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Identification
NameVitamin C
Accession NumberDB00126  (APRD00084, EXPT00568, NUTR00001)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved, nutraceutical
Description

A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
AscorbateNot AvailableNot Available
Ascorbic AcidNot AvailableNot Available
L-(+)-ascorbic acidNot AvailableNot Available
L-AscorbateNot AvailableNot Available
L-Ascorbic AcidNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
AscoltinNot Available
AscorbicapNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number50-81-7
WeightAverage: 176.1241
Monoisotopic: 176.032087988
Chemical FormulaC6H8O6
InChI KeyInChIKey=CIWBSHSKHKDKBQ-JLAZNSOCSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C6H8O6/c7-1-2(8)5-3(9)4(10)6(11)12-5/h2,5,7-10H,1H2/t2-,5+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(5R)-5-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-one
SMILES
[H][C@@]1(OC(=O)C(O)=C1O)[C@@H](O)CO
Mass Specshow(8.32 KB)
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassHeterocyclic Compounds
ClassDihydrofurans
SubclassFuranones
Direct parentButenolides
Alternative parentsSecondary Alcohols; Carboxylic Acid Esters; Enediols; 1,2-Diols; Primary Alcohols; Polyamines
Substituents1,2-diol; carboxylic acid ester; polyol; secondary alcohol; enediol; primary alcohol; polyamine; carboxylic acid derivative; alcohol
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the butenolides. These are dihydrofurans with a carbonyk group at the C2 carbon atom.
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed to treat vitamin C deficiency, scurvy, delayed wound and bone healing, urine acidification, and in general as an antioxidant. It has also been suggested to be an effective antiviral agent.
PharmacodynamicsAscorbic Acid (vitamin C) is a water-soluble vitamin indicated for the prevention and treatment of scurvy, as ascorbic acid deficiency results in scurvy. Collagenous structures are primarily affected, and lesions develop in bones and blood vessels. Administration of ascorbic acid completely reverses the symptoms of ascorbic acid deficiency.
Mechanism of actionIn humans, an exogenous source of ascorbic acid is required for collagen formation and tissue repair by acting as a cofactor in the posttranslational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins. Ascorbic acid is reversibly oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid in the body. These two forms of the vitamin are believed to be important in oxidation-reduction reactions. The vitamin is involved in tyrosine metabolism, conversion of folic acid to folinic acid, carbohydrate metabolism, synthesis of lipids and proteins, iron metabolism, resistance to infections, and cellular respiration.
Absorption70% to 90%
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding25%
Metabolism

Hepatic. Ascorbic acid is reversibly oxidised (by removal of the hydrogen from the enediol group of ascorbic acid) to dehydroascorbic acid. The two forms found in body fluids are physiologically active. Some ascorbic acid is metabolized to inactive compounds including ascorbic acid-2-sulfate and oxalic acid.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Vitamin C
    Oxalic acidDetails
    Vitamin C
      ascorbic acid-2-sulfateDetails
      Route of eliminationNot Available
      Half life16 days (3.4 hours in people who have excess levels of vitamin C)
      ClearanceNot Available
      ToxicityNot Available
      Affected organisms
      • Humans and other mammals
      Pathways
      PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
      Phytanic Acid Peroxisomal OxidationMetabolicSMP00450
      Oxidation of Branched Chain Fatty AcidsMetabolicSMP00030
      Disulfiram Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00429
      AlkaptonuriaDiseaseSMP00169
      Aromatic L-Aminoacid Decarboxylase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00170
      Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00498
      Catecholamine BiosynthesisMetabolicSMP00012
      Carnitine SynthesisMetabolicSMP00465
      Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)DiseaseSMP00533
      Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00497
      Refsum DiseaseDiseaseSMP00451
      HawkinsinuriaDiseaseSMP00190
      Tyrosinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00218
      Tyrosine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00006
      Tyrosinemia, transient, of the newbornDiseaseSMP00494
      SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
      SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
      ADMET
      Predicted ADMET features
      Property Value Probability
      Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.6559
      Blood Brain Barrier + 0.8532
      Caco-2 permeable - 0.771
      P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.6077
      P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.9097
      P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.9807
      Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.9008
      CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8133
      CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.8696
      CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.6361
      CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8958
      CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9478
      CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9347
      CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9383
      CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9662
      CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.9249
      Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.8941
      Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9417
      Biodegradation Ready biodegradable 0.9526
      Rat acute toxicity 1.3059 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
      hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9676
      hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.9286
      Pharmacoeconomics
      ManufacturersNot Available
      Packagers
      Dosage forms
      FormRouteStrength
      Bar, chewableOral
      CapsuleOral
      Capsule, extended releaseOral
      GranuleOral
      LiquidIntravenous
      LiquidOral
      LozengeOral
      PowderOral
      Powder, for solutionOral
      SolutionIntramuscular
      SolutionIntravenous
      SolutionOral
      Solution / dropsOral
      TabletOral
      Tablet, chewableOral
      Tablet, effervescentOral
      Tablet, extended releaseOral
      WaferOral
      Prices
      Unit descriptionCostUnit
      Cenolate 500 mg/1 ml ampul1.74USDml
      Cenolate 1 gm/2 ml ampul1.21USDml
      Calcium ascorbate powder0.79USDg
      Ascorbic acid 222 mg/ml vial0.35USDml
      Ascor l 500 500 mg/ml vial0.24USDml
      Vitamin c 1500 mg tablet sa0.22USDtablet
      CVS Pharmacy vit c ener boost 1000 mg0.21USDeach
      Cemill+bioflavonoids tablet0.09USDtablet
      Vitamin c 1000 mg tablet sa0.09USDtablet
      Cemill-1000 tablet0.08USDtablet
      Vitamin c 1000 mg tablet0.08USDtablet
      Cemill-500 tablet sa0.07USDtablet
      CVS Pharmacy vitamin c 1000 mg tablet chw0.06USDtablet
      Vitamin c 1000 mg caplet0.06USDcaplet
      Ascorbic acid 500 mg tablet0.04USDtablet
      CVS Pharmacy vitamin c 1000 mg caplet0.04USDcaplet
      Pv ester-c 500 mg tablet0.04USDtablet
      Vitamin c 500 mg chew tablet0.04USDtablet
      Vitamin c 500 mg tablet0.04USDtablet
      Vitamin c drops0.04USDtablet
      Ra vitamin c cough drops0.03USDtablet
      Vitamin c 250 mg tablet0.03USDtablet
      Vitamin c 250 mg tablet chew0.03USDtablet
      CVS Pharmacy vitamin c 500 mg caplet0.02USDcaplet
      CVS Pharmacy vitamin c 500 mg tablet0.02USDtablet
      Ra vitamin c 100 mg tablet0.02USDtablet
      Vicks vitamin c 60 mg drops0.02USDtablet
      DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
      PatentsNot Available
      Properties
      Statesolid
      Experimental Properties
      PropertyValueSource
      melting point191 dec °CPhysProp
      water solubility4E+005 mg/L (at 40 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
      logP-1.85AVDEEF,A (1997)
      pKa4.7 (at 10 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
      Predicted Properties
      PropertyValueSource
      water solubility2.45e+02 g/lALOGPS
      logP-1.6ALOGPS
      logP-1.9ChemAxon
      logS0.14ALOGPS
      pKa (strongest acidic)4.36ChemAxon
      pKa (strongest basic)-3ChemAxon
      physiological charge-1ChemAxon
      hydrogen acceptor count5ChemAxon
      hydrogen donor count4ChemAxon
      polar surface area107.22ChemAxon
      rotatable bond count2ChemAxon
      refractivity37.03ChemAxon
      polarizability14.93ChemAxon
      number of rings1ChemAxon
      bioavailability1ChemAxon
      rule of fiveYesChemAxon
      Ghose filterNoChemAxon
      Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
      MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
      Spectra
      SpectraNot Available
      References
      Synthesis Reference

      Lewis D. Morse, Paul A. Hammes, “Beverage containing stabilized vitamin C and iron and method of making same.” U.S. Patent US3958017, issued October, 1972.

      US3958017
      General Reference
      1. Padayatty SJ, Katz A, Wang Y, Eck P, Kwon O, Lee JH, Chen S, Corpe C, Dutta A, Dutta SK, Levine M: Vitamin C as an antioxidant: evaluation of its role in disease prevention. J Am Coll Nutr. 2003 Feb;22(1):18-35. Pubmed
      2. Meister A: Glutathione-ascorbic acid antioxidant system in animals. J Biol Chem. 1994 Apr 1;269(13):9397-400. Pubmed
      3. Englard S, Seifter S: The biochemical functions of ascorbic acid. Annu Rev Nutr. 1986;6:365-406. Pubmed
      4. Banhegyi G, Mandl J: The hepatic glycogenoreticular system. Pathol Oncol Res. 2001;7(2):107-10. Pubmed
      5. Proctor P: Similar functions of uric acid and ascorbate in man? Nature. 1970 Nov 28;228(5274):868. Pubmed
      6. Korcok J, Dixon SJ, Lo TC, Wilson JX: Differential effects of glucose on dehydroascorbic acid transport and intracellular ascorbate accumulation in astrocytes and skeletal myocytes. Brain Res. 2003 Dec 12;993(1-2):201-7. Pubmed
      External Links
      ResourceLink
      KEGG DrugD00018
      KEGG CompoundC00072
      BindingDB50090256
      ChEBI17208
      ChEMBLCHEMBL196
      Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDNC000259
      PharmGKBPA451898
      Drug Product Database583960
      RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic3/vitamc.htm
      Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cdi/ascorbic-acid.html
      PDRhealthhttp://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/nutsupdrugs/vit_0264.shtml
      WikipediaVitamin_C
      ATC CodesS01XA15G01AD03A11GA01
      AHFS Codes
      • 88:04.00
      • 88:12.00
      PDB Entries
      FDA labelNot Available
      MSDSshow(74.6 KB)
      Interactions
      Drug Interactions
      Drug
      DeferoxamineVitamin C may increase the adverse effects of deferoxamine. Transient deterioration of left ventricular function has been observed during concomitant therapy. Use caution during concomitant therapy.
      IndinavirVitamin C decreases indinavir levels
      Food InteractionsNot Available

      1. Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase P09848 Details

      References:

      1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

      2. Hyaluronate lyase

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4 (strain ATCC BAA-334 / TIGR4)

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Hyaluronate lyase Q54873 Details

      References:

      1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
      2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
      3. Li S, Taylor KB, Kelly SJ, Jedrzejas MJ: Vitamin C inhibits the enzymatic activity of Streptococcus pneumoniae hyaluronate lyase. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 4;276(18):15125-30. Epub 2001 Jan 12. Pubmed
      4. Okorukwu ON, Vercruysse KP: Effects of ascorbic acid and analogs on the activity of testicular hyaluronidase and hyaluronan lyase on hyaluronan. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2003 Aug;18(4):377-82. Pubmed
      5. Botzki A, Rigden DJ, Braun S, Nukui M, Salmen S, Hoechstetter J, Bernhardt G, Dove S, Jedrzejas MJ, Buschauer A: L-Ascorbic acid 6-hexadecanoate, a potent hyaluronidase inhibitor. X-ray structure and molecular modeling of enzyme-inhibitor complexes. J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 29;279(44):45990-7. Epub 2004 Aug 18. Pubmed

      3. DNA

      Kind: nucleotide

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details

      References:

      1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
      2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
      3. Guarnieri S, Loft S, Riso P, Porrini M, Risom L, Poulsen HE, Dragsted LO, Moller P: DNA repair phenotype and dietary antioxidant supplementation. Br J Nutr. 2007 Oct 10;:1-7. Pubmed
      4. Singh S, Rana SV: Amelioration of arsenic toxicity by L-Ascorbic acid in laboratory rat. J Environ Biol. 2007 Apr;28(2 Suppl):377-84. Pubmed
      5. Manna P, Sinha M, Sil PC: Protection of arsenic-induced hepatic disorder by arjunolic Acid. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007 Nov;101(5):333-8. Pubmed

      4. Xylose isomerase

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Streptomyces rubiginosus

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Xylose isomerase P24300 Details

      References:

      1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
      2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

      5. Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 O00469 Details

      References:

      1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
      2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

      6. Phytanoyl-CoA dioxygenase, peroxisomal

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Phytanoyl-CoA dioxygenase, peroxisomal O14832 Details

      References:

      1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
      2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

      7. Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 3

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 3 O60568 Details

      References:

      1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
      2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

      8. Gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase O75936 Details

      References:

      1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
      2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
      3. Dunn WA, Rettura G, Seifter E, Englard S: Carnitine biosynthesis from gamma-butyrobetaine and from exogenous protein-bound 6-N-trimethyl-L-lysine by the perfused guinea pig liver. Effect of ascorbate deficiency on the in situ activity of gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase. J Biol Chem. 1984 Sep 10;259(17):10764-70. Pubmed
      4. Vaz FM, van Gool S, Ofman R, IJlst L, Wanders RJ: Carnitine biosynthesis. Purification of gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase from rat liver. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999;466:117-24. Pubmed
      5. Rebouche CJ: Ascorbic acid and carnitine biosynthesis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Dec;54(6 Suppl):1147S-1152S. Pubmed

      9. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Dopamine beta-hydroxylase P09172 Details

      References:

      1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
      2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
      3. Suzuki E, Kurata T, Shibata M, Mori M, Arakawa N: Activities of D- and L-xyloascorbic acid and D- and L-araboascorbic acid as a cofactor for dopamine beta-hydroxylase reaction. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1997 Oct;43(5):491-6. Pubmed
      4. Pettingill TM, Strange RW, Blackburn NJ: Carbonmonoxy dopamine beta-hydroxylase. Structural characterization by Fourier transform infrared, fluorescence, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. J Biol Chem. 1991 Sep 15;266(26):16996-7003. Pubmed
      5. Feng J, Shi J, Sirimanne SR, Mounier-Lee CE, May SW: Kinetic and stereochemical studies on novel inactivators of C-terminal amidation. Biochem J. 2000 Sep 1;350 Pt 2:521-30. Pubmed

      10. Peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase P19021 Details

      References:

      1. Romero I, Teresa Sanchez-Ballesta M, Maldonado R, Isabel Escribano M, Merodio C: Anthocyanin, antioxidant activity and stress-induced gene expression in high CO-treated table grapes stored at low temperature. J Plant Physiol. 2007 Jun 12;. Pubmed
      2. Floryszak-Wieczorek J, Milczarek G, Arasimowicz M, Ciszewski A: Do nitric oxide donors mimic endogenous NO-related response in plants? Planta. 2006 Nov;224(6):1363-72. Epub 2006 Jun 14. Pubmed
      3. Crespo A, Marti MA, Roitberg AE, Amzel LM, Estrin DA: The catalytic mechanism of peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase investigated by computer simulation. J Am Chem Soc. 2006 Oct 4;128(39):12817-28. Pubmed

      11. Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1 P13674 Details

      References:

      1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
      2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

      12. Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 Q32P28 Details

      References:

      1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
      2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

      13. 2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain-containing protein 2

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain-containing protein 2 Q6N063 Details

      References:

      1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
      2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

      14. Alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase alkB homolog 2

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase alkB homolog 2 Q6NS38 Details

      References:

      1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
      2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

      15. Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 2

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 2 Q8IVL5 Details

      References:

      1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
      2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

      16. Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 3

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 3 Q8IVL6 Details

      References:

      1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
      2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

      17. 2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain-containing protein 1

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain-containing protein 1 Q8N543 Details

      References:

      1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
      2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

      18. Egl nine homolog 2

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Egl nine homolog 2 Q96KS0 Details

      References:

      1. Nytko KJ, Spielmann P, Camenisch G, Wenger RH, Stiehl DP: Regulated function of the prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) oxygen sensor proteins. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007 Sep;9(9):1329-38. Pubmed
      2. Bruegge K, Jelkmann W, Metzen E: Hydroxylation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors and chemical compounds targeting the HIF-alpha hydroxylases. Curr Med Chem. 2007;14(17):1853-62. Pubmed

      19. Alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase alkB homolog 3

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase alkB homolog 3 Q96Q83 Details

      References:

      1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
      2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

      20. Lysine-specific demethylase 5D

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Lysine-specific demethylase 5D Q9BY66 Details

      References:

      1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
      2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

      21. Egl nine homolog 1

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Egl nine homolog 1 Q9GZT9 Details

      References:

      1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
      2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

      22. Solute carrier family 23 member 1

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Solute carrier family 23 member 1 Q9UHI7 Details

      References:

      1. Kang JS, Kim HN, Jung da J, Kim JE, Mun GH, Kim YS, Cho D, Shin DH, Hwang YI, Lee WJ: Regulation of UVB-induced IL-8 and MCP-1 production in skin keratinocytes by increasing vitamin C uptake via the redistribution of SVCT-1 from the cytosol to the membrane. J Invest Dermatol. 2007 Mar;127(3):698-706. Epub 2006 Sep 28. Pubmed
      2. Johnston L, Laverty G: Vitamin C transport and SVCT1 transporter expression in chick renal proximal tubule cells in culture. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2007 Mar;146(3):327-34. Epub 2006 Dec 5. Pubmed
      3. Savini I, Rossi A, Pierro C, Avigliano L, Catani MV: SVCT1 and SVCT2: key proteins for vitamin C uptake. Amino Acids. 2007 Jun 1;. Pubmed
      4. Perez MJ, Castano B, Gonzalez-Buitrago JM, Marin JJ: Multiple protective effects of melatonin against maternal cholestasis-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat fetal liver-placenta-maternal liver trio. J Pineal Res. 2007 Sep;43(2):130-9. Pubmed
      5. Steiling H, Longet K, Moodycliffe A, Mansourian R, Bertschy E, Smola H, Mauch C, Williamson G: Sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter isoforms in skin: Distribution, kinetics, and effect of UVB-induced oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007 Sep 1;43(5):752-62. Epub 2007 May 10. Pubmed

      23. Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 1

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: activator

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 1 Q02809 Details

      References:

      1. Salavoura K, Valari M, Kolialexi A, Mavrou A, Kitsiou S: A case of Ehlers Danlos syndrome type VI. Genet Couns. 2006;17(3):291-4. Pubmed
      2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

      24. Egl nine homolog 3

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Egl nine homolog 3 Q9H6Z9 Details

      References:

      1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
      2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

      25. Trimethyllysine dioxygenase, mitochondrial

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Trimethyllysine dioxygenase, mitochondrial Q9NVH6 Details

      References:

      1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
      2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

      26. Transmembrane prolyl 4-hydroxylase

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Transmembrane prolyl 4-hydroxylase Q9NXG6 Details

      References:

      1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
      2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

      1. Solute carrier family 23 member 1

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Solute carrier family 23 member 1 Q9UHI7 Details

      References:

      1. Tsukaguchi H, Tokui T, Mackenzie B, Berger UV, Chen XZ, Wang Y, Brubaker RF, Hediger MA: A family of mammalian Na+-dependent L-ascorbic acid transporters. Nature. 1999 May 6;399(6731):70-5. Pubmed

      Comments
      Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:08