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Identification
NameVitamin C
Accession NumberDB00126  (APRD00084, EXPT00568, NUTR00001)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical
Description

A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
Acide ascorbiqueNot AvailableNot Available
Acido ascorbicoNot AvailableNot Available
Acidum ascorbicumNot AvailableNot Available
Acidum ascorbinicumNot AvailableNot Available
AscoltinNot AvailableNot Available
AscorbateNot AvailableNot Available
Ascorbic AcidNot AvailableNot Available
AscorbicapNot AvailableNot Available
AscorbinsaeureNot AvailableNot Available
e 300Not AvailableNot Available
e-300Not AvailableNot Available
e300Not AvailableNot Available
L-(+)-ascorbic acidNot AvailableNot Available
L-AscorbateNot AvailableNot Available
L-Ascorbic AcidNot AvailableNot Available
Vitamin CNot AvailableNot Available
Prescription ProductsNot Available
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Babor Baborganic Biological Enzyme Cleanserpowder.375 g/75gtopicalBabor Cosmetics America, Corp2008-11-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
International Brands
NameCompany
AscoltinNot Available
AscorbicapNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
CAS number50-81-7
WeightAverage: 176.1241
Monoisotopic: 176.032087988
Chemical FormulaC6H8O6
InChI KeyCIWBSHSKHKDKBQ-JLAZNSOCSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C6H8O6/c7-1-2(8)5-3(9)4(10)6(11)12-5/h2,5,7-10H,1H2/t2-,5+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(5R)-5-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-one
SMILES
[H][C@@]1(OC(=O)C(O)=C1O)[C@@H](O)CO
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as butenolides. These are dihydrofurans with a carbonyk group at the C2 carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassDihydrofurans
Sub ClassFuranones
Direct ParentButenolides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 2-furanone
  • Vinylogous acid
  • Alpha,beta-unsaturated carboxylic ester
  • Enoate ester
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Lactone
  • Enediol
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • 1,2-diol
  • Oxacycle
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed to treat vitamin C deficiency, scurvy, delayed wound and bone healing, urine acidification, and in general as an antioxidant. It has also been suggested to be an effective antiviral agent.
PharmacodynamicsAscorbic Acid (vitamin C) is a water-soluble vitamin indicated for the prevention and treatment of scurvy, as ascorbic acid deficiency results in scurvy. Collagenous structures are primarily affected, and lesions develop in bones and blood vessels. Administration of ascorbic acid completely reverses the symptoms of ascorbic acid deficiency.
Mechanism of actionIn humans, an exogenous source of ascorbic acid is required for collagen formation and tissue repair by acting as a cofactor in the posttranslational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins. Ascorbic acid is reversibly oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid in the body. These two forms of the vitamin are believed to be important in oxidation-reduction reactions. The vitamin is involved in tyrosine metabolism, conversion of folic acid to folinic acid, carbohydrate metabolism, synthesis of lipids and proteins, iron metabolism, resistance to infections, and cellular respiration.
Absorption70% to 90%
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding25%
Metabolism

Hepatic. Ascorbic acid is reversibly oxidised (by removal of the hydrogen from the enediol group of ascorbic acid) to dehydroascorbic acid. The two forms found in body fluids are physiologically active. Some ascorbic acid is metabolized to inactive compounds including ascorbic acid-2-sulfate and oxalic acid.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Vitamin C
Not Available
Oxalic acidDetails
Vitamin C
Not Available
ascorbic acid-2-sulfateDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life16 days (3.4 hours in people who have excess levels of vitamin C)
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Catecholamine BiosynthesisMetabolicSMP00012
Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00497
Aromatic L-Aminoacid Decarboxylase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00170
Refsum DiseaseDiseaseSMP00451
Phytanic Acid Peroxisomal OxidationMetabolicSMP00450
Carnitine SynthesisMetabolicSMP00465
Oxidation of Branched Chain Fatty AcidsMetabolicSMP00030
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00498
Tyrosinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00218
Tyrosinemia, transient, of the newbornDiseaseSMP00494
AlkaptonuriaDiseaseSMP00169
Tyrosine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00006
Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)DiseaseSMP00533
HawkinsinuriaDiseaseSMP00190
Disulfiram Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00429
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.6559
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8532
Caco-2 permeable-0.771
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6077
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9097
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9807
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9008
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8133
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8696
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6361
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8958
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9478
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9347
CYP450 2C19 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9383
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9662
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9249
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8941
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9417
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9526
Rat acute toxicity1.3059 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9676
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9286
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Powdertopical.375 g/75g
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Cenolate 500 mg/1 ml ampul1.74USD ml
Cenolate 1 gm/2 ml ampul1.21USD ml
Calcium ascorbate powder0.79USD g
Ascorbic acid 222 mg/ml vial0.35USD ml
Ascor l 500 500 mg/ml vial0.24USD ml
Vitamin c 1500 mg tablet sa0.22USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy vit c ener boost 1000 mg0.21USD each
Cemill+bioflavonoids tablet0.09USD tablet
Vitamin c 1000 mg tablet sa0.09USD tablet
Cemill-1000 tablet0.08USD tablet
Vitamin c 1000 mg tablet0.08USD tablet
Cemill-500 tablet sa0.07USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy vitamin c 1000 mg tablet chw0.06USD tablet
Vitamin c 1000 mg caplet0.06USD caplet
Ascorbic acid 500 mg tablet0.04USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy vitamin c 1000 mg caplet0.04USD caplet
Pv ester-c 500 mg tablet0.04USD tablet
Vitamin c 500 mg chew tablet0.04USD tablet
Vitamin c 500 mg tablet0.04USD tablet
Vitamin c drops0.04USD tablet
Ra vitamin c cough drops0.03USD tablet
Vitamin c 250 mg tablet0.03USD tablet
Vitamin c 250 mg tablet chew0.03USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy vitamin c 500 mg caplet0.02USD caplet
CVS Pharmacy vitamin c 500 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
Ra vitamin c 100 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
Vicks vitamin c 60 mg drops0.02USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point191 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility4E+005 mg/L (at 40 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
logP-1.85AVDEEF,A (1997)
pKa4.7 (at 10 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility245.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.6ALOGPS
logP-1.9ChemAxon
logS0.14ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.36ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area107.22 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity37.03 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability14.93 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (8.32 KB)
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Lewis D. Morse, Paul A. Hammes, “Beverage containing stabilized vitamin C and iron and method of making same.” U.S. Patent US3958017, issued October, 1972.

US3958017
General Reference
  1. Padayatty SJ, Katz A, Wang Y, Eck P, Kwon O, Lee JH, Chen S, Corpe C, Dutta A, Dutta SK, Levine M: Vitamin C as an antioxidant: evaluation of its role in disease prevention. J Am Coll Nutr. 2003 Feb;22(1):18-35. Pubmed
  2. Meister A: Glutathione-ascorbic acid antioxidant system in animals. J Biol Chem. 1994 Apr 1;269(13):9397-400. Pubmed
  3. Englard S, Seifter S: The biochemical functions of ascorbic acid. Annu Rev Nutr. 1986;6:365-406. Pubmed
  4. Banhegyi G, Mandl J: The hepatic glycogenoreticular system. Pathol Oncol Res. 2001;7(2):107-10. Pubmed
  5. Proctor P: Similar functions of uric acid and ascorbate in man? Nature. 1970 Nov 28;228(5274):868. Pubmed
  6. Korcok J, Dixon SJ, Lo TC, Wilson JX: Differential effects of glucose on dehydroascorbic acid transport and intracellular ascorbate accumulation in astrocytes and skeletal myocytes. Brain Res. 2003 Dec 12;993(1-2):201-7. Pubmed
External Links
ATC CodesG01AD03S01XA15
AHFS Codes
  • 88:04.00
  • 88:12.00
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (74.6 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
Aluminum hydroxideMay increase the absorption of Aluminum Hydroxide.
AmphetamineMay decrease the serum concentration of Amphetamines.
BenzphetamineMay decrease the serum concentration of Amphetamines.
BortezomibMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Bortezomib.
DeferoxamineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Deferoxamine. Left ventricular dysfunction is of particular concern.
DesogestrelMay increase the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives.
DextroamphetamineMay decrease the serum concentration of Amphetamines.
DrospirenoneMay increase the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives.
EstropipateMay increase the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives.
Ethinyl EstradiolMay increase the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives.
EthynodiolMay increase the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives.
LisdexamfetamineMay decrease the serum concentration of Amphetamines.
MestranolMay increase the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives.
MethamphetamineMay decrease the serum concentration of Amphetamines.
NorelgestrominMay increase the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives.
NorgestimateMay increase the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives.
PhendimetrazineMay decrease the serum concentration of Amphetamines.
PhentermineMay decrease the serum concentration of Amphetamines.
PiperazineMay increase the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1 P13674 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

2. Solute carrier family 23 member 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 23 member 1 Q9UHI7 Details

References:

  1. Kang JS, Kim HN, Jung da J, Kim JE, Mun GH, Kim YS, Cho D, Shin DH, Hwang YI, Lee WJ: Regulation of UVB-induced IL-8 and MCP-1 production in skin keratinocytes by increasing vitamin C uptake via the redistribution of SVCT-1 from the cytosol to the membrane. J Invest Dermatol. 2007 Mar;127(3):698-706. Epub 2006 Sep 28. Pubmed
  2. Johnston L, Laverty G: Vitamin C transport and SVCT1 transporter expression in chick renal proximal tubule cells in culture. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2007 Mar;146(3):327-34. Epub 2006 Dec 5. Pubmed
  3. Savini I, Rossi A, Pierro C, Avigliano L, Catani MV: SVCT1 and SVCT2: key proteins for vitamin C uptake. Amino Acids. 2007 Jun 1;. Pubmed
  4. Perez MJ, Castano B, Gonzalez-Buitrago JM, Marin JJ: Multiple protective effects of melatonin against maternal cholestasis-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat fetal liver-placenta-maternal liver trio. J Pineal Res. 2007 Sep;43(2):130-9. Pubmed
  5. Steiling H, Longet K, Moodycliffe A, Mansourian R, Bertschy E, Smola H, Mauch C, Williamson G: Sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter isoforms in skin: Distribution, kinetics, and effect of UVB-induced oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007 Sep 1;43(5):752-62. Epub 2007 May 10. Pubmed

3. Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: activator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 1 Q02809 Details

References:

  1. Salavoura K, Valari M, Kolialexi A, Mavrou A, Kitsiou S: A case of Ehlers Danlos syndrome type VI. Genet Couns. 2006;17(3):291-4. Pubmed
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

4. Hyaluronate lyase

Kind: protein

Organism: Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4 (strain ATCC BAA-334 / TIGR4)

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Hyaluronate lyase Q54873 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Li S, Taylor KB, Kelly SJ, Jedrzejas MJ: Vitamin C inhibits the enzymatic activity of Streptococcus pneumoniae hyaluronate lyase. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 4;276(18):15125-30. Epub 2001 Jan 12. Pubmed
  4. Okorukwu ON, Vercruysse KP: Effects of ascorbic acid and analogs on the activity of testicular hyaluronidase and hyaluronan lyase on hyaluronan. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2003 Aug;18(4):377-82. Pubmed
  5. Botzki A, Rigden DJ, Braun S, Nukui M, Salmen S, Hoechstetter J, Bernhardt G, Dove S, Jedrzejas MJ, Buschauer A: L-Ascorbic acid 6-hexadecanoate, a potent hyaluronidase inhibitor. X-ray structure and molecular modeling of enzyme-inhibitor complexes. J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 29;279(44):45990-7. Epub 2004 Aug 18. Pubmed

5. DNA

Kind: nucleotide

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Guarnieri S, Loft S, Riso P, Porrini M, Risom L, Poulsen HE, Dragsted LO, Moller P: DNA repair phenotype and dietary antioxidant supplementation. Br J Nutr. 2007 Oct 10;:1-7. Pubmed
  4. Singh S, Rana SV: Amelioration of arsenic toxicity by L-Ascorbic acid in laboratory rat. J Environ Biol. 2007 Apr;28(2 Suppl):377-84. Pubmed
  5. Manna P, Sinha M, Sil PC: Protection of arsenic-induced hepatic disorder by arjunolic Acid. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007 Nov;101(5):333-8. Pubmed

6. Xylose isomerase

Kind: protein

Organism: Streptomyces rubiginosus

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Xylose isomerase P24300 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

7. Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 O00469 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

8. Phytanoyl-CoA dioxygenase, peroxisomal

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Phytanoyl-CoA dioxygenase, peroxisomal O14832 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

9. Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 3 O60568 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

10. Gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase O75936 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Dunn WA, Rettura G, Seifter E, Englard S: Carnitine biosynthesis from gamma-butyrobetaine and from exogenous protein-bound 6-N-trimethyl-L-lysine by the perfused guinea pig liver. Effect of ascorbate deficiency on the in situ activity of gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase. J Biol Chem. 1984 Sep 10;259(17):10764-70. Pubmed
  4. Vaz FM, van Gool S, Ofman R, IJlst L, Wanders RJ: Carnitine biosynthesis. Purification of gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase from rat liver. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999;466:117-24. Pubmed
  5. Rebouche CJ: Ascorbic acid and carnitine biosynthesis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Dec;54(6 Suppl):1147S-1152S. Pubmed

11. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase P09172 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Suzuki E, Kurata T, Shibata M, Mori M, Arakawa N: Activities of D- and L-xyloascorbic acid and D- and L-araboascorbic acid as a cofactor for dopamine beta-hydroxylase reaction. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1997 Oct;43(5):491-6. Pubmed
  4. Pettingill TM, Strange RW, Blackburn NJ: Carbonmonoxy dopamine beta-hydroxylase. Structural characterization by Fourier transform infrared, fluorescence, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. J Biol Chem. 1991 Sep 15;266(26):16996-7003. Pubmed
  5. Feng J, Shi J, Sirimanne SR, Mounier-Lee CE, May SW: Kinetic and stereochemical studies on novel inactivators of C-terminal amidation. Biochem J. 2000 Sep 1;350 Pt 2:521-30. Pubmed

12. Peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase P19021 Details

References:

  1. Romero I, Teresa Sanchez-Ballesta M, Maldonado R, Isabel Escribano M, Merodio C: Anthocyanin, antioxidant activity and stress-induced gene expression in high CO-treated table grapes stored at low temperature. J Plant Physiol. 2007 Jun 12;. Pubmed
  2. Floryszak-Wieczorek J, Milczarek G, Arasimowicz M, Ciszewski A: Do nitric oxide donors mimic endogenous NO-related response in plants? Planta. 2006 Nov;224(6):1363-72. Epub 2006 Jun 14. Pubmed
  3. Crespo A, Marti MA, Roitberg AE, Amzel LM, Estrin DA: The catalytic mechanism of peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase investigated by computer simulation. J Am Chem Soc. 2006 Oct 4;128(39):12817-28. Pubmed

13. Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 Q32P28 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

14. 2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain-containing protein 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain-containing protein 2 Q6N063 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

15. Alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase alkB homolog 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase alkB homolog 2 Q6NS38 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

16. Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 2 Q8IVL5 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

17. Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 3 Q8IVL6 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

18. 2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain-containing protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain-containing protein 1 Q8N543 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

19. Egl nine homolog 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Egl nine homolog 2 Q96KS0 Details

References:

  1. Nytko KJ, Spielmann P, Camenisch G, Wenger RH, Stiehl DP: Regulated function of the prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) oxygen sensor proteins. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007 Sep;9(9):1329-38. Pubmed
  2. Bruegge K, Jelkmann W, Metzen E: Hydroxylation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors and chemical compounds targeting the HIF-alpha hydroxylases. Curr Med Chem. 2007;14(17):1853-62. Pubmed

20. Alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase alkB homolog 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase alkB homolog 3 Q96Q83 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

21. Lysine-specific demethylase 5D

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Lysine-specific demethylase 5D Q9BY66 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

22. Egl nine homolog 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Egl nine homolog 1 Q9GZT9 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

23. Egl nine homolog 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Egl nine homolog 3 Q9H6Z9 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

24. Trimethyllysine dioxygenase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Trimethyllysine dioxygenase, mitochondrial Q9NVH6 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

25. Transmembrane prolyl 4-hydroxylase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Transmembrane prolyl 4-hydroxylase Q9NXG6 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

26. Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase P09848 Details

References:

  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Solute carrier family 23 member 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 23 member 1 Q9UHI7 Details

References:

  1. Tsukaguchi H, Tokui T, Mackenzie B, Berger UV, Chen XZ, Wang Y, Brubaker RF, Hediger MA: A family of mammalian Na+-dependent L-ascorbic acid transporters. Nature. 1999 May 6;399(6731):70-5. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:08