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Identification
NameCyanocobalamin
Accession NumberDB00115  (NUTR00004, APRD00326, EXPT00965)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical
Description

Cyanocobalamin (commonly known as Vitamin B12) is the most chemically complex of all the vitamins. Cyanocobalamin’s structure is based on a corrin ring, which, although similar to the porphyrin ring found in heme, chlorophyll, and cytochrome, has two of the pyrrole rings directly bonded. The central metal ion is Co (cobalt). Cyanocobalamin cannot be made by plants or by animals, as the only type of organisms that have the enzymes required for the synthesis of cyanocobalamin are bacteria and archaea. Higher plants do not concentrate cyanocobalamin from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. Cyanocobalamin is naturally found in foods including meat (especially liver and shellfish), eggs, and milk products. [HMDB]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Cyanocob(III)alamin
Vitamin B12
Vitamin B12 complex
External Identifiers Not Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Aj-cyanocobalaminsolution1000 mcgintramuscular; subcutaneousAgila Jamp Canada IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
B-12 1000 Inj 1000mcg/mlliquid1 mgintramuscular; subcutaneousOmega Laboratories Ltd1985-12-31Not applicableCanada
Bedoz 1000injliquid1 mgintramuscularLab Nadeau LtÉe, Division Of Technilab Inc.1951-12-312005-08-05Canada
Cataplex B12 Tab 6mcgtablet6 mcgoralStandard Process Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Cobex Inj 1000mcg/mlsolution1 mgintramuscular; subcutaneousKripps Pharmacy Ltd.1979-12-31Not applicableCanada
Crystalline Vitamin B12-liq Im Sc 1000mcg/mlliquid1 mgintramuscular; subcutaneousGermiphene Corporation1996-12-311999-06-28Canada
Cyanocobalamin Injection USP 1000mcg/mlliquid1 mgintramuscular; subcutaneousTaro Pharmaceuticals Inc1987-12-31Not applicableCanada
Cyanocobalamin Injection, USPsolution1000 mcgintramuscular; subcutaneousMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2014-07-25Not applicableCanada
Cyanocobalamin Injection, USPliquid1 mgintramuscular; subcutaneousSterimax Inc1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
Jamp-cyanocobalaminsolution1000 mcgintramuscular; subcutaneousJamp Pharma Corporation2014-03-12Not applicableCanada
Nascobalspray500 ug/1nasalPar Pharmaceutical , Inc2009-08-132016-04-05Us
Rubion 1000liquid1 mgintramuscularDesbergers LtÉe, Division Of Technilab Inc.1951-12-312004-08-09Canada
Rubramin 1000mcg/mlliquid1 mgintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousSquibb Canada Inc., Division Of Bristol Myers Squibb Canada Inc.1955-12-311999-08-09Canada
Scheinpharm B12 Injectionliquid1000 mcgintramuscular; subcutaneousSchein Pharmaceutical Canada Inc.1996-12-112004-07-26Canada
Vit B12 Ctr Srt 1200mcgtablet (extended-release)1.2 mgBioenergy Inc.1979-12-311998-06-03Canada
Vitamin B-12 Tablettablet250 mcgoralLeiner Health Products Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Vitamin B12liquid100 mcgintramuscular; subcutaneousSandoz Canada Incorporated2000-08-29Not applicableCanada
Vitamin B12liquid1 mgintramuscular; subcutaneousSandoz Canada Incorporated1978-12-31Not applicableCanada
Vitamin B12solution1000 mcgintramuscular; subcutaneousMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2005-07-262015-11-03Canada
Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin Injection, USP 1000 Mcg/mlliquid1000 mcgintramuscular; subcutaneousAlveda Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Vitamin B12 Inj 1000mcg/mlsolution1 mgintramuscular; subcutaneousHospira Healthcare Corporation1981-12-31Not applicableCanada
Vitamin B12 Inj 100mcg/mlsolution100 mcgintramuscular; subcutaneousHospira Healthcare Corporation1981-12-31Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
B12 Inject Kitkitintramuscular; subcutaneousOaklock, Llc2015-07-082016-04-05Us
B12 Inject Kitkitintramuscular; subcutaneousOaklock, Llc2015-06-192016-04-05Us
Cyanocobalamininjection, solution1000 ug/mLintramuscular; subcutaneousAPP Pharmaceuticals, LLC2000-10-182016-04-05Us
Cyanocobalamininjection, solution1000 ug/mLintramuscularAmerican Regent, Inc.1990-09-302016-04-23Us
Cyanocobalamininjection, solution1000 ug/mLintramuscularCardinal Health1990-09-302016-04-05Us
Cyanocobalamininjection1000 ug/mLintramuscular; subcutaneousWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp1971-10-202016-04-23Us
Cyanocobalamininjection, solution1000 ug/mLintramuscularCardinal Health2003-05-292016-04-05Us
Cyanocobalamininjection1000 ug/mLintramuscular; subcutaneousWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp1971-10-202016-04-23Us
Cyanocobalamininjection, solution1000 ug/mLintramuscular; subcutaneousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-09-182016-04-05Us
Cyanocobalamininjection1000 ug/mLintramuscular; subcutaneousWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp1971-10-202016-04-23Us
Cyanocobalamininjection, solution1000 ug/mLintramuscular; subcutaneousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-07-012016-04-05Us
Cyanocobalamininjection, solution1000 ug/mLintramuscular; subcutaneousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-03-012016-04-05Us
Cyanocobalamininjection, solution1000 ug/mLintramuscularAmerican Regent, Inc.2003-05-292016-04-23Us
Cyanocobalamininjection1000 ug/mLintramuscular; subcutaneousGavis Pharma Llc2015-12-112016-04-05Us
Cyanocobalamininjection, solution1000 ug/mLintramuscularAmerican Regent, Inc.1996-11-072016-04-23Us
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
B-12 1000mcg Continuous Released Tabtablet (extended-release)1 mgoralGahler Enterprises Ltd.1981-12-312000-10-03Canada
B-plextablet50 mcgoralBeverly International Nutrition1986-12-311998-08-01Canada
B12 1000mcgtablet1000 mcgoralNatural Factors Nutritional Products Ltd.2000-09-012007-08-07Canada
B12 250mcg Cyanocobalamintablet250 mcgoralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2001-10-012009-09-28Canada
Forphyll 3mcgtablet3 mcgoralTherapeutic Foods Co.1989-12-152004-07-22Canada
Gsf Tab 24mcgtablet24 mcgoralNutri Dyn Products Ltd.1980-12-311996-09-09Canada
Puro Sang Tab 1mcgtablet1 mcgoralPharmetics (2011) Inc1966-12-312001-07-26Canada
Vit B12 Tab 500mcgtablet500 mcgoralPure Life International Prods Inc.1992-12-312001-08-07Canada
Vitamin B 12 Tab 25mcgtablet.025 mgoralSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.1971-12-312003-09-10Canada
Vitamin B-12 500 Mcg - Tabletstablet500 mcgoralHealth Wise Nutrition Inc.1997-08-151998-08-25Canada
Vitamin B12tablet100 mcgoralNature's Sunshine Products Of Canada Ltd.1998-10-142007-07-30Canada
Vitamin B12capsule1000 mcgoralSisu Inc.1999-08-032006-07-31Canada
Vitamin B12 50mcg Tabtablet50 mcgoralNutricorp International1993-12-312009-08-05Canada
Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) 1000mcg Caplettablet1 mgoralHealth Wise Nutrition Inc.1994-12-311998-08-25Canada
Vitamin B12 100 Mcgtablet100 mcgoralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2002-05-312008-07-17Canada
Vitamin B12 100 Mcg Tabletstablet100 mcgoralPurity Life Health Products A Division Of Sunopta Inc.2002-06-012007-07-26Canada
Vitamin B12 1000 Mcgcapsule1000 mcgoralFlora Manufacturing And Distributing Ltd.2002-03-152004-08-04Canada
Vitamin B12 1000 Mcgtablet1000 mcgoralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2005-03-282007-08-07Canada
Vitamin B12 100mcgtablet100 mcgoralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada
Vitamin B12 250mcgtablet250 mcgoralNobel Pharm Enr.1997-12-012001-10-15Canada
Vitamin B12 250mcg Tabletstablet250 mcgoralVita Health Products Inc1997-09-082002-07-31Canada
Vitamin B12 500 Mcgcapsule500 mcgoralFlora Manufacturing And Distributing Ltd.2002-03-152004-08-04Canada
Vitamin B12 500mcgtablet500 mcgoralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada
Vitamin B12 Cap 500mcg USPcapsule500 mcgoralQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products1980-12-312001-07-06Canada
Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamine 500 Mcgtablet500 mcgoralPremier Plus Supplements Inc.2000-04-252003-07-16Canada
Vitamin B12 Srt 1000mcgtablet (extended-release)1 mgoralAnabolic Laboratories Inc.1981-12-311996-10-02Canada
Vitamin B12 Tab 100mcgtablet100 mcgoralPharmavite Llc1987-12-311998-09-08Canada
Vitamin B12 Tab 100mcgtablet100 mcgoralNutristar Health Products (1987) Inc.1983-12-311996-09-09Canada
Vitamin B12 Tab 250mcgtablet250 mcgoralGahler Enterprises Ltd.1984-12-312007-08-07Canada
Vitamin B12 Tab 250mcgtablet250 mcgoralNutristar Health Products (1987) Inc.1987-12-311996-09-09Canada
Vitamin B12 Tab 250mcgtablet250 mcgoralHall Laboratories, Ltd.1981-12-312003-09-11Canada
Vitamin B12 Tab 250mcgtablet250 mcgoralPharmavite Llc1991-12-312003-07-30Canada
Vitamin B12 Tab 25mcgtablet25 mcgoralVita Health Products Inc1957-12-312005-07-20Canada
Vitamin B12 Tab 25mcgtablet25 mcgoralVita Health Products Inc1982-12-312004-07-26Canada
Vitamin B12 Tab 25mcgtablet25 mcgoralShoppers Drug Mart Inc.1980-12-311997-08-15Canada
Vitamin B12 Tab 25mcgtablet25 mcgoralWampole Brands1980-12-312004-06-29Canada
Vitamin B12 Tab 500mcgtablet500 mcgoralPharmavite Llc1987-12-312006-07-05Canada
Vitamin B12 Tab 5mcgtablet5 mcgoralTherapeutic Foods Co.1980-04-021996-09-09Canada
Vitamin B12 Tablets 250mcgtablet250 mcgoralLondon Drugs Limited1996-10-111997-08-20Canada
Vitamine B-12 Tab 100mcgtablet100 mcgoralSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.1990-12-312007-07-31Canada
Vitamine B12 25 Mcg - Tablettablet25 mcgoralNobel Pharm Enr.1995-12-312001-10-15Canada
Vitamine B12 250mcgtablet250 mcgoralLaboratoire Lalco Inc.1998-06-052006-09-07Canada
Vitamine B12 Tab 25mcgtablet25 mcgoralLaboratoire Lalco Inc.1986-12-312002-09-05Canada
Vitamine B12 Tab 3mcg Chewabletablet3 mcgoralLab Gernetic Int Ltee1985-12-311997-02-21Canada
International Brands
NameCompany
BedodekaTeva
BedozNot Available
BerubigenUpjohn
BetalinLilly
CobioneMSD
Cobolin-MNot Available
CrystamineNot Available
CyanojectNot Available
CyominNot Available
CytakonGlaxoSmithKline
CytamenGlaxoSmithKline
DicopacNot Available
Neuroforte-RNot Available
PrimabaltNot Available
Rubramin PCNot Available
Vitabee 12Not Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
AlphaligoClinique Lafontaine Inc, Division Les Importations Ortho
Alsimine W Vitamins A DAlsi Cie Ltee
Am CapsNew Vision Nutritionals Company
American Eagle Energizer Plus Vitamin Supplement DrinkP.S.W.C. Co., Inc.
American Plus Energy & Vitamin DrinkP.S.W.C. Co., Inc.
Animi-3PBM Pharmaceuticals, Inc
Animi-3 With Vitamin DPBM Pharmaceuticals, Inc
Av-vite FbAv Kare, Inc.
B 50 CapsulesRheingold Food International Ltd.
B C Antistress CapLes Laboratoires Bio SantÉ Inc.
B Complex 25mg Vitamin SupplementGarden State Nutritionals
B Complex 50 Vitamin CapBioforce Canada Inc.
B Complex 50+ CapletHealth Wise Nutrition Inc.
B Complex Plus C 300mg TabNutricorp International
B Complex TabletsGolden Neo Life Diamite International, Limited
B Complex W C and B12 InjE L Stickley And Co Ltd.
B Complex W C Forte CapEverest Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
B Complex W Vit C W Non-med Yeast&liver TabPharmavite Llc
B Complex W Vitamin C Fortis CapShoppers Drug Mart Inc.
B Complex With C 300mgVita Health Products Inc
B Complex With C 550mgVita Health Products Inc
B Compound 50mg TabGahler Enterprises Ltd.
B Plus C 300 mgVita Health Products Inc
B Stress C + Iron & ViteStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
B VirolRolmex International Inc.
B Vitamin Compound With B12 ThunasThuna Herbal Remedies Ltd.
B With C 500 CapPharmetics (2011) Inc
B-100 CapsNow Foods
B-100 Complex TabletsViva Pharmaceutical Inc.
B-100 Hi Potency B Vitamins TabNatrol, Inc.
B-50 ComplexVita Health Products Inc
B-50 Complex TabVita Health Products Inc
B-50 Hi Potency B Vitamins TabNatrol, Inc.
B-complexEnrich International
B-complex 100Great Earth Companies, Inc.
B-complex 50Great Earth Companies, Inc.
B-complex TabNature's Sunshine Products Of Canada Ltd.
B-complex TabletsShaklee Canada Inc
B-complex With Vitamin C, Biotin, Folic AcidWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
B-complex-50 TabJr Carlson Labs Inc
B-plexWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
B-plus - TabChampion's Choice Advanced Nutrition Inc.
B50 B Complex TabNutristar Health Products (1987) Inc.
B50 ComplexPreferred Nutrition Inc.
B6, B12 & Folic AcidNatural Factors Nutritional Products Ltd.
B6, B12 & Folic Acid Multi-vitamin TabletsWampole Brands
BacminMarnel Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Balanced B 125 SrtAnabolic Laboratories Inc.
Balanced B-100 B-complex Vitamins TabPharmavite Llc
Balanced B-50 B-complex Vitamins TabPharmavite Llc
Balanced B-50 B-complex Vitamins, Timed RelePharmavite Llc
Balanced B-50 ComplexLeiner Health Products Inc.
Balanced B-complex Vit + Vit C&e TabPharmavite Llc
Balanced B100Hall Laboratories, Ltd.
Balanced B50 ComplexHall Laboratories, Ltd.
Beautel Supplement De Vitamines Et MineralNobel Pharm Enr.
Beminal With C Fortis CapWyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.
Bev 29 TabBeverly International Nutrition
Bev B-150Beverly International Nutrition
BiferarxMEDA Pharmaceuticals
Bio-b12Thorne Research Inc.
Biovim TabLe Naturiste J.M.B. Inc.
Bugs Bunny and Friends Multiple VitaminsBayer Inc Consumer Care
Bugs Bunny Chew Multi Vit Plus IronMiles Canada Inc. Consumer Health Care Division
C-B ComplexAvacare, Division Of Jeunique International Inc.
C-forcePrairie Naturals
Calcium Folic Acid Plus D ChewableAcella Pharmaceuticals, LLC
Cda-21 Vitamins With Non-medicinal Probiotic ComplexRx Vitamins Inc.
Cedevita Plus Vitamin SupplementPliva, Pharmaceutical, Chemical, Food And Cosmetic Industry, Inc.
Cedevita Sugar-free Vitamin SupplementPliva, Pharmaceutical, Chemical, Food And Cosmetic Industry, Inc.
Chela-chromium 200Nu Life Nutrition Ltd.
Chew.multiple Vits.with Extra C for ChildrenRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.
Chewable Multiple Vit Plus Iron for ChildrenRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.
Chewable Multiple Vitamins for ChildrenRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.
Chewable Multiple Vitamins Plus Extra CRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.
Chewable Multiple Vitamins Plus Iron TabRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.
Chewable Multiple Vitamins TabRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.
Chewable MultivitaminsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Chewable Multivitamins Plus IronWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Children's Chewable Multiple Vit.plus IronStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Children's Chewable Multiple Vitamins - TabStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Children's Chewable Multiple Vitamins (chewable Tablets)Pharmetics (2011) Inc
Children's Chewable Multiple Vitamins With Extra Vitamin C (chewable Tablets)Pharmetics (2011) Inc
Children's Chewable Multiple Vitamins With Iron Tablets (chewable Tablets)Pharmetics (2011) Inc
Childrens Chew Multi Vitamin TabNutristar Health Products (1987) Inc.
Childrens Chewable Multiple Vitamins TabPharmavite Llc
Childrens Chewable MultivitaminsRandle Labs Inc.
Childrens Chewable Multivitamins W IronRandle Labs Inc.
Childrens Chewable Vitamin TabPharmetics (2011) Inc
Childrens Chewable VitaminsD.C. Labs Limited
Childrens Multiple Vit and Min Chew TabCountry Health Laboratories Ltd.
Complete Mega BGahler Enterprises Ltd.
Complex-75Frega Inc.
Complexe B 75mgPharmalab Inc.
Complexe B Compose 75Les Laboratoires Bio SantÉ Inc.
Complexe B-75Frega Inc.
Concept DHAUs Pharmaceutical Corporation
Concept ObUs Pharmaceutical Corporation
Cool BSisu Inc.
Daily Energy Brand B-complexEnzymatic Therapy (Canada) Inc.
Dia-viteR & D Laboratories Inc.
DiaplexNephro Tech, Inc.
DivistaUs Pharmaceutical Corporation
Dynam Ampoule Et TabletCardinaux Enrg Les Produits Naturels
Efferlife Multivitamins and MineralsNaturale Science Inc.
Energy 80 Prolonged Release TabSportscience Labs Inc.
Enviroflex - TabEnviro Tech International Canada
EscaviteGm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Essential B TabletsGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.
Everyday Multiple VitaminsD.C. Labs Limited
Everyday Multiple Vitamins With IronD.C. Labs Limited
Ez-flexMetagenics, Inc.
Fabb TabletsMidlothian Laboratories
Fem - ControlMetagenics, Inc.
Feminique W Iron and Calcium TabStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Femitab TabLe Groupe Prodeal Ltee
FerivaAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Feriva FaAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
FerivafaAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Ferralet 90Mission Pharmacal Company
Fib-C MeltsApm Products Pty Ltd.
Flinstones Multiple Plus IronMiles Canada Inc. Consumer Health Care Division
Flintstones Multiple VitaminsBayer Inc Consumer Care
Flintstones Multiple Vitamins Plus IronBayer Inc Consumer Care
Flintstones Multiple Vitamins TabMiles Canada Inc. Consumer Health Care Division
Flintstones W Extra C TabMiles Canada Inc. Consumer Health Care Division
Floravit - SyrFlora Manufacturing And Distributing Ltd.
FlorivaBon Geo Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Floriva PlusBon Geo Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
FolbicNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs
FolcapsMidlothian Laboratories
Folic Acid With Vitamin B12 and Vitamin CFlora Manufacturing And Distributing Ltd.
Folic Acid-b12 TabStandard Process Inc.
Foltabs 800Midlothian Laboratories
FoltratePoly Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
For Kids Only Chewable Multivit. Plus IronKsl Pharmaceuticals
For Kids Only Chewable Multivitamins - TabKsl Pharmaceuticals
Formula Ch. Les.Abundance Marketing Ltd.
Formula CnBalance Plus, Inc.
Formula D.S.Golden Pride International
Formula IntBalance Plus, Inc.
Formula LfNumark Laboratories, Inc.
Formula Pro-BBalance Plus, Inc.
Fortaplex InjKripps Pharmacy Ltd.
FortiplexSantÉ Naturelle (Ag) LtÉe
Forty Plus Vitamin SupplementGarden State Nutritionals
Fusion Activator Formula TabL & S Research Corporation
Golf Vitamin and Mineral SupplementMuscle Marketing Usa Inc.
H. Formula - TabAbundance Marketing Ltd.
Harvest Of Values All B Complex TabHillestad Pharmaceuticals Usa
Hemarexin TabLab Bio Chimique Inc.,Division Of Technilab Pharma Inc.
HematogenNnodum Pharmaceuticals
Hematogen FaNnodum Pharmaceuticals
Hematogen ForteNnodum Pharmaceuticals
Hemenatal ObWh Nutritionals, Llc
HemetabWh Nutritionals, Llc
Heparos Ampoules BuvablesDesbergers LtÉe, Division Of Technilab Inc.
Hi Potency B Complex W Chelated MineralsKlaire Labs Inc.
Hi Potency B52 B Complex TabCountry Health Laboratories Ltd.
Hi Potency Balanced B-100 Complex - TabLeiner Health Products Inc.
Hi Potency Stress B Tension With CLee Adams Laboratories
High Potency Vitamin B Complex + C TabVita Health Products Inc
Hill.viteHillestad Pharmaceuticals Usa
Homosistrol CapsulesMacromed Pharmicia Inc.
Hormodausse Plus Calc Et D TabLaboratoires Charton Laboratories
Hypo Vites TabPharmetics (2011) Inc
Iberet 500Abbott Laboratories, Limited
Iferex 150 ForteNnodum Pharmaceuticals
Insur-all Vitamin SupplementGarden State Nutritionals
Iron 25mg With Vit B-cmplx, Vit C, Cu & MoQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products
Iron Plus Manganese, B12, Folic Acid & CNatural Factors Nutritional Products Ltd.
Iron Plus TabSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.
Iron Polysaccharides Folic Acid DHAVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC
Iron Vitamins B6,b12,c,folic Acid TabLaboratoire Lalco Inc.
Iron With Vitamins TabEnrich International
Isotonix Advanced B-complex Vitamins With Potassium and MagnesiumMarket America, Inc.
Isotonix Vitamin B-folic Acid-mineral SuppleMarket America, Inc.
Kanga Sport Vitamins B & C Plus MineralsLacombe Drugs (1992) Ltd
Kanga-B Vitamin B Group + CLacombe Drugs (1992) Ltd
Kanga-kid Multi-vitamin & MineralLacombe Drugs (1992) Ltd
Kanga-kid Vitamins & IronLacombe Drugs (1992) Ltd
Kanga-V Multivitamins & MineralsLacombe Drugs (1992) Ltd
Kc Vitamin and Mineral SupplementMuscle Marketing Usa Inc.
KindervitesHerbalife International Of America, Inc.
Lipo-B-C TabMetagenics, Inc.
LipovitanP.S.W.C. Co., Inc.
Liqui B ComplexTwin Laboratories Inc.
Liqui B Complex PlusTwin Laboratories Inc.
Liqui Infant VitaminsTwin Laboratories Inc.
Liqui VitaTwin Laboratories Inc.
Liquid B Complex 50Jamieson Laboratories Ltd
Livron Plus AmpouleMedic Laboratory LtÉe
Livron Plus TabMedic Laboratory LtÉe
Low Potency B Complex TabFlora Manufacturing And Distributing Ltd.
Lysamine Diet Supp Amp-tabWelcker Lyster Ltd., Division Of Technilab Inc.
M.V.I. 12Aventis Pharma Inc
M.V.I. PaediatricAventis Pharma Inc
M.V.I. PediatricHospira Worldwide, Inc.
Maltlevol 12 LiqCarter Horner Corp.
MaxfePronova Corporation
Mega 13 Multivitamin FormulaVita Health Products Inc
Menocal TabLes Aliments Nutri Source Inc.
Meplex T 750Medic Laboratory LtÉe
Mini-B TabTwin Laboratories Inc.
Mor-vites TabPharmetics (2011) Inc
Mr. Tumee Multi-vitaminVitamec Usa
Multi 12 InjectionSandoz Canada Incorporated
Multi BSeroyal International Inc.
Multi Enfants TabVitalab
Multi RolRolmex International Inc.
Multi Vitamin and FluorideLibertas Pharma, Inc.
Multi Vitamin Drops With FluorideSeton Pharmaceuticals
Multi Vitamin With FluorideQualitest Pharmaceuticals
Multi Vitamin-mineral FormulaVita Health Products Inc
Multi Vite Liq AdultPharmetics (2011) Inc
Multi Vite Liq JuniorPharmetics (2011) Inc
Multi-11Sandoz Canada Incorporated
Multi-12 PediatricSabex Inc
Multi-12/k1 PediatricSandoz Canada Incorporated
Multi-vit With FluorideQualitest Pharmaceuticals
Multi-vitaminLLC Federal Solutions
Multi-vitamin FluorideStratus Pharmaceuticals
Multi-vitamin Fluoride DropsH.J. Harkins Company, Inc.
Multi-vitamin With FluorideGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.
Multi-vitamines Enfants ComprimeHerbes Universelles Inc.
Multiple Vitamin Plus Minerals TabHall Laboratories, Ltd.
Multiple Vitamin TabAdams Labs Ltd.
Multiple Vitamins and Minerals TabRandle Labs Inc.
Multiple Vitamins Plus Iron for WomenPharmetics (2011) Inc
Multiple Vitamins TabRandle Labs Inc.
Multiple Vitamins With Minerals TabletsPharmetics (2011) Inc
MultisolLes Laboratoires Vachon Inc.
Multivit-liqPharmalab Inc.
MultivitaminLaboratoires Confab Inc
Multivitamin With FluorideSancilio & Company Inc
Multivitamines Et MinerauxLe Groupe M. Vachon Inc.
Multivitamines Plus Fer Pour Enfants (chewable Tablets)Laboratoire Lalco Inc.
Multivitamines Pour Enfants (chewable Tablets)Laboratoire Lalco Inc.
Multivitamins W IronRandle Labs Inc.
MvcSancilio & Company Inc
Mvc-fluorideSancilio & Company Inc.
Myferon 150 ForteMartin Ekwealor Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Mynephrocaps Dialysis/stress Vitamin SupplementMartin Ekwealor Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Nata KompleteWh Nutritionals, Llc
NatafortMission Pharmacal Company
Neo Bex ElixirNeolab Inc
NephrocapsCardinal Health
Niron KompleteWh Nutritionals, Llc
Nutrol-B-complexRolmex International Inc.
O-cal Fa MultivitaminPharmics, Inc.
O-cal Prenatal VitaminPharmics, Inc.
One A Day Advance AdultsBayer Inc Consumer Care
One A Day Advance Adults 50+Bayer Inc Consumer Care
One A Day Advance FemBayer Inc Consumer Care
One A Day TabCountry Health Laboratories Ltd.
Orange Flavored Crystal Chews TabJeunique International Inc.
Orti BSeroyal International Inc.
Phosthenine Vitamines Et Fer (ampoules Buvable)Laboratoires Cortunon Inc.
Phytofortis + Calcium A-DProduits Phyto Inc.
Phytoplex B LiqProduits Phyto Inc.
PhytopureLaboratoire Lalco Inc.
PM CapsNew Vision Nutritionals Company
Pnv Ferrous Fumarate Docusate Folic AcidVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC
Pnv Prenatal Plus MultivitaminSancilio & Company Inc
Pnv Prenatal VitaminSancilio & Company Inc
Pnv Prenatal Vitamin Plus Vitamin ASancilio & Company Inc
Pnv-dhaAcella Pharmaceuticals, LLC
Pnv-firstAcella Pharmaceuticals, LLC
Pnv-selectAcella Pharmaceuticals, LLC
Polymine Avec Zinc Et CuivreLes Laboratoires Vachon Inc.
Pour Ma SantéProdemdis Enr.
Prefera Ob Plus DHAAlaven Pharmaceutical LLC
PreferaobMEDA Pharmaceuticals
Preferaob OneMEDA Pharmaceuticals
Preferaob Plus DHAAlaven Pharmaceutical LLC
PregvitDuchesnay Inc
Pregvit Folic 4Duchesnay Inc
Pregvit Folic 5Duchesnay Inc
Prenatal 19Nationwide Laboratories, LLC
Prenatal Mega AntioxidantUsana Health Services, Inc.
Prenatal PlusBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.
Prenatal Vitamins Plusbryant ranch prepack
Prenatal Vitamins Plus Low IronPatrin Pharma, Inc.
Prenate AmAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Prenate EliteAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Prenate EnhanceAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Prenate EssentialAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Prenate PixieAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Prenate RestoreAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Prenate StarAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
PreplusVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC
PretabVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC
Prevital TabBio Vita
Purevit Dualfe PlusPure Tek Corporation
Reaphirm Plant Source DHAEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Red American Eagle Vitamin Supplement DrinkP.S.W.C. Co., Inc.
ReebokClearly Canadian Beverage Corporation
Reno CapsNnodum Pharmaceuticals
ReplaviteStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Revitex Ampoules Et ComprimesLes Produits Gerbex Inc.
Revival 1 TabBio Vita
Se-natal 19Seton Pharmaceuticals
Se-natal 19 ChewableSeton Pharmaceuticals
Se-natal OneSeton Pharmaceuticals
Se-tan PlusSeton Pharmaceuticals
Sibergin B - CapPharmavite Llc
Somarexin and C 1000Laboratoire Lalco Inc.
Sopalamine/3b Plus CTechnilab Pharma Inc.
Sopalamine/3b TabTechnilab Pharma Inc.
Stress B Capsules With Vitamin CRheingold Food International Ltd.
Stress B Complex With C, E & IronPharmavite Llc
Stress B With 1000 Mg Vitamin CHolista Health (Canada) Inc.
Stress B&c TabBioforce Canada Inc.
Stress Complex 600 Avec Vit E Cuivre ZincFrega Inc.
Stress Ctr SrtBioenergy Inc.
Stress FormulaVita Health Products Inc
Stress Formula + IronVita Health Products Inc
Stress Formula B-comp + 500mg Vit C TabQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products
Stress Formula Multi-B Comp + 500mg Vit C CapQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products
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Stress Formula TabNature's Sunshine Products Of Canada Ltd.
Stress Formula Vit B With C ComplexWatkins Incorporated
Stress Forte Plus Lipotropic FactorsDouglas Laboratories
Stress TabVita Health Products Inc
Stress Vitamin B With C Complex TabletsPurity Life Health Products A Division Of Sunopta Inc.
StressmatesTwin Laboratories Inc.
Strovite Forte CapletEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Strovite One CapletsEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Super B Compound W 500mg Vit CGahler Enterprises Ltd.
Super B12 + Folic AcidSeroyal International Inc.
Super PantoplexNu Life Nutrition Ltd.
Super Stress CapsulesRheingold Food International Ltd.
Super Stress Mega B Plus 1000mg Vit C TabQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products
Super Vitalex Ampoule BuvableCarmaran LtÉe
Super-pote Vitamin SupplementGarden State Nutritionals
Supravite 10ml AmpouleNobel Pharm Enr.
Supravite Bouteille 250mlNobel Pharm Enr.
Supravite C 1000Nobel Pharm Enr.
Supravite Stress Avec Vit EPharmalab Inc.
Supravite Stress Avec Vit E Cuivre Et ZincPharmalab Inc.
Supravite Stress Avec Vit E Et FerPharmalab Inc.
Surbex 500 FilmtabAbbott Laboratories, Limited
Surbex-500 With IronAbbott Laboratories, Limited
Surbex-500 With ZincAbbott Laboratories, Limited
SveetsSensible Delights Specialty Foods
Swical-energy-2Les Laboratoires Swisse Inc.
T.R.I. B-plex SrcAnabolic Laboratories Inc.
Tandem ObUs Pharmaceutical Corporation
Tandem PlusUs Pharmaceutical Corporation
Tar-endNature's Sunshine Products Inc.
Time Release B 100 Compound - TabletHealth Wise Nutrition Inc.
Timed Release B Complex 100 SrtJamieson Laboratories Ltd
Timed Release B-complex 100Great Earth Companies, Inc.
Timed Release B-complex 50Great Earth Companies, Inc.
Tini-cal AmpoulesPharmetics (2011) Inc
Tl-hem 150Trigen Laboratories, Inc.
Toni Com LiqVitalab
TozalFocus Laboratories, Inc.
Trace Minerals Et/and B12 TabTherapeutic Foods Co.
TriadvanceTrigen Laboratories, Inc.
Tricare PrenatalMedecor Pharma, Llc
TriconNnodum Pharmaceuticals
Trinatal GtTrigen Laboratories, Inc.
Ultra EnerforceNutribon (1986) Inc.
V-natalVirtus Pharmaceuticals
Viamon Ampoules Et ComprimesLab Nadeau LtÉe, Division Of Technilab Inc.
Vigem 12 LiquidPharmavite Laboratories (1987) Inc.
Vimeral TabIcn Canada Ltd.
Virt-bal DHA PlusVirtus Pharmaceuticals
Virt-capsVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC
Virt-PNVirtus Pharmaceuticals
Virt-PN PlusVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC
Virt-viteVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC
Virt-vite PlusVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC
Vit B Complex CtrBioenergy Inc.
Vit B Complex Plus Vit C 550mgHall Laboratories, Ltd.
Vita B + C 500 TabLaboratoire Romilo
Vita B Complex TabNutrimetics International (Canada) Inc.
Vita-BNutri Dyn Products Ltd.
Vita-B-75 CapLes Laboratoires Vachon Inc.
Vita-folic-B CapsLes Laboratoires Vachon Inc.
Vita-worth B-complex TabletsGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.
Vitabanks Vitamin TabVitabank Inc.
Vitachrom GcNikken Usa, Incorporated
Vitaday TabPharmetics (2011) Inc
Vitafer - LiqFrega Inc.
Vitaflex Dietary SuplementHome Shopping Network Direct
Vitafol CapletEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Vitafol NanoEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Vitafol Ob CapletEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Vitafol OneEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Vitafol PlusEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Vitafol UltraEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Vitamin B + C CapFinlandia Consultants
Vitamin B Complex + C 300mg CapRandle Labs Inc.
Vitamin B Complex + C 600mg TabRandle Labs Inc.
Vitamin B Complex 100 TabBioforce Canada Inc.
Vitamin B Complex 50Gfr Pharma Ltd.
Vitamin B Complex Plus 300mg Vitamin CHall Laboratories, Ltd.
Vitamin B Complex SupplAvacare, Division Of Jeunique International Inc.
Vitamin B Complex TabNutristar Health Products (1987) Inc.
Vitamin B Complex W C 300mg TabLee Adams Laboratories
Vitamin B Complex W C TabAlbi Imports Ltd.
Vitamin B Compound TabNutrilite, A Division Of Access Business Group, Llc
Vitamin B Compound W C Tab 500mgAdams Labs Ltd.
Vitamin B Compound W Vit C 250mg TabSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.
Vitamin B Compound With Vitamin C Fortis Capsule DtcD.C. Labs Limited
Vitamin B TabletsWeider Health Products
Vitamin B-12 With Folic Acid TabletsGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.
Vitamin B12 Plus Tablets W Folic AcidNu Life Nutrition Ltd.
Vitamin B12-folic AcidSeroyal International Inc.
Vitamin B6 & B12 With Folic AcidWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Vitamine 110 LiqFrega Inc.
Vitamine Du Groupe B Plus Fer - LiqPharmalab Inc.
Vitogen B Stress C Vit E Zinc & CopStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Vitogen B Stress C600Stanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Vp-heme ObVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC
Vp-heme OneVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC
Zoo ChewsHall Laboratories, Ltd.
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIP6YC3EG204
CAS number68-19-9
WeightAverage: 1356.3731
Monoisotopic: 1355.575230332
Chemical FormulaC63H89CoN14O14P
InChI KeyInChIKey=SEKGMJVHSBBHRD-WZHZPDAFSA-M
InChI
InChI=1S/C62H90N13O14P.CN.Co/c1-29-20-39-40(21-30(29)2)75(28-70-39)57-52(84)53(41(27-76)87-57)89-90(85,86)88-31(3)26-69-49(83)18-19-59(8)37(22-46(66)80)56-62(11)61(10,25-48(68)82)36(14-17-45(65)79)51(74-62)33(5)55-60(9,24-47(67)81)34(12-15-43(63)77)38(71-55)23-42-58(6,7)35(13-16-44(64)78)50(72-42)32(4)54(59)73-56;1-2;/h20-21,23,28,31,34-37,41,52-53,56-57,76,84H,12-19,22,24-27H2,1-11H3,(H15,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,71,72,73,74,77,78,79,80,81,82,83,85,86);;/q;;+1/p-1/t31-,34-,35-,36-,37+,41-,52-,53-,56-,57+,59-,60+,61+,62+;;/m1../s1
IUPAC Name
[(1R,2R,3S,4S,8S,9S,14S,18R,19R)-4,9,14-tris(2-carbamoylethyl)-3,8,19-tris(carbamoylmethyl)-18-(2-{[(2R)-2-[({[(2R,3S,4R,5S)-5-(5,6-dimethyl-1H-1,3-benzodiazol-1-yl)-4-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-3-yl]oxy}(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy]propyl]carbamoyl}ethyl)-2,3,6,8,13,13,16,18-octamethyl-20,21,22,23-tetraazapentacyclo[15.2.1.1²,⁵.1⁷,¹⁰.1¹²,¹⁵]tricosa-5(23),6,10(22),11,15(21),16-hexaen-20-yl]cobaltcarbonitrile
SMILES
OC[[email protected]]1O[C@@H]([[email protected]](O)[C@@H]1OP(O)(=O)O[C@]([H])(C)CNC(=O)CC[C@]1(C)[C@@H](CC(=O)N)[C@@]2([H])N([Co]C#N)\C1=C(C)/C1=N/C(=C\C3=N\C(=C(C)/C4=N[C@]2(C)[C@@](C)(CC(=O)N)[C@@H]4CCC(=O)N)\[C@@](C)(CC(=O)N)[C@@H]3CCC(=O)N)/C(C)(C)[C@@H]1CCC(=O)N)N1C=NC2=CC(C)=C(C)C=C12
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cobalamin derivatives. These are organic compounds containing a corrin ring, a cobalt atom, an a nucleotide moiety. Cobalamin Derivatives are actually derived from vitamin B12.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassTetrapyrroles and derivatives
Sub ClassCorrinoids
Direct ParentCobalamin derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Cobalamin
  • Metallotetrapyrrole skeleton
  • 1-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • Glycosyl compound
  • Monosaccharide phosphate
  • Benzimidazole
  • Phosphoethanolamine
  • Dialkyl phosphate
  • Fatty acyl
  • Benzenoid
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Organic phosphate
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Monosaccharide
  • Fatty amide
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Pyrroline
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Oxolane
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Primary carboxylic acid amide
  • Ketimine
  • Carboxamide group
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Transition metal cyanide salt
  • Organic metal salt
  • Organic cyanide salt
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic transition metal salt
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organometallic compound
  • Organic transition metal moeity
  • Imine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor treatment of pernicious anemia (due to lack of or inhibition of intrinsic factor) and for prevention and treatment of vitamin B 12 deficiency.
PharmacodynamicsCyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12) is a water-soluble organometallic compound with a trivalent cobalt ion bound inside a corrin ring. It is needed for nerve cells and red blood cells, and to make DNA. Vitamin B12 deficiency is the cause of several forms of anemia.
Mechanism of actionVitamin B12 is used in the body in two forms: Methylcobalamin and 5-deoxyadenosyl cobalamin. The enzyme methionine synthase needs methylcobalamin as a cofactor. This enzyme is involved in the conversion of the amino acid homocysteine into methionine. Methionine in turn is required for DNA methylation. 5-Deoxyadenosyl cobalamin is a cofactor needed by the enzyme that converts L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA. This conversion is an important step in the extraction of energy from proteins and fats. Furthermore, succinyl CoA is necessary for the production of hemoglobin, the substances that carries oxygen in red blood cells.
Related Articles
AbsorptionReadily absorbed in the lower half of the ileum.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingVery high (to specific plasma proteins called transcobalamins); binding of hydroxocobalamin is slightly higher than cyanocobalamin.
Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeApproximately 6 days (400 days in the liver).
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityAnaphylactic reaction (skin rash, itching, wheezing)-after parenteral administration. ORL-MUS LD50 > 8000 mg/kg
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9574
Blood Brain Barrier-0.7447
Caco-2 permeable-0.6455
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8341
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5082
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.6369
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.898
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8104
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8085
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.65
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8775
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8775
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8737
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7076
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.7118
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8125
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5707
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7782
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9972
Rat acute toxicity2.6731 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8988
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.682
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Par pharmaceutical inc
  • Pharmacia and upjohn co
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Abraxis pharmaceutical products
  • Akorn inc
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
  • Bioniche pharma usa llc
  • Dell laboratories inc
  • Luitpold pharmaceuticals inc
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
  • Solopak medical products inc
  • Warner chilcott inc
  • Wyeth ayerst laboratories
  • Merck and co inc
  • Bel mar laboratories inc
  • Bristol myers squibb co
  • Savage laboratories inc div altana inc
  • Bayer healthcare pharmaceuticals inc
  • West ward pharmaceutical corp
  • Bracco diagnostics inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Solutionintramuscular; subcutaneous1000 mcg
Liquid; capsuleoral
Elixiroral
Tabletoral1000 mcg
Kitintramuscular; subcutaneous
Liquidintramuscular1 mg
Tabletoral
Waferoral
Tabletoral6 mcg
Solutionintramuscular; subcutaneous1 mg
Injectionintramuscular; subcutaneous1000 ug/mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular1000 ug/mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular; subcutaneous1000 ug/mL
Liquidintramuscular; subcutaneous1 mg
Tablet (extended-release)oral
Tablet, film coatedoral
Syruporal
Liquidintramuscular; intravenous
Tabletoral24 mcg
Powderoral
Tablet (effervescent)oral
Dropsoral
Liquidintravenous
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionintravenous
Piece (chewable)oral
Liquid; tabletoral
Solution/ dropsoral
Solutionintravenous
Liquidoral
Solutionoral
Tablet, chewableoral
Spraynasal500 ug/1
Tablet, coatedoral
Tabletoral1 mcg
Liquidintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous1 mg
Liquidintramuscular; subcutaneous1000 mcg
Lozengeoral
Capsule (sustained-release)oral
Kit
Tablet (extended-release)
Tablet (extended-release)1.2 mg
Tabletoral500 mcg
Tablet
Capsuleoral
Capsule, gelatin coatedoral
Capsule, liquid filledoral
Tabletoral.025 mg
Capsule
Capsuleoral1000 mcg
Liquidintramuscular; subcutaneous100 mcg
Tabletoral50 mcg
Tabletoral1 mg
Capsuleoral500 mcg
Solutionintramuscular; subcutaneous100 mcg
Tablet (extended-release)oral1 mg
Tabletoral250 mcg
Tabletoral5 mcg
Tabletoral100 mcg
Tabletoral25 mcg
Tabletoral3 mcg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Nascobal 500 mcg/0.1ml Solution 2.3ml Bottle277.97USD bottle
Cyanocobalamin crystals161.18USD g
Infuvite pediatric vial2.58USD ml
Cyanocobalamin 1000 mcg/ml vial1.44USD vial
Cyanocobalamin 1000 mcg/ml1.2USD ml
Cyanocobalamin 1000 mcg/ml Solution1.03USD ml
Rubesol-1000 mcg/ml vial0.48USD ml
Vitamin B-12 1000 mcg/ml0.47USD ml
Vitamin b-12 2.5 mg tablet sl0.17USD tablet
Cyanocobalamin 1000 mcg tablet0.16USD tablet
Cyanocobalamin 100 mcg tablet0.14USD tablet
Vitamin b-12 1000 mcg tablet sl0.08USD tablet
B12 2500 mcg tablet sl0.07USD tablet
Sm vitamin b-12 500 mcg tablet0.06USD tablet
Vitamin b-12 1000 mcg tablet0.06USD tablet
Vitabee with vit c caplet0.05USD caplet
Vitamin b-12 500 mcg tablet0.05USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy vitamin b-12 1000 mcg tablet0.04USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy vitamin b-12 500 mcg tablet0.04USD tablet
Vitamin b-12 50 mcg tablet0.04USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy vitamin b12 100 mcg tablet0.03USD tablet
Pv vit b-12 1000 mcg tablet sl0.03USD tablet
Ra vitamin b-12 50 mcg tablet0.03USD tablet
Vitamin b-12 250 mcg tablet0.03USD tablet
Pv b-12 250 mcg tablet0.02USD tablet
Vitamin b-12 100 mcg tablet0.02USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US7229636 No2004-08-012024-08-01Us
US7404489 No2004-03-122024-03-12Us
US7879349 No2004-08-012024-08-01Us
US8003353 No2004-08-012024-08-01Us
US8940714 No2004-02-262024-02-26Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point> 300 °CPhysProp
water solubility1.25E+004 mg/LMERCK INDEX (1996)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0384 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.87ALOGPS
logS-4.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.84ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.77ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Number of Rings8ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Robert H. Allen, “Preparation of samples for vitamin B12 and/or folate assay and assay.” U.S. Patent US4451571, issued October, 1982.

US4451571
General References
  1. Wickramasinghe SN: Morphology, biology and biochemistry of cobalamin- and folate-deficient bone marrow cells. Baillieres Clin Haematol. 1995 Sep;8(3):441-59. [PubMed:8534956 ]
  2. Sharabi A, Cohen E, Sulkes J, Garty M: Replacement therapy for vitamin B12 deficiency: comparison between the sublingual and oral route. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003 Dec;56(6):635-8. [PubMed:14616423 ]
  3. Hall AH, Rumack BH: Hydroxycobalamin/sodium thiosulfate as a cyanide antidote. J Emerg Med. 1987;5(2):115-21. [PubMed:3295013 ]
  4. Andres E, Noel E, Goichot B: Metformin-associated vitamin B12 deficiency. Arch Intern Med. 2002 Oct 28;162(19):2251-2. [PubMed:12390080 ]
  5. Gilligan MA: Metformin and vitamin B12 deficiency. Arch Intern Med. 2002 Feb 25;162(4):484-5. [PubMed:11863489 ]
External Links
ATC CodesB03AE01B03BA01B03BA51
AHFS Codes
  • 88:08.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (202 KB)
MSDSDownload (37.1 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
ChloramphenicolThe therapeutic efficacy of Cyanocobalamin can be decreased when used in combination with Chloramphenicol.
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Cyanocobalamin can be decreased when it is combined with Colchicine.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
cofactor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from methyl-cobalamin to homocysteine, yielding enzyme-bound cob(I)alamin and methionine. Subsequently, remethylates the cofactor using methyltetrahydrofolate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MTR
Uniprot ID:
Q99707
Molecular Weight:
140525.91 Da
References
  1. Stover PJ: Vitamin B12 and older adults. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010 Jan;13(1):24-7. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e328333d157. [PubMed:19904199 ]
  2. Allen LH: Causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. Food Nutr Bull. 2008 Jun;29(2 Suppl):S20-34; discussion S35-7. [PubMed:18709879 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
cofactor
General Function:
Modified amino acid binding
Specific Function:
Involved in the degradation of several amino acids, odd-chain fatty acids and cholesterol via propionyl-CoA to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. MCM has different functions in other species.
Gene Name:
MUT
Uniprot ID:
P22033
Molecular Weight:
83133.755 Da
References
  1. Worgan LC, Niles K, Tirone JC, Hofmann A, Verner A, Sammak A, Kucic T, Lepage P, Rosenblatt DS: Spectrum of mutations in mut methylmalonic acidemia and identification of a common Hispanic mutation and haplotype. Hum Mutat. 2006 Jan;27(1):31-43. [PubMed:16281286 ]
  2. Brooks AJ, Vlasie M, Banerjee R, Brunold TC: Co-C bond activation in methylmalonyl-CoA mutase by stabilization of the post-homolysis product Co2+ cobalamin. J Am Chem Soc. 2005 Nov 30;127(47):16522-8. [PubMed:16305240 ]
  3. Kozlowski PM, Andruniow T, Jarzecki AA, Zgierski MZ, Spiro TG: DFT analysis of co-alkyl and co-adenosyl vibrational modes in B12-cofactors. Inorg Chem. 2006 Jul 10;45(14):5585-90. [PubMed:16813422 ]
  4. Moras E, Hosack A, Watkins D, Rosenblatt DS: Mitochondrial vitamin B12-binding proteins in patients with inborn errors of cobalamin metabolism. Mol Genet Metab. 2007 Feb;90(2):140-7. Epub 2006 Sep 29. [PubMed:17011224 ]
  5. Stover PJ: Vitamin B12 and older adults. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010 Jan;13(1):24-7. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e328333d157. [PubMed:19904199 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
cofactor
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, oxidizing metal ions, nad or nadp as acceptor
Specific Function:
Involved in the reductive regeneration of cob(I)alamin (vitamin B12) cofactor required for the maintenance of methionine synthase in a functional state. Necessary for utilization of methylgroups from the folate cycle, thereby affecting transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. Folate pathway donates methyl groups necessary for cellular methylation and affects different pathways such as DNA meth...
Gene Name:
MTRR
Uniprot ID:
Q9UBK8
Molecular Weight:
80409.22 Da
References
  1. O'Leary VB, Mills JL, Pangilinan F, Kirke PN, Cox C, Conley M, Weiler A, Peng K, Shane B, Scott JM, Parle-McDermott A, Molloy AM, Brody LC: Analysis of methionine synthase reductase polymorphisms for neural tube defects risk association. Mol Genet Metab. 2005 Jul;85(3):220-7. Epub 2005 Mar 17. [PubMed:15979034 ]
  2. Gueant-Rodriguez RM, Juilliere Y, Candito M, Adjalla CE, Gibelin P, Herbeth B, Van Obberghen E, Gueant JL: Association of MTRRA66G polymorphism (but not of MTHFR C677T and A1298C, MTRA2756G, TCN C776G) with homocysteine and coronary artery disease in the French population. Thromb Haemost. 2005 Sep;94(3):510-5. [PubMed:16268464 ]
  3. Miriuka SG, Langman LJ, Evrovski J, Miner SE, D'Mello N, Delgado DH, Wong BY, Ross HJ, Cole DE: Genetic polymorphisms predisposing to hyperhomocysteinemia in cardiac transplant patients. Transpl Int. 2005 Jan;18(1):29-35. [PubMed:15612980 ]
  4. Berkun Y, Abou Atta I, Rubinow A, Orbach H, Levartovsky D, Aamar S, Arbel O, Dresner-Pollak R, Friedman G, Ben-Yehuda A: 2756GG genotype of methionine synthase reductase gene is more prevalent in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with methotrexate and is associated with methotrexate-induced nodulosis. J Rheumatol. 2007 Aug;34(8):1664-9. Epub 2007 Jul 1. [PubMed:17611986 ]
  5. van der Linden IJ, den Heijer M, Afman LA, Gellekink H, Vermeulen SH, Kluijtmans LA, Blom HJ: The methionine synthase reductase 66A>G polymorphism is a maternal risk factor for spina bifida. J Mol Med (Berl). 2006 Dec;84(12):1047-54. Epub 2006 Oct 6. [PubMed:17024475 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
cofactor
General Function:
Hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Probable GTPase. May function as chaperone. May be involved in the transport of cobalamin (Cbl) into mitochondria for the final steps of adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) synthesis.
Gene Name:
MMAA
Uniprot ID:
Q8IVH4
Molecular Weight:
46537.865 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Lerner-Ellis JP, Dobson CM, Wai T, Watkins D, Tirone JC, Leclerc D, Dore C, Lepage P, Gravel RA, Rosenblatt DS: Mutations in the MMAA gene in patients with the cblA disorder of vitamin B12 metabolism. Hum Mutat. 2004 Dec;24(6):509-16. [PubMed:15523652 ]
  4. Dobson CM, Gradinger A, Longo N, Wu X, Leclerc D, Lerner-Ellis J, Lemieux M, Belair C, Watkins D, Rosenblatt DS, Gravel RA: Homozygous nonsense mutation in the MCEE gene and siRNA suppression of methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase expression: a novel cause of mild methylmalonic aciduria. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 Aug;88(4):327-33. Epub 2006 May 11. [PubMed:16697227 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
cofactor
General Function:
Cobalamin binding
Specific Function:
May be involved in the binding and intracellular trafficking of cobalamin (vitamin B12).
Gene Name:
MMACHC
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y4U1
Molecular Weight:
31728.095 Da
References
  1. Chandler RJ, Aswani V, Tsai MS, Falk M, Wehrli N, Stabler S, Allen R, Sedensky M, Kazazian HH, Venditti CP: Propionyl-CoA and adenosylcobalamin metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans: evidence for a role of methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase in intermediary metabolism. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 Sep-Oct;89(1-2):64-73. Epub 2006 Jul 14. [PubMed:16843692 ]
  2. Ben-Omran TI, Wong H, Blaser S, Feigenbaum A: Late-onset cobalamin-C disorder: a challenging diagnosis. Am J Med Genet A. 2007 May 1;143A(9):979-84. [PubMed:17431913 ]
  3. Morel CF, Lerner-Ellis JP, Rosenblatt DS: Combined methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria (cblC): phenotype-genotype correlations and ethnic-specific observations. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 Aug;88(4):315-21. Epub 2006 May 22. [PubMed:16714133 ]
  4. Lerner-Ellis JP, Tirone JC, Pawelek PD, Dore C, Atkinson JL, Watkins D, Morel CF, Fujiwara TM, Moras E, Hosack AR, Dunbar GV, Antonicka H, Forgetta V, Dobson CM, Leclerc D, Gravel RA, Shoubridge EA, Coulton JW, Lepage P, Rommens JM, Morgan K, Rosenblatt DS: Identification of the gene responsible for methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cblC type. Nat Genet. 2006 Jan;38(1):93-100. Epub 2005 Nov 27. [PubMed:16311595 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
cofactor
General Function:
Protein complex binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a co-substrate for homocysteine remethylation to methionine.
Gene Name:
MTHFR
Uniprot ID:
P42898
Molecular Weight:
74595.895 Da
References
  1. Nakamura T, Saionji K, Hiejima Y, Hirayama H, Tago K, Takano H, Tajiri M, Hayashi K, Kawabata M, Funamizu M, Makita Y, Hata A: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype, vitamin B12, and folate influence plasma homocysteine in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002 May;39(5):1032-9. [PubMed:11979347 ]
  2. Erdogan MO, Yildiz SH, Solak M, Eser O, Cosar E, Eser B, Koken R, Buyukbas S: C677T polymorphism of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene does not affect folic acid, vitamin B12, and homocysteine serum levels in Turkish children with neural tube defects. Genet Mol Res. 2010 Jun 22;9(2):1197-203. doi: 10.4238/vol9-2gmr816. [PubMed:20589617 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Cob(i)yrinic acid a,c-diamide adenosyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
MMAB
Uniprot ID:
Q96EY8
Molecular Weight:
27387.975 Da
References
  1. Zhang J, Dobson CM, Wu X, Lerner-Ellis J, Rosenblatt DS, Gravel RA: Impact of cblB mutations on the function of ATP:cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase in disorders of vitamin B12 metabolism. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 Apr;87(4):315-22. Epub 2006 Jan 24. [PubMed:16439175 ]
  2. Lerner-Ellis JP, Gradinger AB, Watkins D, Tirone JC, Villeneuve A, Dobson CM, Montpetit A, Lepage P, Gravel RA, Rosenblatt DS: Mutation and biochemical analysis of patients belonging to the cblB complementation class of vitamin B12-dependent methylmalonic aciduria. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 Mar;87(3):219-25. Epub 2006 Jan 10. [PubMed:16410054 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Necessary for efficient absorption of vitamin B12. May direct the production of trunk mesoderm during development by modulating a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway in the underlying visceral endoderm (By similarity).
Gene Name:
AMN
Uniprot ID:
Q9BXJ7
Molecular Weight:
47753.91 Da
References
  1. Al-Alami JR, Tanner SM, Tayeh MK, de la Chapelle A, El-Shanti H: Homozygous AMN mutation in hereditary selective intestinal malabsorption of vitamin B12 in Jordan. Saudi Med J. 2005 Jul;26(7):1061-4. [PubMed:16047053 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Cobalamin binding
Specific Function:
Binds vitamin B12 with femtomolar affinity and protects it from the acidic environment of the stomach.
Gene Name:
TCN1
Uniprot ID:
P20061
Molecular Weight:
48206.32 Da
References
  1. Carmel R: Haptocorrin (transcobalamin I) and cobalamin deficiencies. Clin Chem. 2007 Feb;53(2):367-8; author reply 368-9. [PubMed:17259255 ]
  2. Al-Alami JR, Tanner SM, Tayeh MK, de la Chapelle A, El-Shanti H: Homozygous AMN mutation in hereditary selective intestinal malabsorption of vitamin B12 in Jordan. Saudi Med J. 2005 Jul;26(7):1061-4. [PubMed:16047053 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Primary vitamin B12-binding and transport protein. Delivers cobalamin to cells.
Gene Name:
TCN2
Uniprot ID:
P20062
Molecular Weight:
47534.54 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Remacha AF, Sarda MP, Carmel R: Influence of cobalamin deficiency compared with that of cobalamin absorption on serum holo-transcobalamin II. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jan;81(1):110-4. [PubMed:15640468 ]
  2. Alessio AC, Hoehr NF, Siqueira LH, Bydlowski SP, Annichino-Bizzacchi JM: Polymorphism C776G in the transcobalamin II gene and homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 concentrations. Association with MTHFR C677T and A1298C and MTRR A66G polymorphisms in healthy children. Thromb Res. 2007;119(5):571-7. Epub 2006 Jul 3. [PubMed:16820193 ]
  3. Bowen RA, Drake SK, Vanjani R, Huey ED, Grafman J, Horne MK 3rd: Markedly increased vitamin B12 concentrations attributable to IgG-IgM-vitamin B12 immune complexes. Clin Chem. 2006 Nov;52(11):2107-14. [PubMed:17068171 ]
  4. Bosco P, Gueant-Rodriguez RM, Anello G, Spada R, Romano A, Fajardo A, Caraci F, Ferri R, Gueant JL: Association of homocysteine (but not of MTHFR 677 C>T, MTR 2756 A>G, MTRR 66 A>G and TCN2 776 C>G) with ischaemic cerebrovascular disease in Sicily. Thromb Haemost. 2006 Aug;96(2):154-9. [PubMed:16894458 ]
  5. Al-Alami JR, Tanner SM, Tayeh MK, de la Chapelle A, El-Shanti H: Homozygous AMN mutation in hereditary selective intestinal malabsorption of vitamin B12 in Jordan. Saudi Med J. 2005 Jul;26(7):1061-4. [PubMed:16047053 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Cobalamin binding
Specific Function:
Promotes absorption of the essential vitamin cobalamin (Cbl) in the ileum. After interaction with CUBN, the GIF-cobalamin complex is internalized via receptor-mediated endocytosis.
Gene Name:
GIF
Uniprot ID:
P27352
Molecular Weight:
45415.67 Da
References
  1. Fedosov SN, Fedosova NU, Berglund L, Moestrup SK, Nexo E, Petersen TE: Composite organization of the cobalamin binding and cubilin recognition sites of intrinsic factor. Biochemistry. 2005 Mar 8;44(9):3604-14. [PubMed:15736970 ]
  2. He Q, Madsen M, Kilkenney A, Gregory B, Christensen EI, Vorum H, Hojrup P, Schaffer AA, Kirkness EF, Tanner SM, de la Chapelle A, Giger U, Moestrup SK, Fyfe JC: Amnionless function is required for cubilin brush-border expression and intrinsic factor-cobalamin (vitamin B12) absorption in vivo. Blood. 2005 Aug 15;106(4):1447-53. Epub 2005 Apr 21. [PubMed:15845892 ]
  3. Moestrup SK: New insights into carrier binding and epithelial uptake of the erythropoietic nutrients cobalamin and folate. Curr Opin Hematol. 2006 May;13(3):119-23. [PubMed:16567952 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Cotransporter which plays a role in lipoprotein, vitamin and iron metabolism, by facilitating their uptake. Binds to ALB, MB, Kappa and lambda-light chains, TF, hemoglobin, GC, SCGB1A1, APOA1, high density lipoprotein, and the GIF-cobalamin complex. The binding of all ligands requires calcium. Serves as important transporter in several absorptive epithelia, including intestine, renal proximal t...
Gene Name:
CUBN
Uniprot ID:
O60494
Molecular Weight:
398732.93 Da
References
  1. Fedosov SN, Fedosova NU, Berglund L, Moestrup SK, Nexo E, Petersen TE: Composite organization of the cobalamin binding and cubilin recognition sites of intrinsic factor. Biochemistry. 2005 Mar 8;44(9):3604-14. [PubMed:15736970 ]
  2. He Q, Madsen M, Kilkenney A, Gregory B, Christensen EI, Vorum H, Hojrup P, Schaffer AA, Kirkness EF, Tanner SM, de la Chapelle A, Giger U, Moestrup SK, Fyfe JC: Amnionless function is required for cubilin brush-border expression and intrinsic factor-cobalamin (vitamin B12) absorption in vivo. Blood. 2005 Aug 15;106(4):1447-53. Epub 2005 Apr 21. [PubMed:15845892 ]
  3. Moestrup SK: New insights into carrier binding and epithelial uptake of the erythropoietic nutrients cobalamin and folate. Curr Opin Hematol. 2006 May;13(3):119-23. [PubMed:16567952 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on May 03, 2016 02:28