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Identification
NameCreatine
Accession NumberDB00148  (NUTR00022)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical
Description

An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as creatinine in the urine. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
((amino(Imino)methyl)(methyl)amino)acetic acid
(alpha-Methylguanido)acetic acid
(N-methylcarbamimidamido)acetic acid
(α-methylguanido)acetic acid
alpha-Methylguanidino acetic acid
Creatin
Creatine
Kreatin
Methylglycocyamine
N-(aminoiminomethyl)-N-methylglycine
N-[(e)-AMINO(imino)methyl]-N-methylglycine
N-Amidinosarcosine
N-Carbamimidoyl-N-methylglycine
N-Methyl-N-guanylglycine
External Identifiers Not Available
Prescription ProductsNot Available
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIMU72812GK0
CAS number57-00-1
WeightAverage: 131.1332
Monoisotopic: 131.069476547
Chemical FormulaC4H9N3O2
InChI KeyInChIKey=CVSVTCORWBXHQV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C4H9N3O2/c1-7(4(5)6)2-3(8)9/h2H2,1H3,(H3,5,6)(H,8,9)
IUPAC Name
2-(1-methylcarbamimidamido)acetic acid
SMILES
CN(CC(O)=O)C(N)=N
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon), or a derivative thereof.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentAlpha amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Tertiary amine
  • Guanidine
  • Carboximidamide
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Imine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance
PharmacodynamicsCreatine is a essential, non-proteinaceous amino acid found in all animals and, in some plants. Creatine is synthesized in the kidney, liver and pancreas from L-arginine, glycine and L-methionine. Following its biosynthesis, creatine is transported to the skeletal muscle, heart, brain and other tissues. Most of the creatine is metabolized in these tissues to phosphocreatine (creatine phosphate). Phosphocreatine is a major energy storage form in the body. Supplemental creatine may have an energy-generating action during anaerobic exercise and may also have neuroprotective and cardioprotective actions.
Mechanism of actionIn the muscles, a fraction of the total creatine binds to phosphate - forming creatine phosphate. The reaction is catalysed by creatine kinase, and the result is phosphocreatine (PCr). Phosphocreatine binds with adenosine diphosphate to convert it back to ATP (adenosine triphosphate), an important cellular energy source for short term ATP needs prior to oxidative phosphorylation.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life3 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Ornithine Aminotransferase Deficiency (OAT Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00363
Non Ketotic HyperglycinemiaDiseaseSMP00223
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00484
Prolidase Deficiency (PD)DiseaseSMP00207
Hyperglycinemia, non-ketoticDiseaseSMP00485
Glycine and Serine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00004
Arginine and Proline MetabolismMetabolicSMP00020
Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (DHPD)DiseaseSMP00179
Prolinemia Type IIDiseaseSMP00208
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00242
SarcosinemiaDiseaseSMP00244
Hyperprolinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00361
Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase Deficiency (GAMT Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00188
Hyperprolinemia Type IIDiseaseSMP00360
Arginine: Glycine Amidinotransferase Deficiency (AGAT Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00362
Creatine deficiency, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00504
Hyperornithinemia with gyrate atrophy (HOGA)DiseaseSMP00505
Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria [HHH-syndrome]DiseaseSMP00506
L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00507
3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00721
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9605
Blood Brain Barrier+0.6849
Caco-2 permeable-0.6228
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5275
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9704
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8744
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8321
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7916
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.767
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7585
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9136
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9068
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8954
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9157
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9346
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9969
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7522
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8138
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7859
Rat acute toxicity2.0088 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9653
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9649
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage formsNot Available
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Creatine monohydrate powder0.81USD g
Cytotine 1.5 g/15 ml liquid0.07USD ml
Creatine powder0.01USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point255 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility1.33E+004 mg/L (at 18 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-0.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.11 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.6ALOGPS
logP-2.9ChemAxon
logS-1.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.5ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)12.43ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area90.41 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity42.01 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability12.17 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (8.81 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-zw00000000-bc1387ab36f71e04b988View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-z100000000-6c686da36a88d9fbdbcfView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-z100000000-13b7d28e8f5be1c5dadaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0z10000000-cc4bd4c587dd80f63bcbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-cz00000000-d35c7578ad50de8377b7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-z100000000-a4d7fee14f74e1ed8b4bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0z00000000-e5d62520dfcbf4bfe5c9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0z10000000-06fbcf897ccce3fa90b7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-z000000000-9a0b8275e74605a92681View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-z100000000-5f622f2c3de4f213a8edView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0z00000000-20ba65c7a2c9434fcf39View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-2zpl28a714-53bb6f168e0934ae4a87View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-z000000000-638479794e8c3a6e0b61View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-2z00000000-39676937b1a3ad0dc0bcView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03z0000000-d53c75786742ecdb3c16View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-2zjk1a9914-2fc3f234454021c5e202View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-z000000000-40aa07f89dddb181e489View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-1z00000000-5aca4d0b8ed7d2500af2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-06z0000000-9a9685c32bf6c721a497View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-7z00000000-c99f9492e0b84d5fae6bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-zc00000000-8ab609e6dd62bd18841fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-z100000000-e04e407d5f06d21582c4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-z000000000-fd81d06317727fa740b1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-z000000000-8428e2af90720afb4337View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0z00000000-3162b4c94e66796a643bView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-z700000000-47f885347545055f546dView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Stefan Weiss, Helmut Krommer, “Process for the preparation of a creatine or creatine monohydrate.” U.S. Patent US5719319, issued September, 1963.

US5719319
General References
  1. Burke DG, Chilibeck PD, Parise G, Tarnopolsky MA, Candow DG: Effect of alpha-lipoic acid combined with creatine monohydrate on human skeletal muscle creatine and phosphagen concentration. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003 Sep;13(3):294-302. [PubMed:14669930 ]
  2. Dangott B, Schultz E, Mozdziak PE: Dietary creatine monohydrate supplementation increases satellite cell mitotic activity during compensatory hypertrophy. Int J Sports Med. 2000 Jan;21(1):13-6. [PubMed:10683092 ]
  3. Hespel P, Op't Eijnde B, Van Leemputte M, Urso B, Greenhaff PL, Labarque V, Dymarkowski S, Van Hecke P, Richter EA: Oral creatine supplementation facilitates the rehabilitation of disuse atrophy and alters the expression of muscle myogenic factors in humans. J Physiol. 2001 Oct 15;536(Pt 2):625-33. [PubMed:11600695 ]
  4. Hultman E, Soderlund K, Timmons JA, Cederblad G, Greenhaff PL: Muscle creatine loading in men. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1996 Jul;81(1):232-7. [PubMed:8828669 ]
  5. Juhn M: Popular sports supplements and ergogenic aids. Sports Med. 2003;33(12):921-39. [PubMed:12974658 ]
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (73.1 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
ligand
General Function:
Creatine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with large, fluctuating energy demands, such as skeletal muscle, heart, brain and spermatozoa.
Gene Name:
CKM
Uniprot ID:
P06732
Molecular Weight:
43100.91 Da
References
  1. Zeng L, Hu Q, Wang X, Mansoor A, Lee J, Feygin J, Zhang G, Suntharalingam P, Boozer S, Mhashilkar A, Panetta CJ, Swingen C, Deans R, From AH, Bache RJ, Verfaillie CM, Zhang J: Bioenergetic and functional consequences of bone marrow-derived multipotent progenitor cell transplantation in hearts with postinfarction left ventricular remodeling. Circulation. 2007 Apr 10;115(14):1866-75. Epub 2007 Mar 26. [PubMed:17389266 ]
  2. Zhou DQ, Hu Y, Liu G, Gong L, Xi Y, Wen L: Muscle-specific creatine kinase gene polymorphism and running economy responses to an 18-week 5000-m training programme. Br J Sports Med. 2006 Dec;40(12):988-91. Epub 2006 Sep 25. [PubMed:17000714 ]
  3. Wallimann T, Wyss M, Brdiczka D, Nicolay K, Eppenberger HM: Intracellular compartmentation, structure and function of creatine kinase isoenzymes in tissues with high and fluctuating energy demands: the 'phosphocreatine circuit' for cellular energy homeostasis. Biochem J. 1992 Jan 1;281 ( Pt 1):21-40. [PubMed:1731757 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
ligand
General Function:
Creatine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with large, fluctuating energy demands, such as skeletal muscle, heart, brain and spermatozoa.
Gene Name:
CKMT1A
Uniprot ID:
P12532
Molecular Weight:
47036.3 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Slenzka K, Appel R, Kappel Th, Rahmann H: Influence of altered gravity on brain cellular energy and plasma membrane metabolism of developing lower aquatic vertebrates. Adv Space Res. 1996;17(6-7):125-8. [PubMed:11538605 ]
  4. Wyss M, Schlegel J, James P, Eppenberger HM, Wallimann T: Mitochondrial creatine kinase from chicken brain. Purification, biophysical characterization, and generation of heterodimeric and heterooctameric molecules with subunits of other creatine kinase isoenzymes. J Biol Chem. 1990 Sep 15;265(26):15900-8. [PubMed:2394753 ]
  5. Muhlebach SM, Wirz T, Brandle U, Perriard JC: Evolution of the creative kinases. The chicken acidic type mitochondrial creatine kinase gene as the first nonmammalian gene. J Biol Chem. 1996 May 17;271(20):11920-9. [PubMed:8662608 ]
  6. Wallimann T, Wyss M, Brdiczka D, Nicolay K, Eppenberger HM: Intracellular compartmentation, structure and function of creatine kinase isoenzymes in tissues with high and fluctuating energy demands: the 'phosphocreatine circuit' for cellular energy homeostasis. Biochem J. 1992 Jan 1;281 ( Pt 1):21-40. [PubMed:1731757 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
ligand
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with large, fluctuating energy demands, such as skeletal muscle, heart, brain and spermatozoa.
Gene Name:
CKB
Uniprot ID:
P12277
Molecular Weight:
42643.95 Da
References
  1. Tian XF, Zhang XS, Li YH, Wang ZZ, Zhang F, Wang LM, Yao JH: Proteasome inhibition attenuates lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia reperfusion in rats. Life Sci. 2006 Oct 26;79(22):2069-76. Epub 2006 Jun 23. [PubMed:16875703 ]
  2. Debrincat MA, Zhang JG, Willson TA, Silke J, Connolly LM, Simpson RJ, Alexander WS, Nicola NA, Kile BT, Hilton DJ: Ankyrin repeat and suppressors of cytokine signaling box protein asb-9 targets creatine kinase B for degradation. J Biol Chem. 2007 Feb 16;282(7):4728-37. Epub 2006 Dec 5. [PubMed:17148442 ]
  3. Burklen TS, Hirschy A, Wallimann T: Brain-type creatine kinase BB-CK interacts with the Golgi Matrix Protein GM130 in early prophase. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007 Mar;297(1-2):53-64. Epub 2006 Oct 12. [PubMed:17036164 ]
  4. Wallimann T, Wyss M, Brdiczka D, Nicolay K, Eppenberger HM: Intracellular compartmentation, structure and function of creatine kinase isoenzymes in tissues with high and fluctuating energy demands: the 'phosphocreatine circuit' for cellular energy homeostasis. Biochem J. 1992 Jan 1;281 ( Pt 1):21-40. [PubMed:1731757 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
ligand
General Function:
Creatine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with large, fluctuating energy demands, such as skeletal muscle, heart, brain and spermatozoa.
Gene Name:
CKMT2
Uniprot ID:
P17540
Molecular Weight:
47504.08 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Koufen P, Ruck A, Brdiczka D, Wendt S, Wallimann T, Stark G: Free radical-induced inactivation of creatine kinase: influence on the octameric and dimeric states of the mitochondrial enzyme (Mib-CK). Biochem J. 1999 Dec 1;344 Pt 2:413-7. [PubMed:10567223 ]
  4. Wyss M, James P, Schlegel J, Wallimann T: Limited proteolysis of creatine kinase. Implications for three-dimensional structure and for conformational substrates. Biochemistry. 1993 Oct 12;32(40):10727-35. [PubMed:8399219 ]
  5. Stachowiak O, Dolder M, Wallimann T, Richter C: Mitochondrial creatine kinase is a prime target of peroxynitrite-induced modification and inactivation. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jul 3;273(27):16694-9. [PubMed:9642223 ]
  6. Wallimann T, Wyss M, Brdiczka D, Nicolay K, Eppenberger HM: Intracellular compartmentation, structure and function of creatine kinase isoenzymes in tissues with high and fluctuating energy demands: the 'phosphocreatine circuit' for cellular energy homeostasis. Biochem J. 1992 Jan 1;281 ( Pt 1):21-40. [PubMed:1731757 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
General Function:
Neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Required for the uptake of creatine in muscles and brain.
Gene Name:
SLC6A8
Uniprot ID:
P48029
Molecular Weight:
70522.17 Da
References
  1. Rosenberg EH, Munoz CM, Degrauw TJ, Jakobs Cn, Salomons GS: Overexpression of wild-type creatine transporter (SLC6A8) restores creatine uptake in primary SLC6A8-deficient fibroblasts. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2006 Apr-Jun;29(2-3):345-6. [PubMed:16763899 ]
  2. Derave W, Straumann N, Olek RA, Hespel P: Electrolysis stimulates creatine transport and transporter cell surface expression in incubated mouse skeletal muscle: potential role of ROS. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Dec;291(6):E1250-7. Epub 2006 Jul 18. [PubMed:16849631 ]
  3. Lunardi G, Parodi A, Perasso L, Pohvozcheva AV, Scarrone S, Adriano E, Florio T, Gandolfo C, Cupello A, Burov SV, Balestrino M: The creatine transporter mediates the uptake of creatine by brain tissue, but not the uptake of two creatine-derived compounds. Neuroscience. 2006 Nov 3;142(4):991-7. Epub 2006 Sep 1. [PubMed:16949212 ]
  4. Campistol J, Arias-Dimas A, Poo P, Pineda M, Hoffman M, Vilaseca MA, Artuch R, Ribes A: [Cerebral creatine transporter deficiency: an infradiagnosed neurometabolic disease]. Rev Neurol. 2007 Mar 16-31;44(6):343-7. [PubMed:17385170 ]
  5. Wang L, Zhang Y, Shao M, Zhang H: Spatiotemporal expression of the creatine metabolism related genes agat, gamt and ct1 during zebrafish embryogenesis. Int J Dev Biol. 2007;51(3):247-53. [PubMed:17486546 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
product of
General Function:
Methyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GAMT
Uniprot ID:
Q14353
Molecular Weight:
26317.925 Da
References
  1. Almeida LS, Vilarinho L, Darmin PS, Rosenberg EH, Martinez-Munoz C, Jakobs C, Salomons GS: A prevalent pathogenic GAMT mutation (c.59G>C) in Portugal. Mol Genet Metab. 2007 May;91(1):1-6. Epub 2007 Mar 1. [PubMed:17336114 ]
  2. Kan HE, Meeuwissen E, van Asten JJ, Veltien A, Isbrandt D, Heerschap A: Creatine uptake in brain and skeletal muscle of mice lacking guanidinoacetate methyltransferase assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007 Jun;102(6):2121-7. Epub 2007 Mar 8. [PubMed:17347380 ]
  3. Wang L, Zhang Y, Shao M, Zhang H: Spatiotemporal expression of the creatine metabolism related genes agat, gamt and ct1 during zebrafish embryogenesis. Int J Dev Biol. 2007;51(3):247-53. [PubMed:17486546 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3.
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular Weight:
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. [PubMed:10525100 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 24, 2013 12:22