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Identification
NameCyanocobalamin
Accession NumberDB00115  (APRD00326, EXPT00965, NUTR00004)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical
Description

Cyanocobalamin (commonly known as Vitamin B12) is the most chemically complex of all the vitamins. Cyanocobalamin’s structure is based on a corrin ring, which, although similar to the porphyrin ring found in heme, chlorophyll, and cytochrome, has two of the pyrrole rings directly bonded. The central metal ion is Co (cobalt). Cyanocobalamin cannot be made by plants or by animals, as the only type of organisms that have the enzymes required for the synthesis of cyanocobalamin are bacteria and archaea. Higher plants do not concentrate cyanocobalamin from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. Cyanocobalamin is naturally found in foods including meat (especially liver and shellfish), eggs, and milk products. [HMDB]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Cyanocob(III)alamin
Vitamin B12
Vitamin B12 complex
External Identifiers Not Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Aj-cyanocobalaminsolution1000 mcgintramuscular; subcutaneousAgila Jamp Canada IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
B-12 1000 Inj 1000mcg/mlliquid1 mgintramuscular; subcutaneousOmega Laboratories Ltd1985-12-31Not applicableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Bedoz 1000injliquid1 mgintramuscularLab Nadeau LtÉe, Division Of Technilab Inc.1951-12-312005-08-05Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Cataplex B12 Tab 6mcgtablet6 mcgoralStandard Process Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Cobex Inj 1000mcg/mlsolution1 mgintramuscular; subcutaneousKripps Pharmacy Ltd.1979-12-31Not applicableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Crystalline Vitamin B12-liq Im Sc 1000mcg/mlliquid1 mgintramuscular; subcutaneousGermiphene Corporation1996-12-311999-06-28Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Cyanocobalamin Injection USP 1000mcg/mlliquid1 mgintramuscular; subcutaneousTaro Pharmaceuticals Inc1987-12-31Not applicableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Cyanocobalamin Injection, USPliquid1 mgintramuscular; subcutaneousSterimax Inc1992-12-31Not applicableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Cyanocobalamin Injection, USPsolution1000 mcgintramuscular; subcutaneousMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2014-07-25Not applicableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Jamp-cyanocobalaminsolution1000 mcgintramuscular; subcutaneousJamp Pharma Corporation2014-03-12Not applicableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Nascobalspray500 ug/1nasalPar Pharmaceutical , Inc2009-08-13Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Rubion 1000liquid1 mgintramuscularDesbergers LtÉe, Division Of Technilab Inc.1951-12-312004-08-09Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Rubramin 1000mcg/mlliquid1 mgintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousSquibb Canada Inc., Division Of Bristol Myers Squibb Canada Inc.1955-12-311999-08-09Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Scheinpharm B12 Injectionliquid1000 mcgintramuscular; subcutaneousSchein Pharmaceutical Canada Inc.1996-12-112004-07-26Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vit B12 Ctr Srt 1200mcgtablet (extended-release)1.2 mgBioenergy Inc.1979-12-311998-06-03Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B-12 Tablettablet250 mcgoralLeiner Health Products Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12liquid100 mcgintramuscular; subcutaneousSandoz Canada Incorporated2000-08-29Not applicableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12liquid1 mgintramuscular; subcutaneousSandoz Canada Incorporated1978-12-31Not applicableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12solution1000 mcgintramuscular; subcutaneousMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2005-07-262015-11-03Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin Injection, USP 1000 Mcg/mlliquid1000 mcgintramuscular; subcutaneousAlveda Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 Inj 1000mcg/mlsolution1 mgintramuscular; subcutaneousHospira Healthcare Corporation1981-12-31Not applicableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 Inj 100mcg/mlsolution100 mcgintramuscular; subcutaneousHospira Healthcare Corporation1981-12-31Not applicableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
B12 Inject Kitkitintramuscular; subcutaneousOaklock, Llc2015-07-08Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
B12 Inject Kitkitintramuscular; subcutaneousOaklock, Llc2015-06-19Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Cyanocobalamininjection, solution1000 ug/mLintramuscularAmerican Regent, Inc.1990-09-30Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Cyanocobalamininjection, solution1000 ug/mLintramuscularCardinal Health1990-09-30Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Cyanocobalamininjection1000 ug/mLintramuscular; subcutaneousWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp1971-10-20Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Cyanocobalamininjection, solution1000 ug/mLintramuscularCardinal Health2003-05-29Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Cyanocobalamininjection1000 ug/mLintramuscular; subcutaneousWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp1971-10-20Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Cyanocobalamininjection, solution1000 ug/mLintramuscular; subcutaneousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-09-18Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Cyanocobalamininjection1000 ug/mLintramuscular; subcutaneousWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp1971-10-20Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Cyanocobalamininjection, solution1000 ug/mLintramuscular; subcutaneousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-07-01Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Cyanocobalamininjection, solution1000 ug/mLintramuscular; subcutaneousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-03-01Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Cyanocobalamininjection, solution1000 ug/mLintramuscularAmerican Regent, Inc.2003-05-29Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Cyanocobalamininjection1000 ug/mLintramuscular; subcutaneousGavis Pharma Llc2015-12-11Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Cyanocobalamininjection, solution1000 ug/mLintramuscularAmerican Regent, Inc.1996-11-07Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Cyanocobalamininjection, solution1000 ug/mLintramuscular; subcutaneousAPP Pharmaceuticals, LLC2000-10-18Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
B-12 1000mcg Continuous Released Tabtablet (extended-release)1 mgoralGahler Enterprises Ltd.1981-12-312000-10-03Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
B-plextablet50 mcgoralBeverly International Nutrition1986-12-311998-08-01Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
B12 1000mcgtablet1000 mcgoralNatural Factors Nutritional Products Ltd.2000-09-012007-08-07Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
B12 1000mcg (methylcobalamin)tablet1000 mcgoralNatural Factors Nutritional Products Ltd.2004-01-202009-09-28Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
B12 250mcg Cyanocobalamintablet250 mcgoralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2001-10-012009-09-28Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Forphyll 3mcgtablet3 mcgoralTherapeutic Foods Co.1989-12-152004-07-22Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Gsf Tab 24mcgtablet24 mcgoralNutri Dyn Products Ltd.1980-12-311996-09-09Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Puro Sang Tab 1mcgtablet1 mcgoralPharmetics (2011) Inc1966-12-312001-07-26Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vit B12 Tab 500mcgtablet500 mcgoralPure Life International Prods Inc.1992-12-312001-08-07Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B 12 Tab 25mcgtablet.025 mgoralSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.1971-12-312003-09-10Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B-12 500 Mcg - Tabletstablet500 mcgoralHealth Wise Nutrition Inc.1997-08-151998-08-25Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12capsule1000 mcgoralSisu Inc.1999-08-032006-07-31Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12tablet100 mcgoralNature's Sunshine Products Of Canada Ltd.1998-10-142007-07-30Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 50mcg Tabtablet50 mcgoralNutricorp International1993-12-312009-08-05Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) 1000mcg Caplettablet1 mgoralHealth Wise Nutrition Inc.1994-12-311998-08-25Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 100 Mcgtablet100 mcgoralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2002-05-312008-07-17Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 100 Mcg Tabletstablet100 mcgoralPurity Life Health Products A Division Of Sunopta Inc.2002-06-012007-07-26Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 1000 Mcgcapsule1000 mcgoralFlora Manufacturing And Distributing Ltd.2002-03-152004-08-04Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 1000 Mcgtablet1000 mcgoralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2005-03-282007-08-07Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 100mcgtablet100 mcgoralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 250mcgtablet250 mcgoralNobel Pharm Enr.1997-12-012001-10-15Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 250mcg Tabletstablet250 mcgoralVita Health Products Inc1997-09-082002-07-31Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 500 Mcgcapsule500 mcgoralFlora Manufacturing And Distributing Ltd.2002-03-152004-08-04Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 500mcgtablet500 mcgoralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 Cap 500mcg USPcapsule500 mcgoralQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products1980-12-312001-07-06Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamine 500 Mcgtablet500 mcgoralPremier Plus Supplements Inc.2000-04-252003-07-16Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 Srt 1000mcgtablet (extended-release)1 mgoralAnabolic Laboratories Inc.1981-12-311996-10-02Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 Tab 100mcgtablet100 mcgoralPharmavite Llc1987-12-311998-09-08Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 Tab 100mcgtablet100 mcgoralNutristar Health Products (1987) Inc.1983-12-311996-09-09Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 Tab 250mcgtablet250 mcgoralNutristar Health Products (1987) Inc.1987-12-311996-09-09Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 Tab 250mcgtablet250 mcgoralGahler Enterprises Ltd.1984-12-312007-08-07Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 Tab 250mcgtablet250 mcgoralHall Laboratories, Ltd.1981-12-312003-09-11Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 Tab 250mcgtablet250 mcgoralPharmavite Llc1991-12-312003-07-30Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 Tab 25mcgtablet25 mcgoralVita Health Products Inc1982-12-312004-07-26Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 Tab 25mcgtablet25 mcgoralShoppers Drug Mart Inc.1980-12-311997-08-15Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 Tab 25mcgtablet25 mcgoralWampole Brands1980-12-312004-06-29Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 Tab 25mcgtablet25 mcgoralVita Health Products Inc1957-12-312005-07-20Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 Tab 500mcgtablet500 mcgoralPharmavite Llc1987-12-312006-07-05Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 Tab 5mcgtablet5 mcgoralTherapeutic Foods Co.1980-04-021996-09-09Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B12 Tablets 250mcgtablet250 mcgoralLondon Drugs Limited1996-10-111997-08-20Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamine B-12 Tab 100mcgtablet100 mcgoralSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.1990-12-312007-07-31Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamine B12 25 Mcg - Tablettablet25 mcgoralNobel Pharm Enr.1995-12-312001-10-15Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamine B12 250mcgtablet250 mcgoralLaboratoire Lalco Inc.1998-06-052006-09-07Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamine B12 Tab 25mcgtablet25 mcgoralLaboratoire Lalco Inc.1986-12-312002-09-05Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamine B12 Tab 3mcg Chewabletablet3 mcgoralLab Gernetic Int Ltee1985-12-311997-02-21Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
International Brands
NameCompany
BedodekaTeva
BedozNot Available
BerubigenUpjohn
BetalinLilly
CobioneMSD
Cobolin-MNot Available
CrystamineNot Available
CyanojectNot Available
CyominNot Available
CytakonGlaxoSmithKline
CytamenGlaxoSmithKline
DicopacNot Available
Neuroforte-RNot Available
PrimabaltNot Available
Rubramin PCNot Available
Vitabee 12Not Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Acti-hydroxo/dibencoz 500 + Folic Acid TabActi Form Ltd.
Animi-3PBM Pharmaceuticals, Inc
Animi-3 With Vitamin DPBM Pharmaceuticals, Inc
Av-vite FbAv Kare, Inc.
Avon Nutrivance Stress FormulaAvon Canada Ulc
B Complex TabletsGolden Neo Life Diamite International, Limited
B Complex W Vit C W Non-med Yeast&liver TabPharmavite Llc
B Stress C + Iron & ViteStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
B With C 500 CapPharmetics (2011) Inc
B-50 Complex TabVita Health Products Inc
B-complex TabletsShaklee Canada Inc
B-plexLand Art Inc.
B50 B Complex TabNutristar Health Products (1987) Inc.
B6, B12 & Folic AcidNatural Factors Nutritional Products Ltd.
B6, B12 & Folic Acid Multi-vitamin TabletsWampole Brands
Balanced B-100 B-complex Vitamins TabPharmavite Llc
Balanced B-50 ComplexLeiner Health Products Inc.
Balanced B-complex Vit + Vit C&e TabPharmavite Llc
Bear EssentialsHealth Asure, Inc.
BiferarxMEDA Pharmaceuticals
Bio-b12Thorne Research Inc.
C-B ComplexAvacare, Division Of Jeunique International Inc.
C-forcePrairie Naturals
C.R.D.-forcePrairie Naturals
Calcium Folic Acid Plus D ChewableAcella Pharmaceuticals, LLC
Carbassist TabletsWyeth Consumer Healthcare Inc.
Cda-21 Vitamins With Non-medicinal Probiotic ComplexRx Vitamins Inc.
Cedevita Plus Vitamin SupplementPliva, Pharmaceutical, Chemical, Food And Cosmetic Industry, Inc.
Cedevita Sugar-free Vitamin SupplementPliva, Pharmaceutical, Chemical, Food And Cosmetic Industry, Inc.
Chewable Children's Complete Multivitamins With Essential MineralsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Chewable MultivitaminsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Chewable Multivitamins Plus IronWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Chewable Multivitamins With Extra CWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Children Choice Multivit Chewable TabSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.
Children's Chewable Multi-vitaminWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Children's Chewable Multi-vitamin Complete With MineralsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Children's Chewable Multiple VitaminsStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Children's Chewable Multivitamins With MineralsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Children's Vitamins ChewableVita Health Products Inc
Childrens Chewable Multiple Vitamins TabPharmavite Llc
Complex-75Frega Inc.
Complexe B-75Frega Inc.
Concept DHAUs Pharmaceutical Corporation
Concept ObUs Pharmaceutical Corporation
Cool BSisu Inc.
Daily Energy Brand B-complexEnzymatic Therapy (Canada) Inc.
Dia-viteR & D Laboratories Inc.
DiaplexNephro Tech, Inc.
DivistaUs Pharmaceutical Corporation
Ez-flexMetagenics, Inc.
Fabb TabletsMidlothian Laboratories
Fem - ControlMetagenics, Inc.
Feminique W Iron and Calcium TabStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
FerivaAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Feriva FaAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
FerivafaAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Ferralet 90Mission Pharmacal Company
Fib-C MeltsApm Products Pty Ltd.
Floravit - SyrFlora Manufacturing And Distributing Ltd.
FolbicNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs
FolcapsMidlothian Laboratories
Folic Acid PlusVita Health Products Inc
Folic Acid With Vitamin B12 and Vitamin CFlora Manufacturing And Distributing Ltd.
Folic Acid-b12 TabStandard Process Inc.
Foltabs 800Midlothian Laboratories
FoltratePoly Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
For Kids Only Chewable MultivitaminsStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Formula Ch. Les.Abundance Marketing Ltd.
Formula CnBalance Plus, Inc.
Formula D.S.Golden Pride International
FortiplexSantÉ Naturelle (Ag) LtÉe
H. Formula - TabAbundance Marketing Ltd.
HematogenNnodum Pharmaceuticals
Hematogen FaNnodum Pharmaceuticals
Hematogen ForteNnodum Pharmaceuticals
Hemenatal ObWh Nutritionals, Llc
HemetabWh Nutritionals, Llc
Heparos Ampoules BuvablesDesbergers LtÉe, Division Of Technilab Inc.
Hi Potency Balanced B-100 Complex - TabLeiner Health Products Inc.
Hill.viteHillestad Pharmaceuticals Usa
Homosistrol CapsulesMacromed Pharmicia Inc.
Homosistrox CapsulesS.A.F. Nutritional Products Inc.
Hormodausse Plus Calc Et D TabLaboratoires Charton Laboratories
Iferex 150 ForteNnodum Pharmaceuticals
Iron Vitamins B6,b12,c,folic Acid TabLaboratoire Lalco Inc.
Iron With Vitamins TabEnrich International
Isotonix Advanced B-complex Vitamins With Potassium and MagnesiumMarket America, Inc.
Isotonix Vitamin B-folic Acid-mineral SuppleMarket America, Inc.
Kanga Sport Vitamins B & C Plus MineralsLacombe Drugs (1992) Ltd
Kanga-B Vitamin B Group + CLacombe Drugs (1992) Ltd
Kanga-kid Multi-vitamin & MineralLacombe Drugs (1992) Ltd
Kanga-kid Vitamins & IronLacombe Drugs (1992) Ltd
Kc Vitamin and Mineral SupplementMuscle Marketing Usa Inc.
Kid's Choice Children's Chewable Vitamins - TabVita Health Products Inc
Kids Stuff TabletsVita Health Products Inc
Kids Stuff With Iron TabletsVita Health Products Inc
Leritone AntistressInstitut De Recherche Biologique Yves Ponroy Canada Inc.
Leritone JuniorInstitut De Recherche Biologique Yves Ponroy Canada Inc.
LipovitanP.S.W.C. Co., Inc.
Livron Plus AmpouleMedic Laboratory LtÉe
MaxfePronova Corporation
Menocal TabLes Aliments Nutri Source Inc.
Methyl-plexThorne Research Inc.
Multi #2W 7 Clay Inc.
Multi Vitamin & MineralsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Multi Vitamin and FluorideLibertas Pharma, Inc.
Multi Vitamin Drops With FluorideSeton Pharmaceuticals
Multi Vitamin Plus IronWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Multi-vitaminLLC Federal Solutions
Multi-vitamin FluorideStratus Pharmaceuticals
Multi-vitamin Fluoride DropsH.J. Harkins Company, Inc.
Multi-vitamin With FluorideGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.
Multi-vitaminsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Multi-vitamins for Infusion LiqDavid Bull Laboratories (Pty) Ltd.
Multiple VitaminsGfr Pharma Ltd.
Multivit-liqPharmalab Inc.
MultivitaminLaboratoires Confab Inc
Multivitamines Plus C Pour Enfants (chewable Tablets)Laboratoire Lalco Inc.
Multivitamines Plus Fer Pour Enfants (chewable Tablets)Laboratoire Lalco Inc.
Multivitamines Pour Enfants (chewable Tablets)Laboratoire Lalco Inc.
Multivitamins for ChildrenQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products
MvcSancilio & Company Inc
Mvc-fluorideSancilio & Company Inc.
Myferon 150 ForteMartin Ekwealor Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Mynephrocaps Dialysis/stress Vitamin SupplementMartin Ekwealor Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Nata KompleteWh Nutritionals, Llc
Neo Bex ElixirNeolab Inc
NephrocapsCardinal Health
Niron KompleteWh Nutritionals, Llc
Nutrol-B-complexRolmex International Inc.
O-cal Prenatal VitaminPharmics, Inc.
Phosthenine Vitamines Et Fer (ampoules Buvable)Laboratoires Cortunon Inc.
Polymine Avec Zinc Et CuivreLes Laboratoires Vachon Inc.
Prefera Ob Plus DHAAlaven Pharmaceutical LLC
PreferaobMEDA Pharmaceuticals
Preferaob Plus DHAAlaven Pharmaceutical LLC
Prenatal Mega AntioxidantUsana Health Services, Inc.
Prenatal Vitamins Plusbryant ranch prepack
Prenate AmAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Prenate StarAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Prevital TabBio Vita
Purevit Dualfe PlusPure Tek Corporation
Reaphirm Plant Source DHAEverett Laboratories, Inc.
ReebokClearly Canadian Beverage Corporation
Reno CapsNnodum Pharmaceuticals
ReplaviteStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
RogenicEnzymatic Therapy (Canada) Inc.
Se-tan PlusSeton Pharmaceuticals
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Sopalamine/3b TabTechnilab Pharma Inc.
Stress B Complex With C, E & IronPharmavite Llc
Stress Complex 600 Avec Vit E Cuivre ZincFrega Inc.
Stress FormulaVita Health Products Inc
Stress Formula + IronVita Health Products Inc
Stress Formula Multivitamin Tablets USPLeiner Health Products Inc.
Stress Formula TabNature's Sunshine Products Of Canada Ltd.
Stress Tab With Iron and Vitamin EVita Health Products Inc
Stress Tab With Zinc, Copper and Vitamin EVita Health Products Inc
Stressease Plus Vitamins and MineralsJamieson Laboratories Ltd
Strovite Forte CapletEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Strovite One CapletsEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Super B12 + Folic AcidSeroyal International Inc.
Super PantoplexNu Life Nutrition Ltd.
Super Vitalex Ampoule BuvableCarmaran LtÉe
Supravite 10ml AmpouleNobel Pharm Enr.
Supravite Bouteille 250mlNobel Pharm Enr.
Supravite C 1000Nobel Pharm Enr.
Supravite Stress Avec Vit EPharmalab Inc.
Supravite Stress Avec Vit E Cuivre Et ZincPharmalab Inc.
Supravite Stress Avec Vit E Et FerPharmalab Inc.
SveetsSensible Delights Specialty Foods
Swical-energy-2Les Laboratoires Swisse Inc.
T.R.I. B-plex SrcAnabolic Laboratories Inc.
Tandem ObUs Pharmaceutical Corporation
Tandem PlusUs Pharmaceutical Corporation
Tar-endNature's Sunshine Products Inc.
Toni Com LiqVitalab
TozalFocus Laboratories, Inc.
TriconNnodum Pharmaceuticals
Ultra EnerforceNutribon (1986) Inc.
V-natalVirtus Pharmaceuticals
Vigem 12 LiquidPharmavite Laboratories (1987) Inc.
Virt-bal DHA PlusVirtus Pharmaceuticals
Virt-capsVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC
Virt-PNVirtus Pharmaceuticals
Virt-PN PlusVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC
Virt-viteVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC
Virt-vite PlusVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC
Vita-B-75 CapLes Laboratoires Vachon Inc.
Vita-folic-B CapsLes Laboratoires Vachon Inc.
Vitabanks Vitamin TabVitabank Inc.
Vitafer - LiqFrega Inc.
Vitafol CapletEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Vitafol NanoEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Vitafol Ob CapletEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Vitafol OneEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Vitafol PlusEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Vitamin B Complex TabNutristar Health Products (1987) Inc.
Vitamin B Compound TabNutrilite, A Division Of Access Business Group, Llc
Vitamin B-12 With Folic Acid TabletsGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.
Vitamin B12 Plus Tablets W Folic AcidNu Life Nutrition Ltd.
Vitamin B12-folic AcidSeroyal International Inc.
Vitamin B6 & B12 With Folic AcidWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Vitamine Du Groupe B Plus Fer - LiqPharmalab Inc.
Vitogen B Compound W C Fortis CapsulesStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Vitogen B Stress C Vit E Zinc & CopStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Vp-heme ObVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC
Vp-heme OneVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIP6YC3EG204
CAS number68-19-9
WeightAverage: 1356.3731
Monoisotopic: 1355.575230332
Chemical FormulaC63H89CoN14O14P
InChI KeyInChIKey=SEKGMJVHSBBHRD-WZHZPDAFSA-M
InChI
InChI=1S/C62H90N13O14P.CN.Co/c1-29-20-39-40(21-30(29)2)75(28-70-39)57-52(84)53(41(27-76)87-57)89-90(85,86)88-31(3)26-69-49(83)18-19-59(8)37(22-46(66)80)56-62(11)61(10,25-48(68)82)36(14-17-45(65)79)51(74-62)33(5)55-60(9,24-47(67)81)34(12-15-43(63)77)38(71-55)23-42-58(6,7)35(13-16-44(64)78)50(72-42)32(4)54(59)73-56;1-2;/h20-21,23,28,31,34-37,41,52-53,56-57,76,84H,12-19,22,24-27H2,1-11H3,(H15,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,71,72,73,74,77,78,79,80,81,82,83,85,86);;/q;;+1/p-1/t31-,34-,35-,36-,37+,41-,52-,53-,56-,57+,59-,60+,61+,62+;;/m1../s1
IUPAC Name
[(1R,2R,3S,4S,8S,9S,14S,18R,19R)-4,9,14-tris(2-carbamoylethyl)-3,8,19-tris(carbamoylmethyl)-18-(2-{[(2R)-2-[({[(2R,3S,4R,5S)-5-(5,6-dimethyl-1H-1,3-benzodiazol-1-yl)-4-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-3-yl]oxy}(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy]propyl]carbamoyl}ethyl)-2,3,6,8,13,13,16,18-octamethyl-20,21,22,23-tetraazapentacyclo[15.2.1.1²,⁵.1⁷,¹⁰.1¹²,¹⁵]tricosa-5(23),6,10(22),11,15(21),16-hexaen-20-yl]cobaltcarbonitrile
SMILES
OC[C@H]1O[C@@H]([C@H](O)[C@@H]1OP(O)(=O)O[C@]([H])(C)CNC(=O)CC[C@]1(C)[C@@H](CC(=O)N)[C@@]2([H])N([Co]C#N)\C1=C(C)/C1=N/C(=C\C3=N\C(=C(C)/C4=N[C@]2(C)[C@@](C)(CC(=O)N)[C@@H]4CCC(=O)N)\[C@@](C)(CC(=O)N)[C@@H]3CCC(=O)N)/C(C)(C)[C@@H]1CCC(=O)N)N1C=NC2=CC(C)=C(C)C=C12
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cobalamin derivatives. These are organic compounds containing a corrin ring, a cobalt atom, an a nucleotide moiety. Cobalamin Derivatives are actually derived from vitamin B12.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassTetrapyrroles and derivatives
Sub ClassCorrinoids
Direct ParentCobalamin derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Cobalamin
  • Metallotetrapyrrole skeleton
  • 1-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • Glycosyl compound
  • Monosaccharide phosphate
  • Benzimidazole
  • Phosphoethanolamine
  • Dialkyl phosphate
  • Fatty acyl
  • Benzenoid
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Organic phosphate
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Monosaccharide
  • Fatty amide
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Pyrroline
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Oxolane
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Primary carboxylic acid amide
  • Ketimine
  • Carboxamide group
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Transition metal cyanide salt
  • Organic metal salt
  • Organic cyanide salt
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic transition metal salt
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organometallic compound
  • Organic transition metal moeity
  • Imine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor treatment of pernicious anemia (due to lack of or inhibition of intrinsic factor) and for prevention and treatment of vitamin B 12 deficiency.
PharmacodynamicsCyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12) is a water-soluble organometallic compound with a trivalent cobalt ion bound inside a corrin ring. It is needed for nerve cells and red blood cells, and to make DNA. Vitamin B12 deficiency is the cause of several forms of anemia.
Mechanism of actionVitamin B12 is used in the body in two forms: Methylcobalamin and 5-deoxyadenosyl cobalamin. The enzyme methionine synthase needs methylcobalamin as a cofactor. This enzyme is involved in the conversion of the amino acid homocysteine into methionine. Methionine in turn is required for DNA methylation. 5-Deoxyadenosyl cobalamin is a cofactor needed by the enzyme that converts L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA. This conversion is an important step in the extraction of energy from proteins and fats. Furthermore, succinyl CoA is necessary for the production of hemoglobin, the substances that carries oxygen in red blood cells.
AbsorptionReadily absorbed in the lower half of the ileum.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingVery high (to specific plasma proteins called transcobalamins); binding of hydroxocobalamin is slightly higher than cyanocobalamin.
Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeApproximately 6 days (400 days in the liver).
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityAnaphylactic reaction (skin rash, itching, wheezing)-after parenteral administration. ORL-MUS LD50 > 8000 mg/kg
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9574
Blood Brain Barrier-0.7447
Caco-2 permeable-0.6455
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8341
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5082
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.6369
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.898
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8104
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8085
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.65
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8775
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8775
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8737
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7076
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.7118
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8125
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5707
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7782
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9972
Rat acute toxicity2.6731 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8988
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.682
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Par pharmaceutical inc
  • Pharmacia and upjohn co
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Abraxis pharmaceutical products
  • Akorn inc
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
  • Bioniche pharma usa llc
  • Dell laboratories inc
  • Luitpold pharmaceuticals inc
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
  • Solopak medical products inc
  • Warner chilcott inc
  • Wyeth ayerst laboratories
  • Merck and co inc
  • Bel mar laboratories inc
  • Bristol myers squibb co
  • Savage laboratories inc div altana inc
  • Bayer healthcare pharmaceuticals inc
  • West ward pharmaceutical corp
  • Bracco diagnostics inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral1000 mcg
Kitintramuscular; subcutaneous
Liquidintramuscular1 mg
Tabletoral
Waferoral
Tabletoral6 mcg
Solutionintramuscular; subcutaneous1 mg
Injectionintramuscular; subcutaneous1000 ug/mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular1000 ug/mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular; subcutaneous1000 ug/mL
Liquidintramuscular; subcutaneous1 mg
Solutionintramuscular; subcutaneous1000 mcg
Tablet, film coatedoral
Syruporal
Tabletoral24 mcg
Powderoral
Tablet (effervescent)oral
Solution/ dropsoral
Liquidoral
Solutionoral
Liquidintravenous
Tablet, chewableoral
Spraynasal500 ug/1
Elixiroral
Tablet, coatedoral
Tabletoral1 mcg
Liquidintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous1 mg
Liquidintramuscular; subcutaneous1000 mcg
Liquid; tabletoral
Lozengeoral
Capsule (sustained-release)oral
Kit
Tablet (extended-release)1.2 mg
Tabletoral500 mcg
Tablet
Capsuleoral
Capsule, gelatin coatedoral
Capsule, liquid filledoral
Tabletoral.025 mg
Capsuleoral1000 mcg
Liquidintramuscular; subcutaneous100 mcg
Tabletoral50 mcg
Tabletoral1 mg
Capsuleoral500 mcg
Solutionintramuscular; subcutaneous100 mcg
Tablet (extended-release)oral1 mg
Tabletoral250 mcg
Tabletoral5 mcg
Tabletoral100 mcg
Tabletoral25 mcg
Tabletoral3 mcg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Nascobal 500 mcg/0.1ml Solution 2.3ml Bottle277.97USD bottle
Cyanocobalamin crystals161.18USD g
Infuvite pediatric vial2.58USD ml
Cyanocobalamin 1000 mcg/ml vial1.44USD vial
Cyanocobalamin 1000 mcg/ml1.2USD ml
Cyanocobalamin 1000 mcg/ml Solution1.03USD ml
Rubesol-1000 mcg/ml vial0.48USD ml
Vitamin B-12 1000 mcg/ml0.47USD ml
Vitamin b-12 2.5 mg tablet sl0.17USD tablet
Cyanocobalamin 1000 mcg tablet0.16USD tablet
Cyanocobalamin 100 mcg tablet0.14USD tablet
Vitamin b-12 1000 mcg tablet sl0.08USD tablet
B12 2500 mcg tablet sl0.07USD tablet
Sm vitamin b-12 500 mcg tablet0.06USD tablet
Vitamin b-12 1000 mcg tablet0.06USD tablet
Vitabee with vit c caplet0.05USD caplet
Vitamin b-12 500 mcg tablet0.05USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy vitamin b-12 1000 mcg tablet0.04USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy vitamin b-12 500 mcg tablet0.04USD tablet
Vitamin b-12 50 mcg tablet0.04USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy vitamin b12 100 mcg tablet0.03USD tablet
Pv vit b-12 1000 mcg tablet sl0.03USD tablet
Ra vitamin b-12 50 mcg tablet0.03USD tablet
Vitamin b-12 250 mcg tablet0.03USD tablet
Pv b-12 250 mcg tablet0.02USD tablet
Vitamin b-12 100 mcg tablet0.02USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
United States72296362004-06-112024-06-11
United States74044892004-03-122024-03-12
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point> 300 °CPhysProp
water solubility1.25E+004 mg/LMERCK INDEX (1996)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0384 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.87ALOGPS
logS-4.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.84ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.77ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Number of Rings8ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Robert H. Allen, “Preparation of samples for vitamin B12 and/or folate assay and assay.” U.S. Patent US4451571, issued October, 1982.

US4451571
General References
  1. Wickramasinghe SN: Morphology, biology and biochemistry of cobalamin- and folate-deficient bone marrow cells. Baillieres Clin Haematol. 1995 Sep;8(3):441-59. Pubmed
  2. Sharabi A, Cohen E, Sulkes J, Garty M: Replacement therapy for vitamin B12 deficiency: comparison between the sublingual and oral route. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003 Dec;56(6):635-8. Pubmed
  3. Hall AH, Rumack BH: Hydroxycobalamin/sodium thiosulfate as a cyanide antidote. J Emerg Med. 1987;5(2):115-21. Pubmed
  4. Andres E, Noel E, Goichot B: Metformin-associated vitamin B12 deficiency. Arch Intern Med. 2002 Oct 28;162(19):2251-2. Pubmed
  5. Gilligan MA: Metformin and vitamin B12 deficiency. Arch Intern Med. 2002 Feb 25;162(4):484-5. Pubmed
External Links
ATC CodesB03BA01
AHFS Codes
  • 88:08.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (202 KB)
MSDSDownload (37.1 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
ChloramphenicolThe therapeutic efficacy of Cyanocobalamin can be decreased when used in combination with Chloramphenicol.
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Cyanocobalamin can be decreased when it is combined with Colchicine.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Methionine synthase

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Methionine synthase Q99707 Details

References:

  1. Stover PJ: Vitamin B12 and older adults. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010 Jan;13(1):24-7. Pubmed
  2. Allen LH: Causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. Food Nutr Bull. 2008 Jun;29(2 Suppl):S20-34; discussion S35-7. Pubmed

2. Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, mitochondrial

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, mitochondrial P22033 Details

References:

  1. Worgan LC, Niles K, Tirone JC, Hofmann A, Verner A, Sammak A, Kucic T, Lepage P, Rosenblatt DS: Spectrum of mutations in mut methylmalonic acidemia and identification of a common Hispanic mutation and haplotype. Hum Mutat. 2006 Jan;27(1):31-43. Pubmed
  2. Brooks AJ, Vlasie M, Banerjee R, Brunold TC: Co-C bond activation in methylmalonyl-CoA mutase by stabilization of the post-homolysis product Co2+ cobalamin. J Am Chem Soc. 2005 Nov 30;127(47):16522-8. Pubmed
  3. Kozlowski PM, Andruniow T, Jarzecki AA, Zgierski MZ, Spiro TG: DFT analysis of co-alkyl and co-adenosyl vibrational modes in B12-cofactors. Inorg Chem. 2006 Jul 10;45(14):5585-90. Pubmed
  4. Moras E, Hosack A, Watkins D, Rosenblatt DS: Mitochondrial vitamin B12-binding proteins in patients with inborn errors of cobalamin metabolism. Mol Genet Metab. 2007 Feb;90(2):140-7. Epub 2006 Sep 29. Pubmed
  5. Stover PJ: Vitamin B12 and older adults. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010 Jan;13(1):24-7. Pubmed

3. Methionine synthase reductase

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Methionine synthase reductase Q9UBK8 Details

References:

  1. O’Leary VB, Mills JL, Pangilinan F, Kirke PN, Cox C, Conley M, Weiler A, Peng K, Shane B, Scott JM, Parle-McDermott A, Molloy AM, Brody LC: Analysis of methionine synthase reductase polymorphisms for neural tube defects risk association. Mol Genet Metab. 2005 Jul;85(3):220-7. Epub 2005 Mar 17. Pubmed
  2. Gueant-Rodriguez RM, Juilliere Y, Candito M, Adjalla CE, Gibelin P, Herbeth B, Van Obberghen E, Gueant JL: Association of MTRRA66G polymorphism (but not of MTHFR C677T and A1298C, MTRA2756G, TCN C776G) with homocysteine and coronary artery disease in the French population. Thromb Haemost. 2005 Sep;94(3):510-5. Pubmed
  3. Miriuka SG, Langman LJ, Evrovski J, Miner SE, D’Mello N, Delgado DH, Wong BY, Ross HJ, Cole DE: Genetic polymorphisms predisposing to hyperhomocysteinemia in cardiac transplant patients. Transpl Int. 2005 Jan;18(1):29-35. Pubmed
  4. Berkun Y, Abou Atta I, Rubinow A, Orbach H, Levartovsky D, Aamar S, Arbel O, Dresner-Pollak R, Friedman G, Ben-Yehuda A: 2756GG genotype of methionine synthase reductase gene is more prevalent in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with methotrexate and is associated with methotrexate-induced nodulosis. J Rheumatol. 2007 Aug;34(8):1664-9. Epub 2007 Jul 1. Pubmed
  5. van der Linden IJ, den Heijer M, Afman LA, Gellekink H, Vermeulen SH, Kluijtmans LA, Blom HJ: The methionine synthase reductase 66A>G polymorphism is a maternal risk factor for spina bifida. J Mol Med. 2006 Dec;84(12):1047-54. Epub 2006 Oct 6. Pubmed

4. Methylmalonic aciduria type A protein, mitochondrial

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Methylmalonic aciduria type A protein, mitochondrial Q8IVH4 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Lerner-Ellis JP, Dobson CM, Wai T, Watkins D, Tirone JC, Leclerc D, Dore C, Lepage P, Gravel RA, Rosenblatt DS: Mutations in the MMAA gene in patients with the cblA disorder of vitamin B12 metabolism. Hum Mutat. 2004 Dec;24(6):509-16. Pubmed
  4. Dobson CM, Gradinger A, Longo N, Wu X, Leclerc D, Lerner-Ellis J, Lemieux M, Belair C, Watkins D, Rosenblatt DS, Gravel RA: Homozygous nonsense mutation in the MCEE gene and siRNA suppression of methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase expression: a novel cause of mild methylmalonic aciduria. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 Aug;88(4):327-33. Epub 2006 May 11. Pubmed

5. Methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type C protein

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type C protein Q9Y4U1 Details

References:

  1. Chandler RJ, Aswani V, Tsai MS, Falk M, Wehrli N, Stabler S, Allen R, Sedensky M, Kazazian HH, Venditti CP: Propionyl-CoA and adenosylcobalamin metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans: evidence for a role of methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase in intermediary metabolism. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 Sep-Oct;89(1-2):64-73. Epub 2006 Jul 14. Pubmed
  2. Ben-Omran TI, Wong H, Blaser S, Feigenbaum A: Late-onset cobalamin-C disorder: a challenging diagnosis. Am J Med Genet A. 2007 May 1;143(9):979-84. Pubmed
  3. Morel CF, Lerner-Ellis JP, Rosenblatt DS: Combined methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria (cblC): phenotype-genotype correlations and ethnic-specific observations. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 Aug;88(4):315-21. Epub 2006 May 22. Pubmed
  4. Lerner-Ellis JP, Tirone JC, Pawelek PD, Dore C, Atkinson JL, Watkins D, Morel CF, Fujiwara TM, Moras E, Hosack AR, Dunbar GV, Antonicka H, Forgetta V, Dobson CM, Leclerc D, Gravel RA, Shoubridge EA, Coulton JW, Lepage P, Rommens JM, Morgan K, Rosenblatt DS: Identification of the gene responsible for methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cblC type. Nat Genet. 2006 Jan;38(1):93-100. Epub 2005 Nov 27. Pubmed

6. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase P42898 Details

References:

  1. Nakamura T, Saionji K, Hiejima Y, Hirayama H, Tago K, Takano H, Tajiri M, Hayashi K, Kawabata M, Funamizu M, Makita Y, Hata A: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype, vitamin B12, and folate influence plasma homocysteine in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002 May;39(5):1032-9. Pubmed
  2. Erdogan MO, Yildiz SH, Solak M, Eser O, Cosar E, Eser B, Koken R, Buyukbas S: C677T polymorphism of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene does not affect folic acid, vitamin B12, and homocysteine serum levels in Turkish children with neural tube defects. Genet Mol Res. 2010 Jun 22;9(2):1197-203. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cob(I)yrinic acid a,c-diamide adenosyltransferase, mitochondrial

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cob(I)yrinic acid a,c-diamide adenosyltransferase, mitochondrial Q96EY8 Details

References:

  1. Zhang J, Dobson CM, Wu X, Lerner-Ellis J, Rosenblatt DS, Gravel RA: Impact of cblB mutations on the function of ATP:cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase in disorders of vitamin B12 metabolism. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 Apr;87(4):315-22. Epub 2006 Jan 24. Pubmed
  2. Lerner-Ellis JP, Gradinger AB, Watkins D, Tirone JC, Villeneuve A, Dobson CM, Montpetit A, Lepage P, Gravel RA, Rosenblatt DS: Mutation and biochemical analysis of patients belonging to the cblB complementation class of vitamin B12-dependent methylmalonic aciduria. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 Mar;87(3):219-25. Epub 2006 Jan 10. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Protein amnionless

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Protein amnionless Q9BXJ7 Details

References:

  1. Al-Alami JR, Tanner SM, Tayeh MK, de la Chapelle A, El-Shanti H: Homozygous AMN mutation in hereditary selective intestinal malabsorption of vitamin B12 in Jordan. Saudi Med J. 2005 Jul;26(7):1061-4. Pubmed

2. Transcobalamin-1

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Transcobalamin-1 P20061 Details

References:

  1. Carmel R: Haptocorrin (transcobalamin I) and cobalamin deficiencies. Clin Chem. 2007 Feb;53(2):367-8; author reply 368-9. Pubmed
  2. Al-Alami JR, Tanner SM, Tayeh MK, de la Chapelle A, El-Shanti H: Homozygous AMN mutation in hereditary selective intestinal malabsorption of vitamin B12 in Jordan. Saudi Med J. 2005 Jul;26(7):1061-4. Pubmed

3. Transcobalamin-2

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Transcobalamin-2 P20062 Details

References:

  1. Chen X, Remacha AF, Sarda MP, Carmel R: Influence of cobalamin deficiency compared with that of cobalamin absorption on serum holo-transcobalamin II. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jan;81(1):110-4. Pubmed
  2. Alessio AC, Hoehr NF, Siqueira LH, Bydlowski SP, Annichino-Bizzacchi JM: Polymorphism C776G in the transcobalamin II gene and homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 concentrations. Association with MTHFR C677T and A1298C and MTRR A66G polymorphisms in healthy children. Thromb Res. 2007;119(5):571-7. Epub 2006 Jul 3. Pubmed
  3. Bowen RA, Drake SK, Vanjani R, Huey ED, Grafman J, Horne MK 3rd: Markedly increased vitamin B12 concentrations attributable to IgG-IgM-vitamin B12 immune complexes. Clin Chem. 2006 Nov;52(11):2107-14. Pubmed
  4. Bosco P, Gueant-Rodriguez RM, Anello G, Spada R, Romano A, Fajardo A, Caraci F, Ferri R, Gueant JL: Association of homocysteine (but not of MTHFR 677 C>T, MTR 2756 A>G, MTRR 66 A>G and TCN2 776 C>G) with ischaemic cerebrovascular disease in Sicily. Thromb Haemost. 2006 Aug;96(2):154-9. Pubmed
  5. Al-Alami JR, Tanner SM, Tayeh MK, de la Chapelle A, El-Shanti H: Homozygous AMN mutation in hereditary selective intestinal malabsorption of vitamin B12 in Jordan. Saudi Med J. 2005 Jul;26(7):1061-4. Pubmed

4. Gastric intrinsic factor

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gastric intrinsic factor P27352 Details

References:

  1. Fedosov SN, Fedosova NU, Berglund L, Moestrup SK, Nexo E, Petersen TE: Composite organization of the cobalamin binding and cubilin recognition sites of intrinsic factor. Biochemistry. 2005 Mar 8;44(9):3604-14. Pubmed
  2. He Q, Madsen M, Kilkenney A, Gregory B, Christensen EI, Vorum H, Hojrup P, Schaffer AA, Kirkness EF, Tanner SM, de la Chapelle A, Giger U, Moestrup SK, Fyfe JC: Amnionless function is required for cubilin brush-border expression and intrinsic factor-cobalamin (vitamin B12) absorption in vivo. Blood. 2005 Aug 15;106(4):1447-53. Epub 2005 Apr 21. Pubmed
  3. Moestrup SK: New insights into carrier binding and epithelial uptake of the erythropoietic nutrients cobalamin and folate. Curr Opin Hematol. 2006 May;13(3):119-23. Pubmed

5. Cubilin

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cubilin O60494 Details

References:

  1. Fedosov SN, Fedosova NU, Berglund L, Moestrup SK, Nexo E, Petersen TE: Composite organization of the cobalamin binding and cubilin recognition sites of intrinsic factor. Biochemistry. 2005 Mar 8;44(9):3604-14. Pubmed
  2. He Q, Madsen M, Kilkenney A, Gregory B, Christensen EI, Vorum H, Hojrup P, Schaffer AA, Kirkness EF, Tanner SM, de la Chapelle A, Giger U, Moestrup SK, Fyfe JC: Amnionless function is required for cubilin brush-border expression and intrinsic factor-cobalamin (vitamin B12) absorption in vivo. Blood. 2005 Aug 15;106(4):1447-53. Epub 2005 Apr 21. Pubmed
  3. Moestrup SK: New insights into carrier binding and epithelial uptake of the erythropoietic nutrients cobalamin and folate. Curr Opin Hematol. 2006 May;13(3):119-23. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:08