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Identification
NameL-Glutamine
Accession NumberDB00130  (NUTR00026)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
DescriptionA non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from glutamic acid and ammonia. It is the principal carrier of nitrogen in the body and is an important energy source for many cells. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(2S)-2-amino-4-carbamoylbutanoic acid
(2S)-2,5-Diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid
(S)-2,5-diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid
Glutamic acid 5-amide
Glutamic acid amide
GLUTAMINE
L-(+)-glutamine
L-2-aminoglutaramic acid
L-Glutamic acid gamma-amide
L-glutamic acid γ-amide
L-Glutamin
L-Glutamine
L-Glutaminsaeure-5-amid
L-Glutaminsäure-5-amid
Levoglutamide
Q
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Nutrestorepowder, for solution5 g/1oralEmmaus Medical, Inc.2008-06-04Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
Earthlink Science Glutamine Chews ChocolateAmerifit
Glutamine ExpressGenetic Evolutionary Nutrition
Glutamine Fuel MegaTwinlab
Glutamine Fuel Powder Twinlab
L-Glutamine PowerChampion Nutrition
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII0RH81L854J
CAS number56-85-9
WeightAverage: 146.1445
Monoisotopic: 146.069142196
Chemical FormulaC5H10N2O3
InChI KeyInChIKey=ZDXPYRJPNDTMRX-VKHMYHEASA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C5H10N2O3/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H2,7,8)(H,9,10)/t3-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-amino-4-carbamoylbutanoic acid
SMILES
N[C@@H](CCC(N)=O)C(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentL-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Fatty amide
  • Primary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed for nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance.
PharmacodynamicsLike other amino acids, glutamine is biochemically important as a constituent of proteins. Glutamine is also crucial in nitrogen metabolism. Ammonia (formed by nitrogen fixation) is assimilated into organic compounds by converting glutamic acid to glutamine. The enzyme which accomplishes this is called glutamine synthetase. Glutamine can then be used as a nitrogen donor in the biosynthesis of many compounds, including other amino acids, purines, and pyrimidines.
Mechanism of actionSupplemental L-glutamine's possible immunomodulatory role may be accounted for in a number of ways. L-glutamine appears to play a major role in protecting the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract and, in particular, the large intestine. During catabolic states, the integrity of the intestinal mucosa may be compromised with consequent increased intestinal permeability and translocation of Gram-negative bacteria from the large intestine into the body. The demand for L-glutamine by the intestine, as well as by cells such as lymphocytes, appears to be much greater than that supplied by skeletal muscle, the major storage tissue for L-glutamine. L-glutamine is the preferred respiratory fuel for enterocytes, colonocytes and lymphocytes. Therefore, supplying supplemental L-glutamine under these conditions may do a number of things. For one, it may reverse the catabolic state by sparing skeletal muscle L-glutamine. It also may inhibit translocation of Gram-negative bacteria from the large intestine. L-glutamine helps maintain secretory IgA, which functions primarily by preventing the attachment of bacteria to mucosal cells. L-glutamine appears to be required to support the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes, as well as the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). It is also required for the maintenance of lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK). L-glutamine can enhance phagocytosis by neutrophils and monocytes. It can lead to an increased synthesis of glutathione in the intestine, which may also play a role in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosa by ameliorating oxidative stress. The exact mechanism of the possible immunomodulatory action of supplemental L-glutamine, however, remains unclear. It is conceivable that the major effect of L-glutamine occurs at the level of the intestine. Perhaps enteral L-glutamine acts directly on intestine-associated lymphoid tissue and stimulates overall immune function by that mechanism, without passing beyond the splanchnic bed.
Related Articles
AbsorptionAbsorption is efficient and occurs by an active transport mechanism
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Enterocytes, Hepatic

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityDoses of L-glutamine up to 21 grams daily appear to be well tolerated. Reported adverse reactions are mainly gastrointestinal and not common. They include constipation and bloating. There is one older report of two hypomanic patients whose manic symptoms were exacerbated following the use of 2 to 4 grams daily of L-glutamine. The symptoms resolved when the L-glutamine was stopped. These patients were not rechallenged, nor are there any other reports of this nature.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Sialuria or French Type SialuriaDiseaseSMP00217
Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller SyndromeDiseaseSMP00365
Azathioprine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00427
Xanthinuria type IIDiseaseSMP00513
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00567
Mercaptopurine Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00609
Pyrimidine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00046
Phenylacetate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00126
Adenylosuccinate Lyase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00167
HypoacetylaspartiaDiseaseSMP00192
Molybdenum Cofactor DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00203
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00210
Salla Disease/Infantile Sialic Acid Storage DiseaseDiseaseSMP00240
ArgininemiaDiseaseSMP00357
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)DiseaseSMP00535
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeDiseaseSMP00536
Ammonia RecyclingMetabolicSMP00009
Urea CycleMetabolicSMP00059
Canavan DiseaseDiseaseSMP00175
Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency (OTC Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00205
Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS)DiseaseSMP00364
Myoadenylate deaminase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00537
The oncogenic action of 2-hydroxyglutarateDiseaseSMP02291
The oncogenic action of L-2-hydroxyglutarate in HydroxygluaricaciduriaDiseaseSMP02358
The oncogenic action of D-2-hydroxyglutarate in Hydroxygluaricaciduria DiseaseSMP02359
Citrullinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00001
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00002
Amino Sugar MetabolismMetabolicSMP00045
Purine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00050
Aspartate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00067
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.5588
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9604
Caco-2 permeable-0.8957
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7302
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.964
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9919
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.961
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.845
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8496
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7544
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9583
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9741
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.96
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9761
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8936
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9932
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7849
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9136
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.8854
Rat acute toxicity1.2587 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9953
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9828
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Nutritional restart pharmaceutical lp
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Powder, for solutionoral5 g/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
L-glutamine crystals3.76USD g
Argiment packets2.43USD packet
L-glutamine 500 mg tablet0.12USD tablet
Glutamic-500 tablet0.05USD tablet
Impact glutamine liquid0.05USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5288703 No1994-10-072011-10-07Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point185.5 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility4.13E+004 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-3.64CHMELIK,J ET AL. (1991)
logS-0.55ADME Research, USCD
pKa2.17MERCK INDEX (1996)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility97.8 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3.3ALOGPS
logP-4ChemAxon
logS-0.17ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.15ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.31ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area106.41 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity33.11 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability13.87 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (7.65 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0a4i-0910000000-adb283bb40327f705680View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0a4i-0910000000-134e80840320dadf6ad1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-05fr-7910000000-89f87d4acc18299244f5View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-952a471cad5e5ead0a7eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-004i-1961000000-94183211889cfe72d4ffView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0a4i-1920000000-6505cd814f3707a0febaView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-004i-0692000000-9788416fdefb051b9586View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0059-3900000000-c8f487d1a561e49327c0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-eee04836e7577e11d0d0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a59-9000000000-54ffbe5be8d7dbede389View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-79283391c985f8286677View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-6afbd5929b6e2371a371View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-d5bd83614703b048228eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-dc8def340a2655f9a399View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-47e3e94a4387c53e0bd6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-c1acfa3750a90d81ce15View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-93f01bccbc98f18d4b07View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-ce03708ec9ce55cd8952View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0933201000-9339494cebedd9c39135View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-64561a4c3590d5994e37View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-fdcdd7591fb182d804e2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03dm-0030900000-66314ae704783630947aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0933100000-8798d2e46a415bb1029aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-dddea137e500a9b364ccView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-a78f8e4b2d6b37917b21View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0920000000-8c6e1eb7de6f70911080View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-fa42fc4bcba608992804View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-2900000000-074610880ea19a417f60View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-059x-9200000000-8b7dae54eb8325667bd7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-e115d9215eea3f0c3629View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-55b1ac62eea66274b984View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-001j-0900000000-c9c71895033d66cb2becView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-001i-9000000000-bc4e294b8a3fd8c5abceView in MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Stephen Paul, “Novel preparation of fiber, L-glutamine and a soy derivative for the purpose of enhancement of isoflavone bioavailability.” U.S. Patent US20020076455, issued June 20, 2002.

US20020076455
General References
  1. Boza JJ, Dangin M, Moennoz D, Montigon F, Vuichoud J, Jarret A, Pouteau E, Gremaud G, Oguey-Araymon S, Courtois D, Woupeyi A, Finot PA, Ballevre O: Free and protein-bound glutamine have identical splanchnic extraction in healthy human volunteers. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001 Jul;281(1):G267-74. [PubMed:11408280 ]
  2. McAnena OJ, Moore FA, Moore EE, Jones TN, Parsons P: Selective uptake of glutamine in the gastrointestinal tract: confirmation in a human study. Br J Surg. 1991 Apr;78(4):480-2. [PubMed:1903318 ]
  3. Morlion BJ, Stehle P, Wachtler P, Siedhoff HP, Koller M, Konig W, Furst P, Puchstein C: Total parenteral nutrition with glutamine dipeptide after major abdominal surgery: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Ann Surg. 1998 Feb;227(2):302-8. [PubMed:9488531 ]
  4. Jian ZM, Cao JD, Zhu XG, Zhao WX, Yu JC, Ma EL, Wang XR, Zhu MW, Shu H, Liu YW: The impact of alanyl-glutamine on clinical safety, nitrogen balance, intestinal permeability, and clinical outcome in postoperative patients: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study of 120 patients. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1999 Sep-Oct;23(5 Suppl):S62-6. [PubMed:10483898 ]
External Links
ATC CodesA16AA03
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (72.1 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
LactuloseThe therapeutic efficacy of Lactulose can be decreased when used in combination with L-Glutamine.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Ctp synthase activity
Specific Function:
This enzyme is involved in the de novo synthesis of CTP, a precursor of DNA, RNA and phospholipids. Catalyzes the ATP-dependent amination of UTP to CTP with either L-glutamine or ammonia as a source of nitrogen. This enzyme and its product, CTP, play a crucial role in the proliferation of activated lymphocytes and therefore in immunity.
Gene Name:
CTPS1
Uniprot ID:
P17812
Molecular Weight:
66689.9 Da
References
  1. MacLeod TJ, Lunn FA, Bearne SL: The role of lysine residues 297 and 306 in nucleoside triphosphate regulation of E. coli CTP synthase: inactivation by 2',3'-dialdehyde ATP and mutational analyses. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Feb;1764(2):199-210. Epub 2005 Dec 27. [PubMed:16427816 ]
  2. Taylor SD, Mirzaei F, Sharifi A, Bearne SL: Synthesis of methylene- and difluoromethylenephosphonate analogues of uridine-4-phosphate and 3-deazauridine-4-phosphate. J Org Chem. 2006 Dec 8;71(25):9420-30. [PubMed:17137369 ]
  3. Fijolek A, Hofer A, Thelander L: Expression, purification, characterization, and in vivo targeting of trypanosome CTP synthetase for treatment of African sleeping sickness. J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 20;282(16):11858-65. Epub 2007 Feb 28. [PubMed:17331943 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
product of
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PPAT
Uniprot ID:
Q06203
Molecular Weight:
57398.52 Da
References
  1. Jiang P, Pioszak AA, Ninfa AJ: Structure-function analysis of glutamine synthetase adenylyltransferase (ATase, EC 2.7.7.49) of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2007 Apr 3;46(13):4117-32. Epub 2007 Mar 14. [PubMed:17355124 ]
  2. Jiang P, Mayo AE, Ninfa AJ: Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase adenylyltransferase (ATase, EC 2.7.7.49): kinetic characterization of regulation by PII, PII-UMP, glutamine, and alpha-ketoglutarate. Biochemistry. 2007 Apr 3;46(13):4133-46. Epub 2007 Mar 14. [PubMed:17355125 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
product of
General Function:
Manganese ion binding
Specific Function:
This enzyme has 2 functions: it catalyzes the production of glutamine and 4-aminobutanoate (gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA), the latter in a pyridoxal phosphate-independent manner (By similarity). Essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts.
Gene Name:
GLUL
Uniprot ID:
P15104
Molecular Weight:
42064.15 Da
References
  1. Mong JA, Blutstein T: Estradiol modulation of astrocytic form and function: implications for hormonal control of synaptic communication. Neuroscience. 2006;138(3):967-75. Epub 2005 Dec 2. [PubMed:16326016 ]
  2. Rose C, Felipo V: Limited capacity for ammonia removal by brain in chronic liver failure: potential role of nitric oxide. Metab Brain Dis. 2005 Dec;20(4):275-83. [PubMed:16382338 ]
  3. Miguel-Hidalgo JJ: Withdrawal from free-choice ethanol consumption results in increased packing density of glutamine synthetase-immunoreactive astrocytes in the prelimbic cortex of alcohol-preferring rats. Alcohol Alcohol. 2006 Jul-Aug;41(4):379-85. Epub 2006 Feb 16. [PubMed:16484281 ]
  4. Chatauret N, Desjardins P, Zwingmann C, Rose C, Rao KV, Butterworth RF: Direct molecular and spectroscopic evidence for increased ammonia removal capacity of skeletal muscle in acute liver failure. J Hepatol. 2006 Jun;44(6):1083-8. Epub 2006 Jan 4. [PubMed:16530878 ]
  5. Tan S, Evans R, Singh B: Herbicidal inhibitors of amino acid biosynthesis and herbicide-tolerant crops. Amino Acids. 2006 Mar;30(2):195-204. Epub 2006 Mar 20. [PubMed:16547651 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Factor XIII is activated by thrombin and calcium ion to a transglutaminase that catalyzes the formation of gamma-glutamyl-epsilon-lysine cross-links between fibrin chains, thus stabilizing the fibrin clot. Also cross-link alpha-2-plasmin inhibitor, or fibronectin, to the alpha chains of fibrin.
Gene Name:
F13A1
Uniprot ID:
P00488
Molecular Weight:
83266.805 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Mitkevich OV, Shainoff JR, DiBello PM, Yee VC, Teller DC, Smejkal GB, Bishop PD, Kolotushkina IS, Fickenscher K, Samokhin GP: Coagulation factor XIIIa undergoes a conformational change evoked by glutamine substrate. Studies on kinetics of inhibition and binding of XIIIA by a cross-reacting antifibrinogen antibody. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jun 5;273(23):14387-91. [PubMed:9603949 ]
  4. Wolff C, Lai CS: Fluorescence energy transfer detects changes in fibronectin structure upon surface binding. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1989 Feb 1;268(2):536-45. [PubMed:2913946 ]
  5. Wolff C, Lai CS: Evidence that the two amino termini of plasma fibronectin are in close proximity: a fluorescence energy transfer study. Biochemistry. 1988 May 3;27(9):3483-7. [PubMed:3390446 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Glutaminase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the first reaction in the primary pathway for the renal catabolism of glutamine. Plays a role in maintaining acid-base homeostasis. Regulates the levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain. Isoform 2 lacks catalytic activity.
Gene Name:
GLS
Uniprot ID:
O94925
Molecular Weight:
73460.56 Da
References
  1. Masson J, Darmon M, Conjard A, Chuhma N, Ropert N, Thoby-Brisson M, Foutz AS, Parrot S, Miller GM, Jorisch R, Polan J, Hamon M, Hen R, Rayport S: Mice lacking brain/kidney phosphate-activated glutaminase have impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission, altered breathing, disorganized goal-directed behavior and die shortly after birth. J Neurosci. 2006 Apr 26;26(17):4660-71. [PubMed:16641247 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Glutaminase activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the regulation of glutamine catabolism. Promotes mitochondrial respiration and increases ATP generation in cells by catalyzing the synthesis of glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate. Increases cellular anti-oxidant function via NADH and glutathione production. May play a role in preventing tumor proliferation.
Gene Name:
GLS2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UI32
Molecular Weight:
66322.225 Da
References
  1. Sido B, Seel C, Hochlehnert A, Breitkreutz R, Droge W: Low intestinal glutamine level and low glutaminase activity in Crohn's disease: a rational for glutamine supplementation? Dig Dis Sci. 2006 Dec;51(12):2170-9. Epub 2006 Nov 1. [PubMed:17078002 ]
  2. Strohmeier M, Raschle T, Mazurkiewicz J, Rippe K, Sinning I, Fitzpatrick TB, Tews I: Structure of a bacterial pyridoxal 5'-phosphate synthase complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Dec 19;103(51):19284-9. Epub 2006 Dec 11. [PubMed:17159152 ]
  3. Myers RS, Amaro RE, Luthey-Schulten ZA, Davisson VJ: Reaction coupling through interdomain contacts in imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase. Biochemistry. 2005 Sep 13;44(36):11974-85. [PubMed:16142895 ]
  4. Benlloch M, Mena S, Ferrer P, Obrador E, Asensi M, Pellicer JA, Carretero J, Ortega A, Estrela JM: Bcl-2 and Mn-SOD antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and a glutamine-enriched diet facilitate elimination of highly resistant B16 melanoma cells by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and chemotherapy. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jan 6;281(1):69-79. Epub 2005 Nov 1. [PubMed:16263711 ]
  5. Campos-Sandoval JA, Lopez de la Oliva AR, Lobo C, Segura JA, Mates JM, Alonso FJ, Marquez J: Expression of functional human glutaminase in baculovirus system: affinity purification, kinetic and molecular characterization. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39(4):765-73. Epub 2006 Dec 21. [PubMed:17267261 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the cross-linking of proteins and the conjugation of polyamines to proteins.
Gene Name:
TGM2
Uniprot ID:
P21980
Molecular Weight:
77328.21 Da
References
  1. Park SS, Kim JM, Kim DS, Kim IH, Kim SY: Transglutaminase 2 mediates polymer formation of I-kappaBalpha through C-terminal glutamine cluster. J Biol Chem. 2006 Nov 17;281(46):34965-72. Epub 2006 Sep 20. [PubMed:16987813 ]
  2. Keresztessy Z, Csosz E, Harsfalvi J, Csomos K, Gray J, Lightowlers RN, Lakey JH, Balajthy Z, Fesus L: Phage display selection of efficient glutamine-donor substrate peptides for transglutaminase 2. Protein Sci. 2006 Nov;15(11):2466-80. [PubMed:17075129 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the cross-linking of proteins and the conjugation of polyamines to proteins. Contributes to the formation of the cornified cell envelope of keratinocytes.
Gene Name:
TGM5
Uniprot ID:
O43548
Molecular Weight:
80777.115 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Candi E, Paradisi A, Terrinoni A, Pietroni V, Oddi S, Cadot B, Jogini V, Meiyappan M, Clardy J, Finazzi-Agro A, Melino G: Transglutaminase 5 is regulated by guanine-adenine nucleotides. Biochem J. 2004 Jul 1;381(Pt 1):313-9. [PubMed:15038793 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the cross-linking of proteins and the conjugation of polyamines to proteins.
Gene Name:
TGM6
Uniprot ID:
O95932
Molecular Weight:
79311.745 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the cross-linking of proteins and the conjugation of polyamines to proteins. Responsible for cross-linking epidermal proteins during formation of the stratum corneum.
Gene Name:
TGM1
Uniprot ID:
P22735
Molecular Weight:
89786.14 Da
References
  1. Boeshans KM, Mueser TC, Ahvazi B: A three-dimensional model of the human transglutaminase 1: insights into the understanding of lamellar ichthyosis. J Mol Model. 2007 Jan;13(1):233-46. Epub 2006 Sep 23. [PubMed:17024410 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Associated with the mammalian reproductive process. Catalyzes the cross-linking of proteins and the conjugation of polyamines to specific proteins in the seminal tract.
Gene Name:
TGM4
Uniprot ID:
P49221
Molecular Weight:
77144.595 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Stenberg P, Curtis CG, Wing D, Tong YS, Credo RB, Gray A, Lorand L: Transamidase kinetics. Amide formation in the enzymic reactions of thiol esters with amines. Biochem J. 1975 Apr;147(1):155-63. [PubMed:239698 ]
  4. Mosher DF: Labeling of a major fibroblast surface protein (fibronectin) catalyzed by blood coagulation factor XIIa. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1977 Mar 28;491(1):205-10. [PubMed:849457 ]
  5. Coyne CP, Smith JE, Keeton K: Additive and synergistic pharmacologic inhibition of equine fibrinoligase (factor XIIIa*-like) biochemical activity. Am J Vet Res. 1992 Nov;53(11):2058-66. [PubMed:1361314 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Transferase activity, transferring acyl groups
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the calcium-dependent formation of isopeptide cross-links between glutamine and lysine residues in various proteins, as well as the conjugation of polyamines to proteins. Involved in the formation of the cornified envelope (CE), a specialized component consisting of covalent cross-links of proteins beneath the plasma membrane of terminally differentiated keratinocytes. Catalyzes small...
Gene Name:
TGM3
Uniprot ID:
Q08188
Molecular Weight:
76631.26 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Chen BS, Wang MR, Xu X, Cai Y, Xu ZX, Han YL, Wu M: Transglutaminase-3, an esophageal cancer-related gene. Int J Cancer. 2000 Dec 15;88(6):862-5. [PubMed:11093806 ]
  4. Ikura K, Yu C, Nagao M, Sasaki R, Furuyoshi S, Kawabata N: Site-directed mutation in conserved anionic regions of guinea pig liver transglutaminase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1995 Apr 20;318(2):307-13. [PubMed:7733658 ]
  5. Ahvazi B, Steinert PM: A model for the reaction mechanism of the transglutaminase 3 enzyme. Exp Mol Med. 2003 Aug 31;35(4):228-42. [PubMed:14508061 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the cross-linking of proteins and the conjugation of polyamines to proteins.
Gene Name:
TGM7
Uniprot ID:
Q96PF1
Molecular Weight:
79940.615 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Pyrophosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides which are not only essential for DNA and RNA synthesis, but also provide GTP, which is involved in a number of cellular processes important for cell division.
Gene Name:
GMPS
Uniprot ID:
P49915
Molecular Weight:
76714.79 Da
References
  1. Strohmeier M, Raschle T, Mazurkiewicz J, Rippe K, Sinning I, Fitzpatrick TB, Tews I: Structure of a bacterial pyridoxal 5'-phosphate synthase complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Dec 19;103(51):19284-9. Epub 2006 Dec 11. [PubMed:17159152 ]
  2. Myers RS, Amaro RE, Luthey-Schulten ZA, Davisson VJ: Reaction coupling through interdomain contacts in imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase. Biochemistry. 2005 Sep 13;44(36):11974-85. [PubMed:16142895 ]
  3. Neuwirth M, Flicker K, Strohmeier M, Tews I, Macheroux P: Thermodynamic characterization of the protein-protein interaction in the heteromeric Bacillus subtilis pyridoxalphosphate synthase. Biochemistry. 2007 May 1;46(17):5131-9. Epub 2007 Apr 5. [PubMed:17408246 ]
  4. Nakamura A, Yao M, Chimnaronk S, Sakai N, Tanaka I: Ammonia channel couples glutaminase with transamidase reactions in GatCAB. Science. 2006 Jun 30;312(5782):1954-8. [PubMed:16809541 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ASNS
Uniprot ID:
P08243
Molecular Weight:
64369.39 Da
References
  1. Li KK, Beeson WT 4th, Ghiviriga I, Richards NG: A convenient gHMQC-based NMR assay for investigating ammonia channeling in glutamine-dependent amidotransferases: studies of Escherichia coli asparagine synthetase B. Biochemistry. 2007 Apr 24;46(16):4840-9. Epub 2007 Mar 31. [PubMed:17397190 ]
  2. Al Sarraj J, Vinson C, Thiel G: Regulation of asparagine synthetase gene transcription by the basic region leucine zipper transcription factors ATF5 and CHOP. Biol Chem. 2005 Sep;386(9):873-9. [PubMed:16164412 ]
  3. Sheppard K, Akochy PM, Salazar JC, Soll D: The Helicobacter pylori amidotransferase GatCAB is equally efficient in glutamine-dependent transamidation of Asp-tRNAAsn and Glu-tRNAGln. J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 20;282(16):11866-73. Epub 2007 Feb 28. [PubMed:17329242 ]
  4. Barsch A, Carvalho HG, Cullimore JV, Niehaus K: GC-MS based metabolite profiling implies three interdependent ways of ammonium assimilation in Medicago truncatula root nodules. J Biotechnol. 2006 Dec 15;127(1):79-83. Epub 2006 Jun 21. [PubMed:16870293 ]
  5. Reinert RB, Oberle LM, Wek SA, Bunpo P, Wang XP, Mileva I, Goodwin LO, Aldrich CJ, Durden DL, McNurlan MA, Wek RC, Anthony TG: Role of glutamine depletion in directing tissue-specific nutrient stress responses to L-asparaginase. J Biol Chem. 2006 Oct 20;281(42):31222-33. Epub 2006 Aug 24. [PubMed:16931516 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Transaminase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L-tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid (KA). Metabolizes the cysteine conjugates of certain halogenated alkenes and alkanes to form reactive metabolites. Catalyzes the beta-elimination of S-conjugates and Se-conjugates of L-(seleno)cysteine, resulting in the cleavage of the C-S or C-Se bond.
Gene Name:
CCBL1
Uniprot ID:
Q16773
Molecular Weight:
47874.765 Da
References
  1. Fukushima T, Mitsuhashi S, Tomiya M, Iyo M, Hashimoto K, Toyo'oka T: Determination of kynurenic acid in human serum and its correlation with the concentration of certain amino acids. Clin Chim Acta. 2007 Feb;377(1-2):174-8. Epub 2006 Sep 30. [PubMed:17112493 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase activity
Specific Function:
Phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase involved in the purines biosynthetic pathway. Catalyzes the ATP-dependent conversion of formylglycinamide ribonucleotide (FGAR) and glutamine to yield formylglycinamidine ribonucleotide (FGAM) and glutamate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PFAS
Uniprot ID:
O15067
Molecular Weight:
144733.165 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Jayaram HN, Lui MS, Plowman J, Pillwein K, Reardon MA, Elliott WL, Weber G: Oncolytic activity and mechanism of action of a novel L-cysteine derivative, L-cysteine, ethyl ester, S-(N-methylcarbamate) monohydrochloride. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1990;26(2):88-92. [PubMed:2347042 ]
  4. Prajda N, Natsumeda Y, Ikegami T, Reardon MA, Szondy S, Hashimoto Y, Emrani J, Weber G: Enzymic programs of rat bone marrow and the impact of acivicin and tiazofurin. Biochem Pharmacol. 1988 Mar 1;37(5):875-80. [PubMed:3345200 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Translation factor activity, rna binding
Specific Function:
Allows the formation of correctly charged Gln-tRNA(Gln) through the transamidation of misacylated Glu-tRNA(Gln) in the mitochondria. The reaction takes place in the presence of glutamine and ATP through an activated gamma-phospho-Glu-tRNA(Gln).
Gene Name:
GATB
Uniprot ID:
O75879
Molecular Weight:
61863.57 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase (isomerizing) activity
Specific Function:
Controls the flux of glucose into the hexosamine pathway. Most likely involved in regulating the availability of precursors for N- and O-linked glycosylation of proteins.
Gene Name:
GFPT2
Uniprot ID:
O94808
Molecular Weight:
76929.885 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Hu Y, Riesland L, Paterson AJ, Kudlow JE: Phosphorylation of mouse glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 2 (GFAT2) by cAMP-dependent protein kinase increases the enzyme activity. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jul 16;279(29):29988-93. Epub 2004 May 7. [PubMed:15133036 ]
  4. Zitzler J, Link D, Schafer R, Liebetrau W, Kazinski M, Bonin-Debs A, Behl C, Buckel P, Brinkmann U: High-throughput functional genomics identifies genes that ameliorate toxicity due to oxidative stress in neuronal HT-22 cells: GFPT2 protects cells against peroxide. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2004 Aug;3(8):834-40. Epub 2004 Jun 4. [PubMed:15181156 ]
  5. DeHaven JE, Robinson KA, Nelson BA, Buse MG: A novel variant of glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase-1 (GFAT1) mRNA is selectively expressed in striated muscle. Diabetes. 2001 Nov;50(11):2419-24. [PubMed:11679416 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
This protein is a "fusion" protein encoding four enzymatic activities of the pyrimidine pathway (GATase, CPSase, ATCase and DHOase).
Gene Name:
CAD
Uniprot ID:
P27708
Molecular Weight:
242981.73 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Glutamine-trna ligase activity
Specific Function:
Plays a critical role in brain development.
Gene Name:
QARS
Uniprot ID:
P47897
Molecular Weight:
87797.97 Da
References
  1. Balg C, Blais SP, Bernier S, Huot JL, Couture M, Lapointe J, Chenevert R: Synthesis of beta-ketophosphonate analogs of glutamyl and glutaminyl adenylate, and selective inhibition of the corresponding bacterial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007 Jan 1;15(1):295-304. Epub 2006 Sep 29. [PubMed:17049867 ]
  2. Fuchs BC, Bode BP: Stressing out over survival: glutamine as an apoptotic modulator. J Surg Res. 2006 Mar;131(1):26-40. Epub 2005 Sep 8. [PubMed:16154153 ]
  3. Yamasaki S, Nakamura S, Terada T, Shimizu K: Mechanism of the difference in the binding affinity of E. coli tRNAGln to glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase caused by noninterface nucleotides in variable loop. Biophys J. 2007 Jan 1;92(1):192-200. Epub 2006 Oct 6. [PubMed:17028132 ]
  4. Uter NT, Perona JJ: Active-site assembly in glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase by tRNA-mediated induced fit. Biochemistry. 2006 Jun 6;45(22):6858-65. [PubMed:16734422 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Nad+ synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
NADSYN1
Uniprot ID:
Q6IA69
Molecular Weight:
79283.945 Da
References
  1. Wojcik M, Seidle HF, Bieganowski P, Brenner C: Glutamine-dependent NAD+ synthetase. How a two-domain, three-substrate enzyme avoids waste. J Biol Chem. 2006 Nov 3;281(44):33395-402. Epub 2006 Sep 5. [PubMed:16954203 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF71
Molecular Weight:
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-dependent amino acid/proton antiporter. Mediates electrogenic cotransport of glutamine and sodium ions in exchange for protons. Also recognizes histidine, asparagine and alanine. May mediate amino acid transport in either direction under physiological conditions. May play a role in nitrogen metabolism and synaptic transmission.
Gene Name:
SLC38A3
Uniprot ID:
Q99624
Molecular Weight:
55772.405 Da
References
  1. Umapathy NS, Li W, Mysona BA, Smith SB, Ganapathy V: Expression and function of glutamine transporters SN1 (SNAT3) and SN2 (SNAT5) in retinal Muller cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Nov;46(11):3980-7. [PubMed:16249471 ]
  2. Conti F, Melone M: The glutamine commute: lost in the tube? Neurochem Int. 2006 May-Jun;48(6-7):459-64. Epub 2006 Mar 3. [PubMed:16517023 ]
  3. Gajewski M, Seaver B, Esslinger CS: Design, synthesis, and biological activity of novel triazole amino acids used to probe binding interactions between ligand and neutral amino acid transport protein SN1. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007 Aug 1;17(15):4163-6. Epub 2007 May 23. [PubMed:17561393 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-dependent amino acids transporter that has a broad substrate specificity, with a preference for zwitterionic amino acids. It accepts as substrates all neutral amino acids, including glutamine, asparagine, and branched-chain and aromatic amino acids, and excludes methylated, anionic, and cationic amino acids. May also be activated by insulin. Through binding of the fusogenic protein syncy...
Gene Name:
SLC1A5
Uniprot ID:
Q15758
Molecular Weight:
56597.64 Da
References
  1. Bungard CI, McGivan JD: Identification of the promoter elements involved in the stimulation of ASCT2 expression by glutamine availability in HepG2 cells and the probable involvement of FXR/RXR dimers. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2005 Nov 15;443(1-2):53-9. Epub 2005 Sep 15. [PubMed:16197915 ]
  2. Gegelashvili M, Rodriguez-Kern A, Pirozhkova I, Zhang J, Sung L, Gegelashvili G: High-affinity glutamate transporter GLAST/EAAT1 regulates cell surface expression of glutamine/neutral amino acid transporter ASCT2 in human fetal astrocytes. Neurochem Int. 2006 May-Jun;48(6-7):611-5. Epub 2006 Mar 3. [PubMed:16516348 ]
  3. Oppedisano F, Pochini L, Galluccio M, Indiveri C: The glutamine/amino acid transporter (ASCT2) reconstituted in liposomes: transport mechanism, regulation by ATP and characterization of the glutamine/glutamate antiport. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Feb;1768(2):291-8. Epub 2006 Sep 16. [PubMed:17046712 ]
  4. Dun Y, Mysona B, Itagaki S, Martin-Studdard A, Ganapathy V, Smith SB: Functional and molecular analysis of D-serine transport in retinal Muller cells. Exp Eye Res. 2007 Jan;84(1):191-9. Epub 2006 Nov 13. [PubMed:17094966 ]
  5. McGivan JD, Bungard CI: The transport of glutamine into mammalian cells. Front Biosci. 2007 Jan 1;12:874-82. [PubMed:17127344 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of small and large neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, threonine, cysteine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan, when associated with SLC3A2/4F2hc. Acts as an amino acid exchanger. Has higher affinity for L-phenylalanine than LAT1 but lower affinity for glutamine and serine. L-alanine is transported at physiological conc...
Gene Name:
SLC7A8
Uniprot ID:
Q9UHI5
Molecular Weight:
58381.12 Da
References
  1. Umapathy NS, Li W, Mysona BA, Smith SB, Ganapathy V: Expression and function of glutamine transporters SN1 (SNAT3) and SN2 (SNAT5) in retinal Muller cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Nov;46(11):3980-7. [PubMed:16249471 ]
  2. Kirchhoff P, Dave MH, Remy C, Kosiek O, Busque SM, Dufner M, Geibel JP, Verrey F, Wagner CA: An amino acid transporter involved in gastric acid secretion. Pflugers Arch. 2006 Mar;451(6):738-48. Epub 2005 Nov 25. [PubMed:16308696 ]
  3. Ramadan T, Camargo SM, Herzog B, Bordin M, Pos KM, Verrey F: Recycling of aromatic amino acids via TAT1 allows efflux of neutral amino acids via LAT2-4F2hc exchanger. Pflugers Arch. 2007 Jun;454(3):507-16. Epub 2007 Feb 2. [PubMed:17273864 ]
  4. Broer S, Broer A, Hansen JT, Bubb WA, Balcar VJ, Nasrallah FA, Garner B, Rae C: Alanine metabolism, transport, and cycling in the brain. J Neurochem. 2007 Sep;102(6):1758-70. Epub 2007 May 14. [PubMed:17504263 ]
  5. Chubb S, Kingsland AL, Broer A, Broer S: Mutation of the 4F2 heavy-chain carboxy terminus causes y+ LAT2 light-chain dysfunction. Mol Membr Biol. 2006 May-Jun;23(3):255-67. [PubMed:16785209 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23