name
HSD17B8
Uniprot ID
Q92506
Uniprot Name
Estradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 8
Molecular Weight
26973.56 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Retinal dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the transformation of the potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) into the less active form, 5-alpha-androstan-3-alpha,17-beta-diol (3-alpha-diol). Also has some 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid...
Gene Name
AKR1C4
Uniprot ID
P17516
Uniprot Name
Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4
Molecular Weight
37066.52 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Atalla A, Breyer-Pfaff U, Maser E: Purification and characterization of oxidoreductases-catalyzing carbonyl reduction of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in human liver cytosol. Xenobiotica. 2000 Aug;30(8):755-69. [PubMed:11037109]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Rna binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the conversion of inosine 5'-phosphate (IMP) to xanthosine 5'-phosphate (XMP), the first committed and rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides, and therefore pl...
Gene Name
IMPDH2
Uniprot ID
P12268
Uniprot Name
Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2
Molecular Weight
55804.495 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Zeevi A, Webber S, Girnita DM, Addonizio L, Selby R, Hutchinson IV, Burckart GJ: A novel variant L263F in human inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 is associated with diminished enzyme activity. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007 Apr;17(4):283-90. [PubMed:17496727]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to alcohols. Catalyzes the reduction of prostaglandin (PG) D2, PGH2 and phenanthrenequinone (PQ) and the oxidation of 9-alpha,11-beta-PGF2 to PGD2....
Gene Name
AKR1C3
Uniprot ID
P42330
Uniprot Name
Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3
Molecular Weight
36852.89 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Pineda JA, Murdock GL, Watson RJ, Warren JC: Stereospecificity of hydrogen transfer by bovine testicular 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. J Steroid Biochem. 1989 Dec;33(6):1223-8. [PubMed:2615366]
  4. Pineda JA, Murdock GL, Watson RJ, Warren JC: Stereospecificity of hydrogen transfer between progesterone and cofactor by human placental estradiol-17 beta dehydrogenase. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1990 Sep;37(1):65-70. [PubMed:2146972]
  5. Nicolas JC, Boussioux AM, Boularan AM, Descomps B, Crastes de Paulet A: Bioluminescent assay of femtomole levels of estrone and estradiol. Anal Biochem. 1983 Nov;135(1):141-5. [PubMed:6584048]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Prostaglandin inactivation. Contributes to the regulation of events that are under the control of prostaglandin levels. Catalyzes the NAD-dependent dehydrogenation of lipoxin A4 to form 15-oxo-lipo...
Gene Name
HPGD
Uniprot ID
P15428
Uniprot Name
15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase [NAD(+)]
Molecular Weight
28977.105 Da
References
  1. Gao L, He P, Sha J, Liu C, Dai L, Hui N, Ni X: Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 and type 2 mediate differential effects on 15-hydroxy prostaglandin dehydrogenase expression in cultured human chorion trophoblasts. Endocrinology. 2007 Aug;148(8):3645-54. Epub 2007 Apr 26. [PubMed:17463062]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Isomerase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the two-step NADP-dependent conversion of GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-mannose to GDP-fucose, involving an epimerase and a reductase reaction.
Gene Name
TSTA3
Uniprot ID
Q13630
Uniprot Name
GDP-L-fucose synthase
Molecular Weight
35892.46 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Converts progesterone to its inactive form, 20-alpha-dihydroxyprogesterone (20-alpha-OHP). In the liver and intestine, may have a role in the transport of bile. May have a role in monitoring the in...
Gene Name
AKR1C1
Uniprot ID
Q04828
Uniprot Name
Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1
Molecular Weight
36788.02 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Pineda JA, Murdock GL, Watson RJ, Warren JC: Stereospecificity of hydrogen transfer by bovine testicular 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. J Steroid Biochem. 1989 Dec;33(6):1223-8. [PubMed:2615366]
  4. Fukuda T, Hirato K, Yanaihara T, Nakayama T: Microsomal 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity for progesterone in human placenta. Endocrinol Jpn. 1986 Jun;33(3):361-8. [PubMed:3463506]
  5. Burczynski ME, Sridhar GR, Palackal NT, Penning TM: The reactive oxygen species--and Michael acceptor-inducible human aldo-keto reductase AKR1C1 reduces the alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal to 1,4-dihydroxy-2-nonene. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jan 26;276(4):2890-7. Epub 2000 Nov 1. [PubMed:11060293]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [nad(p)] activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes reversibly the conversion of cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone. Catalyzes reversibly the conversion of 7-ketocholesterol to 7-beta-hydroxycholesterol. In intact cells, the rea...
Gene Name
HSD11B1
Uniprot ID
P28845
Uniprot Name
Corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 1
Molecular Weight
32400.665 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Diederich S, Hanke B, Oelkers W, Bahr V: Metabolism of dexamethasone in the human kidney: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent 11beta-reduction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 May;82(5):1598-602. [PubMed:9141556]
  4. Hermans JJ, Steckel B, Thijssen HH, Janssen BJ, Netter KJ, Maser E: Comparison of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats. Steroids. 1995 Nov;60(11):773-9. [PubMed:8585102]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Steroid delta-isomerase activity
Specific Function
3-beta-HSD is a bifunctional enzyme, that catalyzes the oxidative conversion of Delta(5)-ene-3-beta-hydroxy steroid, and the oxidative conversion of ketosteroids. The 3-beta-HSD enzymatic system pl...
Gene Name
HSD3B2
Uniprot ID
P26439
Uniprot Name
3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta 5-->4-isomerase type 2
Molecular Weight
42051.845 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Widenius TV, Orava MM, Vihko RK, Ylikahri RH, Eriksson CJ: Inhibition of testosterone biosynthesis by ethanol: multiple sites and mechanisms in dispersed Leydig cells. J Steroid Biochem. 1987 Aug;28(2):185-8. [PubMed:3476810]
  4. Fan DF, Troen P: Studies of the human testis. VII. Conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1975 Sep;41(3):563-74. [PubMed:239964]
  5. Thomas JL, Myers RP, Strickler RC: Analysis of coenzyme binding by human placental 3 beta-hydroxy-5-ene-steroid dehydrogenase and steroid 5----4-ene-isomerase using 5'-[p-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl]adenosine, an affinity labeling cofactor analog. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1991 Oct;39(4A):471-7. [PubMed:1911436]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Steroid delta-isomerase activity
Specific Function
3-beta-HSD is a bifunctional enzyme, that catalyzes the oxidative conversion of Delta(5)-ene-3-beta-hydroxy steroid, and the oxidative conversion of ketosteroids. The 3-beta-HSD enzymatic system pl...
Gene Name
HSD3B1
Uniprot ID
P14060
Uniprot Name
3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta 5-->4-isomerase type 1
Molecular Weight
42251.25 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Widenius TV, Orava MM, Vihko RK, Ylikahri RH, Eriksson CJ: Inhibition of testosterone biosynthesis by ethanol: multiple sites and mechanisms in dispersed Leydig cells. J Steroid Biochem. 1987 Aug;28(2):185-8. [PubMed:3476810]
  4. Thomas JL, Myers RP, Rosik LO, Strickler RC: Affinity alkylation of human placental 3 beta-hydroxy-5-ene-steroid dehydrogenase and steroid 5----4-ene-isomerase by 2 alpha-bromoacetoxyprogesterone: evidence for separate dehydrogenase and isomerase sites on one protein. J Steroid Biochem. 1990 Jun;36(1-2):117-23. [PubMed:2362440]
  5. Ishii-Ohba H, Inano H, Tamaoki B: Testicular and adrenal 3 beta-hydroxy-5-ene-steroid dehydrogenase and 5-ene-4-ene isomerase. J Steroid Biochem. 1987;27(4-6):775-9. [PubMed:2961942]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Rna binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the conversion of inosine 5'-phosphate (IMP) to xanthosine 5'-phosphate (XMP), the first committed and rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides, and therefore pl...
Gene Name
IMPDH1
Uniprot ID
P20839
Uniprot Name
Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 1
Molecular Weight
55405.365 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Bowne SJ, Sullivan LS, Mortimer SE, Hedstrom L, Zhu J, Spellicy CJ, Gire AI, Hughbanks-Wheaton D, Birch DG, Lewis RA, Heckenlively JR, Daiger SP: Spectrum and frequency of mutations in IMPDH1 associated with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa and leber congenital amaurosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Jan;47(1):34-42. [PubMed:16384941]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nad binding
Specific Function
Bifunctional subunit.
Gene Name
HADHA
Uniprot ID
P40939
Uniprot Name
Trifunctional enzyme subunit alpha, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
82998.97 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Electron carrier activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ALDH2
Uniprot ID
P05091
Uniprot Name
Aldehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
56380.93 Da
References
  1. Quintanilla ME, Tampier L, Sapag A, Gerdtzen Z, Israel Y: Sex differences, alcohol dehydrogenase, acetaldehyde burst, and aversion to ethanol in the rat: a systems perspective. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Aug;293(2):E531-7. Epub 2007 May 8. [PubMed:17488809]
  2. Quintanilla ME, Israel Y, Sapag A, Tampier L: The UChA and UChB rat lines: metabolic and genetic differences influencing ethanol intake. Addict Biol. 2006 Sep;11(3-4):310-23. [PubMed:16961761]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the conversion of cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone. Modulates intracellular glucocorticoid levels, thus protecting the nonselective mineralocorticoid receptor from occupation...
Gene Name
HSD11B2
Uniprot ID
P80365
Uniprot Name
Corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 2
Molecular Weight
44126.06 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Mercer WR, Krozowski ZS: Localization of an 11 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity to the distal nephron. Evidence for the existence of two species of dehydrogenase in the rat kidney. Endocrinology. 1992 Jan;130(1):540-3. [PubMed:1727721]
  4. Hermans JJ, Steckel B, Thijssen HH, Janssen BJ, Netter KJ, Maser E: Comparison of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats. Steroids. 1995 Nov;60(11):773-9. [PubMed:8585102]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Works in concert with the 5-alpha/5-beta-steroid reductases to convert steroid hormones into the 3-alpha/5-alpha and 3-alpha/5-beta-tetrahydrosteroids. Catalyzes the inactivation of the most potent...
Gene Name
AKR1C2
Uniprot ID
P52895
Uniprot Name
Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C2
Molecular Weight
36734.97 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Rizner TL, Lin HK, Peehl DM, Steckelbroeck S, Bauman DR, Penning TM: Human type 3 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (aldo-keto reductase 1C2) and androgen metabolism in prostate cells. Endocrinology. 2003 Jul;144(7):2922-32. [PubMed:12810547]
  4. Trauger JW, Jiang A, Stearns BA, LoGrasso PV: Kinetics of allopregnanolone formation catalyzed by human 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type III (AKR1C2). Biochemistry. 2002 Nov 12;41(45):13451-9. [PubMed:12416991]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) activity
Specific Function
Involved in the sequential removal of two C-4 methyl groups in post-squalene cholesterol biosynthesis.
Gene Name
NSDHL
Uniprot ID
Q15738
Uniprot Name
Sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase, decarboxylating
Molecular Weight
41899.99 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Cunningham D, Swartzlander D, Liyanarachchi S, Davuluri RV, Herman GE: Changes in gene expression associated with loss of function of the NSDHL sterol dehydrogenase in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. J Lipid Res. 2005 Jun;46(6):1150-62. Epub 2005 Apr 1. [PubMed:15805545]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Aldehyde dehydrogenase [nad(p)+] activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ALDH3B2
Uniprot ID
P48448
Uniprot Name
Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 3 member B2
Molecular Weight
42634.6 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Thiolester hydrolase activity
Specific Function
Plays a role in valine and pyrimidine metabolism. Binds fatty acyl-CoA.
Gene Name
ALDH6A1
Uniprot ID
Q02252
Uniprot Name
Methylmalonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [acylating], mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
57839.31 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Kedishvili NY, Popov KM, Harris RA: The effect of ligand binding on the proteolytic pattern of methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1991 Oct;290(1):21-6. [PubMed:1898092]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (nad+) activity
Specific Function
ALDHs play a major role in the detoxification of alcohol-derived acetaldehyde. They are involved in the metabolism of corticosteroids, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, and lipid peroxidation. Th...
Gene Name
ALDH3A1
Uniprot ID
P30838
Uniprot Name
Aldehyde dehydrogenase, dimeric NADP-preferring
Molecular Weight
50394.57 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Wroczynski P, Nowak M, Wierzchowski J, Szubert A, Polanski J: Activities of cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in colon cancer: determination using selective, fluorimetric assays. Acta Pol Pharm. 2005 Nov-Dec;62(6):427-33. [PubMed:16583981]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Retinal dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Binds free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Can convert/oxidize retinaldehyde to retinoic acid (By similarity).
Gene Name
ALDH1A1
Uniprot ID
P00352
Uniprot Name
Retinal dehydrogenase 1
Molecular Weight
54861.44 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Wroczynski P, Nowak M, Wierzchowski J, Szubert A, Polanski J: Activities of cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in colon cancer: determination using selective, fluorimetric assays. Acta Pol Pharm. 2005 Nov-Dec;62(6):427-33. [PubMed:16583981]
  4. Russo J, Barnes A, Berger K, Desgrosellier J, Henderson J, Kanters A, Merkov L: 4-(N,N-dipropylamino)benzaldehyde inhibits the oxidation of all-trans retinal to all-trans retinoic acid by ALDH1A1, but not the differentiation of HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells exposed to all-trans retinal. BMC Pharmacol. 2002;2:4. Epub 2002 Feb 12. [PubMed:11872149]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadp binding
Specific Function
May play an important role in regulating the switch between different pathways for energy production during spermiogenesis and in the spermatozoon. Required for sperm motility and male fertility (B...
Gene Name
GAPDHS
Uniprot ID
O14556
Uniprot Name
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, testis-specific
Molecular Weight
44500.835 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Maeda K, Nagata H, Nonaka A, Kataoka K, Tanaka M, Shizukuishi S: Oral streptococcal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mediates interaction with Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae. Microbes Infect. 2004 Nov;6(13):1163-70. [PubMed:15488735]
  4. Graciet E, Lebreton S, Camadro JM, Gontero B: Characterization of native and recombinant A4 glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Kinetic evidence for confromation changes upon association with the small protein CP12. Eur J Biochem. 2003 Jan;270(1):129-36. [PubMed:12492483]
  5. Ismail SA, Park HW: Structural analysis of human liver glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2005 Nov;61(Pt 11):1508-13. Epub 2005 Oct 19. [PubMed:16239728]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Converts gamma-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde into gamma-butyrobetaine. Catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of a broad range of aldehydes to the corresponding acids in an NAD-dependent reaction.
Gene Name
ALDH9A1
Uniprot ID
P49189
Uniprot Name
4-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase
Molecular Weight
53801.495 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Prieto MI, Martin J, Balana-Fouce R, Garrido-Pertierra A: Properties of gamma-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Biochimie. 1987 Nov-Dec;69(11-12):1161-8. [PubMed:3129020]
  4. Testore G, Colombatto S, Silvagno F, Bedino S: Purification and kinetic characterization of gamma-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase from rat liver. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1995 Nov;27(11):1201-10. [PubMed:7584606]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Thyroid hormone binding
Specific Function
Recognizes as substrates free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Seems to be the key enzyme in the formation of an RA gradient along the dorso-ventral axis during the early...
Gene Name
ALDH1A3
Uniprot ID
P47895
Uniprot Name
Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3
Molecular Weight
56107.995 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Graham CE, Brocklehurst K, Pickersgill RW, Warren MJ: Characterization of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 3. Biochem J. 2006 Feb 15;394(Pt 1):67-75. [PubMed:16241904]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Aldehyde dehydrogenase (nad) activity
Specific Function
ALDHs play a major role in the detoxification of alcohol-derived acetaldehyde. They are involved in the metabolism of corticosteroids, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, and lipid peroxidation.
Gene Name
ALDH1B1
Uniprot ID
P30837
Uniprot Name
Aldehyde dehydrogenase X, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
57205.93 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Aldehyde dehydrogenase [nad(p)+] activity
Specific Function
Oxidizes medium and long chain saturated and unsaturated aldehydes. Metabolizes also benzaldehyde. Low activity towards acetaldehyde and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde. May not metabolize short ch...
Gene Name
ALDH3B1
Uniprot ID
P43353
Uniprot Name
Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 3 member B1
Molecular Weight
51839.245 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Peptidyl-cysteine s-nitrosylase activity
Specific Function
Has both glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and nitrosylase activities, thereby playing a role in glycolysis and nuclear functions, respectively. Participates in nuclear events including tran...
Gene Name
GAPDH
Uniprot ID
P04406
Uniprot Name
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
Molecular Weight
36053.0 Da
References
  1. Markova EV, Zotova NV, Savchenko AA, Titova NM, Slepov EV, Cherdantsev DV, Konovalenko AN: [Lymphocyte metabolism in patients with acute pancreatitis with different genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes]. Biomed Khim. 2006 May-Jun;52(3):317-26. [PubMed:16898590]
  2. Ido Y: Pyridine nucleotide redox abnormalities in diabetes. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007 Jul;9(7):931-42. [PubMed:17508915]
  3. Trost P, Fermani S, Marri L, Zaffagnini M, Falini G, Scagliarini S, Pupillo P, Sparla F: Thioredoxin-dependent regulation of photosynthetic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: autonomous vs. CP12-dependent mechanisms. Photosynth Res. 2006 Sep;89(2-3):263-75. Epub 2006 Sep 22. [PubMed:17031544]
  4. Swearengin TA, Fibuch EE, Seidler NW: Sevoflurane modulates the activity of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2006 Oct;21(5):575-9. [PubMed:17194030]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Retinal dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Recognizes as substrates free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Does metabolize octanal and decanal but does not metabolize citral, benzaldehyde, acetaldehyde and propanal...
Gene Name
ALDH1A2
Uniprot ID
O94788
Uniprot Name
Retinal dehydrogenase 2
Molecular Weight
56723.495 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Lamb AL, Newcomer ME: The structure of retinal dehydrogenase type II at 2.7 A resolution: implications for retinal specificity. Biochemistry. 1999 May 11;38(19):6003-11. [PubMed:10320326]
  4. Russo J, Barnes A, Berger K, Desgrosellier J, Henderson J, Kanters A, Merkov L: 4-(N,N-dipropylamino)benzaldehyde inhibits the oxidation of all-trans retinal to all-trans retinoic acid by ALDH1A1, but not the differentiation of HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells exposed to all-trans retinal. BMC Pharmacol. 2002;2:4. Epub 2002 Feb 12. [PubMed:11872149]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Medium-chain-aldehyde dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain aliphatic aldehydes to fatty acids. Active on a variety of saturated and unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes between 6 and 24 carbons in length. Responsible for co...
Gene Name
ALDH3A2
Uniprot ID
P51648
Uniprot Name
Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase
Molecular Weight
54847.36 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Bognar A, Meighen E: Mechanism of a long-chain fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase induced during the development of bioluminescence in Beneckea harveyi. Can J Biochem Cell Biol. 1983 May;61(5):301-6. [PubMed:6603890]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [nad(p)+] activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes one step in the degradation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
Gene Name
ALDH5A1
Uniprot ID
P51649
Uniprot Name
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
57214.23 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
L-aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Multifunctional enzyme mediating important protective effects. Metabolizes betaine aldehyde to betaine, an important cellular osmolyte and methyl donor. Protects cells from oxidative stress by meta...
Gene Name
ALDH7A1
Uniprot ID
P49419
Uniprot Name
Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase
Molecular Weight
58486.74 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. de La Fuente JL, Rumbero A, Martin JF, Liras P: Delta-1-piperideine-6-carboxylate dehydrogenase, a new enzyme that forms alpha-aminoadipate in Streptomyces clavuligerus and other cephamycin C-producing actinomycetes. Biochem J. 1997 Oct 1;327 ( Pt 1):59-64. [PubMed:9355735]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Riboflavin reductase (nadph) activity
Specific Function
Broad specificity oxidoreductase that catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a variety of flavins, such as riboflavin, FAD or FMN, biliverdins, methemoglobin and PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone)....
Gene Name
BLVRB
Uniprot ID
P30043
Uniprot Name
Flavin reductase (NADPH)
Molecular Weight
22119.215 Da
References
  1. Deng D, Li X, Fang X, Sun G: Characterization of two components of the 2-naphthoate monooxygenase system from Burkholderia sp. strain JT1500. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007 Aug;273(1):22-7. Epub 2007 Jun 7. [PubMed:17559398]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase activity
Specific Function
Housekeeping enzyme that catalyzes the last step in proline biosynthesis. In some cell types, such as erythrocytes, its primary function may be the generation of NADP(+). Can utilize both NAD and N...
Gene Name
PYCR2
Uniprot ID
Q96C36
Uniprot Name
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 2
Molecular Weight
33636.815 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Murahama M, Yoshida T, Hayashi F, Ichino T, Sanada Y, Wada K: Purification and characterization of Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase isoenzymes, indicating differential distribution in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves. Plant Cell Physiol. 2001 Jul;42(7):742-50. [PubMed:11479381]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase activity
Specific Function
Housekeeping enzyme that catalyzes the last step in proline biosynthesis. Can utilize both NAD and NADP, but has higher affinity for NAD. Involved in the cellular response to oxidative stress.
Gene Name
PYCR1
Uniprot ID
P32322
Uniprot Name
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
33360.27 Da
References
  1. Wang ZQ, Yuan YZ, Ou JQ, Lin QH, Zhang CF: Glutamine synthetase and glutamate dehydrogenase contribute differentially to proline accumulation in leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings exposed to different salinity. J Plant Physiol. 2007 Jun;164(6):695-701. Epub 2006 Jun 14. [PubMed:16777263]
  2. Forlani G, Giberti S, Berlicki L, Petrollino D, Kafarski P: Plant P5C reductase as a new target for aminomethylenebisphosphonates. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 May 30;55(11):4340-7. Epub 2007 May 3. [PubMed:17474756]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nad+ binding
Specific Function
Mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase that converts L-glutamate into alpha-ketoglutarate. Plays a key role in glutamine anaplerosis by producing alpha-ketoglutarate, an important intermediate in th...
Gene Name
GLUD1
Uniprot ID
P00367
Uniprot Name
Glutamate dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
61397.315 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name
PDHB
Uniprot ID
P11177
Uniprot Name
Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
39233.1 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Taylor SI, Mukherjee C, Jungas RL: Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in isolated rat liver mitochondria. Effects of octanoate, oxidation-reduction state, and adenosine triphosphate to adenosine diphosphate ratio. J Biol Chem. 1975 Mar 25;250(6):2028-35. [PubMed:1116996]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) activity
Specific Function
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name
PDHA2
Uniprot ID
P29803
Uniprot Name
Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit alpha, testis-specific form, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
42932.855 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name
PDHA1
Uniprot ID
P08559
Uniprot Name
Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit alpha, somatic form, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
43295.255 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reduces the gamma-methene bridge of the open tetrapyrrole, biliverdin IX alpha, to bilirubin with the concomitant oxidation of a NADH or NADPH cofactor.
Gene Name
BLVRA
Uniprot ID
P53004
Uniprot Name
Biliverdin reductase A
Molecular Weight
33428.225 Da
References
  1. Franklin E, Browne S, Hayes J, Boland C, Dunne A, Elliot G, Mantle TJ: Activation of biliverdin-IXalpha reductase by inorganic phosphate and related anions. Biochem J. 2007 Jul 1;405(1):61-7. [PubMed:17402939]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Flavin adenine dinucleotide binding
Specific Function
Introduces a double bond at position 2 in saturated acyl-CoA's of short chain length, i.e. less than 6 carbon atoms.
Gene Name
ACADS
Uniprot ID
P16219
Uniprot Name
Short-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
44296.705 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadph binding
Specific Function
Key enzyme in folate metabolism. Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway. Catalyzes an essential reaction for de novo glycine and purine synthesis, and for DNA pre...
Gene Name
DHFR
Uniprot ID
P00374
Uniprot Name
Dihydrofolate reductase
Molecular Weight
21452.61 Da
References
  1. Argyrou A, Jin L, Siconilfi-Baez L, Angeletti RH, Blanchard JS: Proteome-wide profiling of isoniazid targets in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Biochemistry. 2006 Nov 28;45(47):13947-53. [PubMed:17115689]
  2. Vickers TJ, Orsomando G, de la Garza RD, Scott DA, Kang SO, Hanson AD, Beverley SM: Biochemical and genetic analysis of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in Leishmania metabolism and virulence. J Biol Chem. 2006 Dec 15;281(50):38150-8. Epub 2006 Oct 10. [PubMed:17032644]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Thiamine pyrophosphate binding
Specific Function
The 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components: 2-oxoglutarate dehy...
Gene Name
OGDH
Uniprot ID
Q02218
Uniprot Name
2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
115934.37 Da
References
  1. Mailloux RJ, Beriault R, Lemire J, Singh R, Chenier DR, Hamel RD, Appanna VD: The tricarboxylic acid cycle, an ancient metabolic network with a novel twist. PLoS One. 2007 Aug 1;2(8):e690. [PubMed:17668068]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Leucine binding
Specific Function
Important for recycling the chief excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, during neurotransmission.
Gene Name
GLUD2
Uniprot ID
P49448
Uniprot Name
Glutamate dehydrogenase 2, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
61433.465 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
7-dehydrocholesterol reductase activity
Specific Function
Production of cholesterol by reduction of C7-C8 double bond of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC).
Gene Name
DHCR7
Uniprot ID
Q9UBM7
Uniprot Name
7-dehydrocholesterol reductase
Molecular Weight
54488.98 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadph dehydrogenase (quinone) activity
Specific Function
The enzyme apparently serves as a quinone reductase in connection with conjugation reactions of hydroquinones involved in detoxification pathways as well as in biosynthetic processes such as the vi...
Gene Name
NQO2
Uniprot ID
P16083
Uniprot Name
Ribosyldihydronicotinamide dehydrogenase [quinone]
Molecular Weight
25918.4 Da
References
  1. Jamieson D, Tung AT, Knox RJ, Boddy AV: Reduction of mitomycin C is catalysed by human recombinant NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 using reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as an electron donating co-factor. Br J Cancer. 2006 Nov 6;95(9):1229-33. Epub 2006 Oct 10. [PubMed:17031400]
  2. Iskander K, Li J, Han S, Zheng B, Jaiswal AK: NQO1 and NQO2 regulation of humoral immunity and autoimmunity. J Biol Chem. 2006 Oct 13;281(41):30917-24. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16905546]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the tra...
Gene Name
MT-ND2
Uniprot ID
P03891
Uniprot Name
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 2
Molecular Weight
38960.47 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Nikonova EV, Vijayasarathy C, Zhang L, Cater JR, Galante RJ, Ward SE, Avadhani NG, Pack AI: Differences in activity of cytochrome C oxidase in brain between sleep and wakefulness. Sleep. 2005 Jan;28(1):21-7. [PubMed:15700717]
  4. Zhang HB, Chen SL, Liu JZ, Xiao B, Chen ZB, Wang HJ: [The changes of gene expression in multiple myeloma treated with thalidomide]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 2003 May;42(5):300-2. [PubMed:12882707]
  5. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Saccharopine dehydrogenase (nadp+, l-lysine-forming) activity
Specific Function
Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the first two steps in lysine degradation. The N-terminal and the C-terminal contain lysine-ketoglutarate reductase and saccharopine dehydrogenase activity, respe...
Gene Name
AASS
Uniprot ID
Q9UDR5
Uniprot Name
Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
102130.895 Da
References
  1. Xu H, West AH, Cook PF: Determinants of substrate specificity for saccharopine dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochemistry. 2007 Jun 26;46(25):7625-36. Epub 2007 Jun 2. [PubMed:17542618]
  2. Xu H, West AH, Cook PF: Overall kinetic mechanism of saccharopine dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochemistry. 2006 Oct 3;45(39):12156-66. [PubMed:17002315]
  3. Xu H, Alguindigue SS, West AH, Cook PF: A proposed proton shuttle mechanism for saccharopine dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochemistry. 2007 Jan 23;46(3):871-82. [PubMed:17223709]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the tra...
Gene Name
MT-ND3
Uniprot ID
P03897
Uniprot Name
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 3
Molecular Weight
13185.87 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Quinone binding
Specific Function
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the tra...
Gene Name
NDUFS7
Uniprot ID
O75251
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 7, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
23563.3 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Schuler F, Yano T, Di Bernardo S, Yagi T, Yankovskaya V, Singer TP, Casida JE: NADH-quinone oxidoreductase: PSST subunit couples electron transfer from iron-sulfur cluster N2 to quinone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Mar 30;96(7):4149-53. [PubMed:10097178]
  4. Hyslop SJ, Duncan AM, Pitkanen S, Robinson BH: Assignment of the PSST subunit gene of human mitochondrial complex I to chromosome 19p13. Genomics. 1996 Nov 1;37(3):375-80. [PubMed:8938450]
  5. Albracht SP: Intimate relationships of the large and the small subunits of all nickel hydrogenases with two nuclear-encoded subunits of mitochondrial NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993 Sep 13;1144(2):221-4. [PubMed:8369340]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase [nad(p)+] activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
MTHFD1
Uniprot ID
P11586
Uniprot Name
C-1-tetrahydrofolate synthase, cytoplasmic
Molecular Weight
101558.37 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Phosphate ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
MTHFD2
Uniprot ID
P13995
Uniprot Name
Bifunctional methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase/cyclohydrolase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
37894.775 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Irreversible conversion of delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), derived either from proline or ornithine, to glutamate. This is a necessary step in the pathway interconnecting the urea and tricar...
Gene Name
ALDH4A1
Uniprot ID
P30038
Uniprot Name
Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
61718.93 Da
References
  1. Inagaki E, Ohshima N, Takahashi H, Kuroishi C, Yokoyama S, Tahirov TH: Crystal structure of Thermus thermophilus Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase. J Mol Biol. 2006 Sep 22;362(3):490-501. Epub 2006 Jul 29. [PubMed:16934832]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nad binding
Specific Function
Desaturation and elongation of fatty acids, cholesterol biosynthesis, drug metabolism, and, in erythrocyte, methemoglobin reduction.
Gene Name
CYB5R3
Uniprot ID
P00387
Uniprot Name
NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase 3
Molecular Weight
34234.55 Da
References
  1. Roma GW, Crowley LJ, Barber MJ: Expression and characterization of a functional canine variant of cytochrome b5 reductase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2006 Aug 1;452(1):69-82. Epub 2006 May 24. [PubMed:16814740]
  2. Nussenzveig RH, Lingam HB, Gaikwad A, Zhu Q, Jing N, Prchal JT: A novel mutation of the cytochrome-b5 reductase gene in an Indian patient: the molecular basis of type I methemoglobinemia. Haematologica. 2006 Nov;91(11):1542-5. [PubMed:17082011]
  3. Kim S, Suga M, Ogasahara K, Ikegami T, Minami Y, Yubisui T, Tsukihara T: Structure of Physarum polycephalum cytochrome b5 reductase at 1.56 A resolution. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2007 Apr 1;63(Pt 4):274-9. Epub 2007 Mar 23. [PubMed:17401193]
  4. Kurian JR, Chin NA, Longlais BJ, Hayes KL, Trepanier LA: Reductive detoxification of arylhydroxylamine carcinogens by human NADH cytochrome b5 reductase and cytochrome b5. Chem Res Toxicol. 2006 Oct;19(10):1366-73. [PubMed:17040106]
  5. Ikegami T, Kameyama E, Yamamoto SY, Minami Y, Yubisui T: Structure and properties of the recombinant NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase of Physarum polycephalum. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007 Mar;71(3):783-90. Epub 2007 Mar 7. [PubMed:17341833]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFA11
Uniprot ID
Q86Y39
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 11
Molecular Weight
14851.96 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the tra...
Gene Name
MT-ND4
Uniprot ID
P03905
Uniprot Name
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 4
Molecular Weight
51580.26 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Shen XY, Zacal N, Singh G, Rainbow AJ: Alterations in mitochondrial and apoptosis-regulating gene expression in photodynamic therapy-resistant variants of HT29 colon carcinoma cells. Photochem Photobiol. 2005 Mar-Apr;81(2):306-13. [PubMed:15560738]
  4. Carper DA, Sun JK, Iwata T, Zigler JS Jr, Ibaraki N, Lin LR, Reddy V: Oxidative stress induces differential gene expression in a human lens epithelial cell line. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999 Feb;40(2):400-6. [PubMed:9950599]
  5. Dzelzkalns VA, Obinger C, Regelsberger G, Niederhauser H, Kamensek M, Peschek GA, Bogorad L: Deletion of the structural gene for the NADH-dehydrogenase subunit 4 of Synechocystis 6803 alters respiratory properties. Plant Physiol. 1994 Dec;106(4):1435-42. [PubMed:7846157]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadph binding
Specific Function
The product of this enzyme, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH-4), is an essential cofactor for phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan hydroxylases.
Gene Name
QDPR
Uniprot ID
P09417
Uniprot Name
Dihydropteridine reductase
Molecular Weight
25789.295 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Nakanishi N, Ozawa K, Yamada S: Determination of NADPH-specific dihydropteridine reductase in extract from human, monkey, and bovine livers by single radial immunodiffusion: selective assay differentiating NADPH- and NADH-specific enzymes. J Biochem. 1986 May;99(5):1311-5. [PubMed:3086306]
  4. van der Heiden C, Brink W: Spectral studies of the interaction of the substrate 'quinonoid' 6-methyl dihydropterine and the coenzyme NADH used as marker in the dihydropteridine reductase assay. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1982;5(3):132-6. [PubMed:6820434]
  5. Lee PL, Halloran C, Cross AR, Beutler E: NADH-ferric reductase activity associated with dihydropteridine reductase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 May 19;271(3):788-95. [PubMed:10814540]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the tra...
Gene Name
MT-ND1
Uniprot ID
P03886
Uniprot Name
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1
Molecular Weight
35660.055 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadp binding
Specific Function
The transhydrogenation between NADH and NADP is coupled to respiration and ATP hydrolysis and functions as a proton pump across the membrane. May play a role in reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxi...
Gene Name
NNT
Uniprot ID
Q13423
Uniprot Name
NAD(P) transhydrogenase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
113894.595 Da
References
  1. Kabus A, Georgi T, Wendisch VF, Bott M: Expression of the Escherichia coli pntAB genes encoding a membrane-bound transhydrogenase in Corynebacterium glutamicum improves L-lysine formation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007 May;75(1):47-53. Epub 2007 Jan 11. [PubMed:17216441]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFA5
Uniprot ID
Q16718
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 5
Molecular Weight
13458.605 Da
References
  1. Chen CL, Zhang L, Yeh A, Chen CA, Green-Church KB, Zweier JL, Chen YR: Site-specific S-glutathiolation of mitochondrial NADH ubiquinone reductase. Biochemistry. 2007 May 15;46(19):5754-65. Epub 2007 Apr 20. [PubMed:17444656]
  2. Belevich G, Euro L, Wikstrom M, Verkhovskaya M: Role of the conserved arginine 274 and histidine 224 and 228 residues in the NuoCD subunit of complex I from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2007 Jan 16;46(2):526-33. [PubMed:17209562]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein complex binding
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFA9
Uniprot ID
Q16795
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 9, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
42509.18 Da
References
  1. Barker CD, Reda T, Hirst J: The flavoprotein subcomplex of complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) from bovine heart mitochondria: insights into the mechanisms of NADH oxidation and NAD+ reduction from protein film voltammetry. Biochemistry. 2007 Mar 20;46(11):3454-64. Epub 2007 Feb 27. [PubMed:17323923]
  2. Balaban RS: Maintenance of the metabolic homeostasis of the heart: developing a systems analysis approach. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Oct;1080:140-53. [PubMed:17132781]
  3. Matsuzaki S, Szweda LI: Inhibition of complex I by Ca2+ reduces electron transport activity and the rate of superoxide anion production in cardiac submitochondrial particles. Biochemistry. 2007 Feb 6;46(5):1350-7. [PubMed:17260964]
  4. Fisher N, Bray PG, Ward SA, Biagini GA: The malaria parasite type II NADH:quinone oxidoreductase: an alternative enzyme for an alternative lifestyle. Trends Parasitol. 2007 Jul;23(7):305-10. Epub 2007 May 10. [PubMed:17499024]
  5. Liu Y, Qiao DR, Zheng HB, Dai XL, Bai LH, Zeng J, Cao Y: Cloning and sequence analysis of the gene encoding 19-kD subunit of Complex I from Dunaliella salina. Mol Biol Rep. 2008 Sep;35(3):397-403. Epub 2007 May 26. [PubMed:17530440]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the tra...
Gene Name
MT-ND4L
Uniprot ID
P03901
Uniprot Name
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 4L
Molecular Weight
10741.005 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFA10
Uniprot ID
O95299
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 10, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
40750.28 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Structural constituent of ribosome
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFA7
Uniprot ID
O95182
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 7
Molecular Weight
12551.27 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFA1
Uniprot ID
O15239
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 1
Molecular Weight
8072.325 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Au HC, Seo BB, Matsuno-Yagi A, Yagi T, Scheffler IE: The NDUFA1 gene product (MWFE protein) is essential for activity of complex I in mammalian mitochondria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Apr 13;96(8):4354-9. [PubMed:10200266]
  4. Raha S, Myint AT, Johnstone L, Robinson BH: Control of oxygen free radical formation from mitochondrial complex I: roles for protein kinase A and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002 Mar 1;32(5):421-30. [PubMed:11864782]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the tra...
Gene Name
MT-ND6
Uniprot ID
P03923
Uniprot Name
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 6
Molecular Weight
18622.045 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the tra...
Gene Name
MT-ND5
Uniprot ID
P03915
Uniprot Name
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 5
Molecular Weight
67025.67 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Johnson WE, O'Brien SJ: Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Felidae using 16S rRNA and NADH-5 mitochondrial genes. J Mol Evol. 1997;44 Suppl 1:S98-116. [PubMed:9071018]
  4. Bao HG, Zhao CJ, Li JY, Wu Ch: Association of MT-ND5 gene variation with mitochondrial respiratory control ratio and NADH dehydrogenase activity in Tibet chicken embryos. Anim Genet. 2007 Oct;38(5):514-6. Epub 2007 Jul 5. [PubMed:17614984]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein complex binding
Specific Function
Cytochrome c oxidase (COX, complex IV) is the terminal component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. Required for complex IV maintenance.
Gene Name
NDUFA4
Uniprot ID
O00483
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome c oxidase subunit NDUFA4
Molecular Weight
9369.78 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed to be not involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFA6
Uniprot ID
P56556
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 6
Molecular Weight
17870.715 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Carrier of the growing fatty acid chain in fatty acid biosynthesis in mitochondria. Accessory and non-catalytic subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I...
Gene Name
NDUFAB1
Uniprot ID
O14561
Uniprot Name
Acyl carrier protein, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
17417.095 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFA2
Uniprot ID
O43678
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 2
Molecular Weight
10921.45 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein complex binding
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFA8
Uniprot ID
P51970
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 8
Molecular Weight
20104.875 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Triepels R, van den Heuvel L, Loeffen J, Smeets R, Trijbels F, Smeitink J: The nuclear-encoded human NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase NDUFA8 subunit: cDNA cloning, chromosomal localization, tissue distribution, and mutation detection in complex-I-deficient patients. Hum Genet. 1998 Nov;103(5):557-63. [PubMed:9860297]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFA3
Uniprot ID
O95167
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 3
Molecular Weight
9278.785 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFB8
Uniprot ID
O95169
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 8, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
21765.665 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFC2
Uniprot ID
O95298
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 subunit C2
Molecular Weight
14187.33 Da
References
  1. Gyan S, Shiohira Y, Sato I, Takeuchi M, Sato T: Regulatory loop between redox sensing of the NADH/NAD(+) ratio by Rex (YdiH) and oxidation of NADH by NADH dehydrogenase Ndh in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 2006 Oct;188(20):7062-71. [PubMed:17015645]
  2. Quiles MJ: Stimulation of chlororespiration by heat and high light intensity in oat plants. Plant Cell Environ. 2006 Aug;29(8):1463-70. [PubMed:16898010]
  3. Brooijmans RJ, Poolman B, Schuurman-Wolters GK, de Vos WM, Hugenholtz J: Generation of a membrane potential by Lactococcus lactis through aerobic electron transport. J Bacteriol. 2007 Jul;189(14):5203-9. Epub 2007 May 11. [PubMed:17496098]
  4. Bao HG, Zhao CJ, Li JY, Wu Ch: Association of MT-ND5 gene variation with mitochondrial respiratory control ratio and NADH dehydrogenase activity in Tibet chicken embryos. Anim Genet. 2007 Oct;38(5):514-6. Epub 2007 Jul 5. [PubMed:17614984]
  5. Zhu X, Liu B, Zhou S, Chen YR, Deng Y, Zweier JL, He G: Ischemic preconditioning prevents in vivo hyperoxygenation in postischemic myocardium with preservation of mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Sep;293(3):H1442-50. Epub 2007 May 18. [PubMed:17513495]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons f...
Gene Name
NDUFB1
Uniprot ID
O75438
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 1
Molecular Weight
6961.165 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the tra...
Gene Name
NDUFS1
Uniprot ID
P28331
Uniprot Name
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
79466.77 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFB10
Uniprot ID
O96000
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 10
Molecular Weight
20776.545 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFB4
Uniprot ID
O95168
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 4
Molecular Weight
15208.4 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFB3
Uniprot ID
O43676
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 3
Molecular Weight
11401.945 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFB2
Uniprot ID
O95178
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 2, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
12058.36 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFB7
Uniprot ID
P17568
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 7
Molecular Weight
16401.82 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Raha S, Myint AT, Johnstone L, Robinson BH: Control of oxygen free radical formation from mitochondrial complex I: roles for protein kinase A and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002 Mar 1;32(5):421-30. [PubMed:11864782]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed to be not involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFB9
Uniprot ID
Q9Y6M9
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 9
Molecular Weight
21830.75 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the tra...
Gene Name
NDUFS2
Uniprot ID
O75306
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 2, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
52545.26 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFB5
Uniprot ID
O43674
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 5, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
21750.05 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFC1
Uniprot ID
O43677
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 subunit C1, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
8734.155 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFB6
Uniprot ID
O95139
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 6
Molecular Weight
15489.145 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFV3
Uniprot ID
P56181
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein 3, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
11940.435 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nad binding
Specific Function
Lipoamide dehydrogenase is a component of the glycine cleavage system as well as of the alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes. Involved in the hyperactivation of spermatazoa during capacitation an...
Gene Name
DLD
Uniprot ID
P09622
Uniprot Name
Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
54176.91 Da
References
  1. Yan LJ, Yang SH, Shu H, Prokai L, Forster MJ: Histochemical staining and quantification of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase diaphorase activity using blue native PAGE. Electrophoresis. 2007 Apr;28(7):1036-45. [PubMed:17315258]
  2. Gutierrez-Correa J: Trypanosoma cruzi dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase as target for phenothiazine cationic radicals. Effect of antioxidants. Curr Drug Targets. 2006 Sep;7(9):1155-79. [PubMed:17017892]
  3. Islam MM, Wallin R, Wynn RM, Conway M, Fujii H, Mobley JA, Chuang DT, Hutson SM: A novel branched-chain amino acid metabolon. Protein-protein interactions in a supramolecular complex. J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 20;282(16):11893-903. Epub 2007 Feb 21. [PubMed:17314104]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the tra...
Gene Name
NDUFS3
Uniprot ID
O75489
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 3, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
30241.245 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadp binding
Specific Function
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol.
Gene Name
GSR
Uniprot ID
P00390
Uniprot Name
Glutathione reductase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
56256.565 Da
References
  1. Knapp KG, Swartz JR: Evidence for an additional disulfide reduction pathway in Escherichia coli. J Biosci Bioeng. 2007 Apr;103(4):373-6. [PubMed:17502280]
  2. Aon MA, Cortassa S, Maack C, O'Rourke B: Sequential opening of mitochondrial ion channels as a function of glutathione redox thiol status. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jul 27;282(30):21889-900. Epub 2007 May 31. [PubMed:17540766]
  3. Wan C, Li S, Wen L, Kong J, Wang K, Zhu Y: Damage of oxidative stress on mitochondria during microspores development in Honglian CMS line of rice. Plant Cell Rep. 2007 Mar;26(3):373-82. Epub 2006 Oct 12. [PubMed:17053903]
  4. Cheng Z, Arscott LD, Ballou DP, Williams CH Jr: The relationship of the redox potentials of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase from Drosophila melanogaster to the enzymatic mechanism: reduced thioredoxin is the reductant of glutathione in Drosophila. Biochemistry. 2007 Jul 3;46(26):7875-85. Epub 2007 Jun 6. [PubMed:17550271]
  5. Gazaryan IG, Krasinskaya IP, Kristal BS, Brown AM: Zinc irreversibly damages major enzymes of energy production and antioxidant defense prior to mitochondrial permeability transition. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 17;282(33):24373-80. Epub 2007 Jun 12. [PubMed:17565998]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFA12
Uniprot ID
Q9UI09
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 12
Molecular Weight
17114.43 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFS5
Uniprot ID
O43920
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 5
Molecular Weight
12517.415 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Loeffen J, Smeets R, Smeitink J, Triepels R, Sengers R, Trijbels F, van den Heuvel L: The human NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase NDUFS5 (15 kDa) subunit: cDNA cloning, chromosomal localization, tissue distribution and the absence of mutations in isolated complex I-deficient patients. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1999 Feb;22(1):19-28. [PubMed:10070614]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFS4
Uniprot ID
O43181
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 4, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
20107.84 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Papa S, Sardanelli AM, Scacco S, Petruzzella V, Technikova-Dobrova Z, Vergari R, Signorile A: The NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) of the mammalian respiratory chain and the cAMP cascade. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2002 Feb;34(1):1-10. [PubMed:11860175]
  4. Petruzzella V, Vergari R, Puzziferri I, Boffoli D, Lamantea E, Zeviani M, Papa S: A nonsense mutation in the NDUFS4 gene encoding the 18 kDa (AQDQ) subunit of complex I abolishes assembly and activity of the complex in a patient with Leigh-like syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2001 Mar 1;10(5):529-35. [PubMed:11181577]
  5. Raha S, Myint AT, Johnstone L, Robinson BH: Control of oxygen free radical formation from mitochondrial complex I: roles for protein kinase A and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002 Mar 1;32(5):421-30. [PubMed:11864782]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the tra...
Gene Name
NDUFV1
Uniprot ID
P49821
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein 1, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
50816.685 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Schuelke M, Loeffen J, Mariman E, Smeitink J, van den Heuvel L: Cloning of the human mitochondrial 51 kDa subunit (NDUFV1) reveals a 100% antisense homology of its 3'UTR with the 5'UTR of the gamma-interferon inducible protein (IP-30) precursor: is this a link between mitochondrial myopathy and inflammation? Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Apr 17;245(2):599-606. [PubMed:9571201]
  4. Ali ST, Duncan AM, Schappert K, Heng HH, Tsui LC, Chow W, Robinson BH: Chromosomal localization of the human gene encoding the 51-kDa subunit of mitochondrial complex I (NDUFV1) to 11q13. Genomics. 1993 Nov;18(2):435-9. [PubMed:8288251]
  5. Grad LI, Lemire BD: Mitochondrial complex I mutations in Caenorhabditis elegans produce cytochrome c oxidase deficiency, oxidative stress and vitamin-responsive lactic acidosis. Hum Mol Genet. 2004 Feb 1;13(3):303-14. Epub 2003 Dec 8. [PubMed:14662656]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the tra...
Gene Name
NDUFV2
Uniprot ID
P19404
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein 2, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
27391.36 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Paunesku T, Chang-Liu CM, Shearin-Jones P, Watson C, Milton J, Oryhon J, Salbego D, Milosavljevic A, Woloschak GE: Identification of genes regulated by UV/salicylic acid. Int J Radiat Biol. 2000 Feb;76(2):189-98. [PubMed:10716640]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFA13
Uniprot ID
Q9P0J0
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 13
Molecular Weight
16698.175 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ferrous iron binding
Specific Function
Initiates several important metabolic pathways related to pyruvate and several sulfurate compounds including sulfate, hypotaurine and taurine. Critical regulator of cellular cysteine concentrations...
Gene Name
CDO1
Uniprot ID
Q16878
Uniprot Name
Cysteine dioxygenase type 1
Molecular Weight
22971.745 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons ...
Gene Name
NDUFS6
Uniprot ID
O75380
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 6, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
13711.535 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
NDUFA4L2
Uniprot ID
Q9NRX3
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 4-like 2
Molecular Weight
9965.58 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the tra...
Gene Name
NDUFS8
Uniprot ID
O00217
Uniprot Name
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 8, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
23704.795 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Albracht SP, Hedderich R: Learning from hydrogenases: location of a proton pump and of a second FMN in bovine NADH--ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I). FEBS Lett. 2000 Nov 17;485(1):1-6. [PubMed:11086155]
  4. Loeffen J, Smeitink J, Triepels R, Smeets R, Schuelke M, Sengers R, Trijbels F, Hamel B, Mullaart R, van den Heuvel L: The first nuclear-encoded complex I mutation in a patient with Leigh syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 1998 Dec;63(6):1598-608. [PubMed:9837812]
  5. Jose Quiles M, Cuello J: Association of ferredoxin-NADP oxidoreductase with the chloroplastic pyridine nucleotide dehydrogenase complex in barley leaves Plant Physiol. 1998 May;117(1):235-44. [PubMed:9576793]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Leukotriene-b4 20-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the omega- and (omega-1)-hydroxylation of various fatty acids such as laurate, myristate and palmitate. Has little activity toward prostaglandins A1 and E1. Oxidizes arachidonic acid to 2...
Gene Name
CYP4A11
Uniprot ID
Q02928
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 4A11
Molecular Weight
59347.31 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Ngo S, Kong S, Kirlich A, McKinnon RA, Stupans I: Cytochrome P450 4A, peroxisomal enzymes and nicotinamide cofactors in koala liver. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;127(3):327-34. [PubMed:11246504]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase activity
Specific Function
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name
DLAT
Uniprot ID
P10515
Uniprot Name
Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
68996.03 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Shi S, Ehrt S: Dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase is critical for Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis. Infect Immun. 2006 Jan;74(1):56-63. [PubMed:16368957]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transaminase activity
Specific Function
The glycine cleavage system catalyzes the degradation of glycine.
Gene Name
AMT
Uniprot ID
P48728
Uniprot Name
Aminomethyltransferase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
43945.65 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Iron ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
MSMO1
Uniprot ID
Q15800
Uniprot Name
Methylsterol monooxygenase 1
Molecular Weight
35215.42 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function
Heme oxygenase cleaves the heme ring at the alpha methene bridge to form biliverdin. Biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. Under physiological conditions, the a...
Gene Name
HMOX1
Uniprot ID
P09601
Uniprot Name
Heme oxygenase 1
Molecular Weight
32818.345 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Calo LA, Pagnin E, Davis PA, Sartori M, Semplicini A: Oxidative stress-related factors in Bartter's and Gitelman's syndromes: relevance for angiotensin II signalling. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003 Aug;18(8):1518-25. [PubMed:12897089]
  4. Auclair K, Huang HW, Moenne-Loccoz P, Ortiz de Montellano PR: Cloning and expression of a heme binding protein from the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Protein Expr Purif. 2003 Apr;28(2):340-9. [PubMed:12699699]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Heme oxygenase cleaves the heme ring at the alpha methene bridge to form biliverdin. Biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. Under physiological conditions, the a...
Gene Name
HMOX2
Uniprot ID
P30519
Uniprot Name
Heme oxygenase 2
Molecular Weight
36032.615 Da
References
  1. Tanaka M, Ohkubo K, Fukuzumi S: DNA cleavage by UVA irradiation of NADH with dioxygen via radical chain processes. J Phys Chem A. 2006 Sep 28;110(38):11214-8. [PubMed:16986858]
  2. Goldstone AB, Liochev SI, Fridovich I: Inactivation of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase by H2O2 : mechanism of protection. Free Radic Biol Med. 2006 Dec 15;41(12):1860-3. Epub 2006 Sep 19. [PubMed:17157188]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Steroid 17-alpha-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function
Conversion of pregnenolone and progesterone to their 17-alpha-hydroxylated products and subsequently to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione. Catalyzes both the 17-alpha-hydroxylation ...
Gene Name
CYP17A1
Uniprot ID
P05093
Uniprot Name
Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase
Molecular Weight
57369.995 Da
References
  1. Pandey AV, Kempna P, Hofer G, Mullis PE, Fluck CE: Modulation of human CYP19A1 activity by mutant NADPH P450 oxidoreductase. Mol Endocrinol. 2007 Oct;21(10):2579-95. Epub 2007 Jun 26. [PubMed:17595315]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
This is a copper-containing oxidase that functions in the formation of pigments such as melanins and other polyphenolic compounds. Catalyzes the rate-limiting conversions of tyrosine to DOPA, DOPA ...
Gene Name
TYR
Uniprot ID
P14679
Uniprot Name
Tyrosinase
Molecular Weight
60392.69 Da
References
  1. Jadhav JP, Parshetti GK, Kalme SD, Govindwar SP: Decolourization of azo dye methyl red by Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 463. Chemosphere. 2007 Jun;68(2):394-400. Epub 2007 Feb 9. [PubMed:17292452]
  2. Zafar KS, Siegel D, Ross D: A potential role for cyclized quinones derived from dopamine, DOPA, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in proteasomal inhibition. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Sep;70(3):1079-86. Epub 2006 Jun 21. [PubMed:16790533]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xanthine oxidase activity
Specific Function
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Ha...
Gene Name
XDH
Uniprot ID
P47989
Uniprot Name
Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase
Molecular Weight
146422.99 Da
References
  1. Kalimuthu P, Leimkuhler S, Bernhardt PV: Xanthine dehydrogenase electrocatalysis: autocatalysis and novel activity. J Phys Chem B. 2011 Mar 24;115(11):2655-62. doi: 10.1021/jp111809f. Epub 2011 Mar 1. [PubMed:21361328]
  2. Al-Gonaiah M, Smith RA, Stone TW: Xanthine oxidase-induced neuronal death via the oxidation of NADH: prevention by micromolar EDTA. Brain Res. 2009 Jul 14;1280:33-42. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2009.05.024. Epub 2009 May 18. [PubMed:19450565]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xanthine dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Oxidase with broad substrate specificity, oxidizing aromatic azaheterocycles, such as N1-methylnicotinamide and N-methylphthalazinium, as well as aldehydes, such as benzaldehyde, retinal, pyridoxal...
Gene Name
AOX1
Uniprot ID
Q06278
Uniprot Name
Aldehyde oxidase
Molecular Weight
147916.735 Da
References
  1. Mantle D, Preedy VR: Free radicals as mediators of alcohol toxicity. Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev. 1999 Nov;18(4):235-52. [PubMed:10687026]
  2. Li H, Kundu TK, Zweier JL: Characterization of the magnitude and mechanism of aldehyde oxidase-mediated nitric oxide production from nitrite. J Biol Chem. 2009 Dec 4;284(49):33850-8. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.019125. Epub 2009 Sep 28. [PubMed:19801639]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Activator
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ADH6
Uniprot ID
P28332
Uniprot Name
Alcohol dehydrogenase 6
Molecular Weight
39088.335 Da
References
  1. Plapp BV: Conformational changes and catalysis by alcohol dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Jan 1;493(1):3-12. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2009.07.001. Epub 2009 Jul 5. [PubMed:19583966]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
L-glucuronate reductase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. Catalyzes the reduction of mevaldate to mevalonic acid and of glyceraldehyd...
Gene Name
AKR1A1
Uniprot ID
P14550
Uniprot Name
Alcohol dehydrogenase [NADP(+)]
Molecular Weight
36572.71 Da
References
  1. Plapp BV: Conformational changes and catalysis by alcohol dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Jan 1;493(1):3-12. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2009.07.001. Epub 2009 Jul 5. [PubMed:19583966]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ADH1A
Uniprot ID
P07327
Uniprot Name
Alcohol dehydrogenase 1A
Molecular Weight
39858.37 Da
References
  1. Plapp BV: Conformational changes and catalysis by alcohol dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Jan 1;493(1):3-12. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2009.07.001. Epub 2009 Jul 5. [PubMed:19583966]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ADH1B
Uniprot ID
P00325
Uniprot Name
Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B
Molecular Weight
39854.21 Da
References
  1. Plapp BV: Conformational changes and catalysis by alcohol dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Jan 1;493(1):3-12. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2009.07.001. Epub 2009 Jul 5. [PubMed:19583966]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ADH4
Uniprot ID
P08319
Uniprot Name
Alcohol dehydrogenase 4
Molecular Weight
40221.335 Da
References
  1. Plapp BV: Conformational changes and catalysis by alcohol dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Jan 1;493(1):3-12. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2009.07.001. Epub 2009 Jul 5. [PubMed:19583966]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Class-III ADH is remarkably ineffective in oxidizing ethanol, but it readily catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain primary alcohols and the oxidation of S-(hydroxymethyl) glutathione.
Gene Name
ADH5
Uniprot ID
P11766
Uniprot Name
Alcohol dehydrogenase class-3
Molecular Weight
39723.945 Da
References
  1. Plapp BV: Conformational changes and catalysis by alcohol dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Jan 1;493(1):3-12. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2009.07.001. Epub 2009 Jul 5. [PubMed:19583966]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Could function in retinol oxidation for the synthesis of retinoic acid, a hormone important for cellular differentiation. Medium-chain (octanol) and aromatic (m-nitrobenzaldehyde) compounds are the...
Gene Name
ADH7
Uniprot ID
P40394
Uniprot Name
Alcohol dehydrogenase class 4 mu/sigma chain
Molecular Weight
41480.985 Da
References
  1. Plapp BV: Conformational changes and catalysis by alcohol dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Jan 1;493(1):3-12. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2009.07.001. Epub 2009 Jul 5. [PubMed:19583966]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 07, 2017 01:34