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Identification
NameGinkgo biloba
Accession NumberDB01381
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical
Description

The extract of the Ginkgo leaves contains flavonoid glycosides and terpenoids (ginkgolides, bilobalides) and has been used pharmaceutically for hundreds of years. It has many alleged nootropic properties, and is mainly used as memory and concentration enhancer, and anti-vertigo agent. Ginkgo extract seems to have three effects on the human body: it improves blood flow (including microcirculation in small capillaries) to most tissues and organs; it protects against oxidative cell damage from free radicals; and it blocks many of the effects of PAF (platelet aggregation, blood clotting) that have been related to the development of a number of cardiovascular, renal, respiratory and CNS (Central Nervous System) disorders.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
Adiantifolia Not AvailableNot Available
Bai Guo YeNot AvailableNot Available
BaiguoNot AvailableNot Available
Fossil TreeNot AvailableNot Available
Ginkgo FoliumNot AvailableNot Available
Herba Ginkgo BilobaNot AvailableNot Available
Japanese Silver ApricotNot AvailableNot Available
Kew TreeNot AvailableNot Available
Maidenhair TreeNot AvailableNot Available
Pei Go Su YeNot AvailableNot Available
Salisburia AdiantifoliaNot AvailableNot Available
Yen XingNot AvailableNot Available
YinhsingNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand namesNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
CategoriesNot Available
CAS numberNot Available
WeightNot Available
Chemical FormulaNot Available
InChI KeyNot Available
InChINot Available
IUPAC NameNot Available
SMILESNot Available
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomNot Available
SuperclassNot Available
ClassNot Available
SubclassNot Available
Direct parentNot Available
Alternative parentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Classification descriptionNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationAppears to be effective in: alleviating age-related memory impairment in some elderly people with mild to moderate age-related memory or cognitive impairment; improving cognitive function in healthy young to middle-aged people; improving symptoms of Alzheimer's, vascular or mixed dementia; improving damage to the visual field in patients with normal tension glaucoma; decreasing the number of painful attacks in patients with Raynaud's syndrome; and may improve symptoms of vertigo and dizziness in some patients.
PharmacodynamicsThe mechanism by which ginkgo biloba is thought to be effective for these conditions appears to be in part through active "ginkgolides" terpenoids and flavinoids that appear to inhibit platelet aggregation, neutrophil degranulation, and the induction of oxygen-free radical production
Mechanism of actionThe compounds found in ginkgo may have a protective role in different stages of the decline of intellectual function via several mechanisms of action: vasoregulating activity of arteries, capillaries, and veins (increased blood flow); platelet activating factor (PAF) antagonism; homeostasis of inflammation and oxidative stress; and prevention of cell membrane damage causedby free radicals; and neurotransmission modulation. The most important substances are flavonoids (ginkgo flavone glycosides) and terpenoids (ginkgolides and bilobalide).The compounds inginkgo act to varying degrees as scavengers for free radicals.
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityFresh seeds are toxic may cause death. Roasted seed and crude ginkgo plant should not be used orally. Consumption of greater than 10 roasted seeds may cause difficulty breathing, weak pulse, seizures, loss of consciousness, and shock. Standardized ginkgo leaf extracts have been used safely in trials lasting several weeks to six years; however, cases of spontaneous hemorrhages have been reported with the conventional use of the standardized extract. As with all medications, individual risk factors must be considered in the assessment of safety of this medication. This medication is well-tolerated at standard oral doses. Ginkgo biloba may cause gastrointestinal upset, headache, dizziness, palpitations, nausea, vomiting, lack of muscle tone and weakness.
Affected organismsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption Not Available Not Available
Blood Brain Barrier Not Available Not Available
Caco-2 permeable Not Available Not Available
P-glycoprotein substrate Not Available Not Available
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Not Available Not Available
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Not Available Not Available
Renal organic cation transporter Not Available Not Available
CYP450 2C9 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 2D6 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 3A4 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 1A2 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 2C9 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 2D6 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 2C19 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 3A4 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Not Available Not Available
Ames test Not Available Not Available
Carcinogenicity Not Available Not Available
Biodegradation Not Available Not Available
Rat acute toxicity Not Available Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Not Available Not Available
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Not Available Not Available
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral120 mg
CapsuleOral30 mg
CapsuleOral40 mg
CapsuleOral60 mg
LiquidOral
Solution / dropsOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Ginkgo biloba 40 mg tablet0.24USDtablet
Ginkgo biloba 120 mg caplet0.19USDcaplet
Sm ginkgo biloba 60 mg caplet0.19USDcaplet
Ginkgo 60 mg tablet0.14USDtablet
Ra ginkgo biloba 40 mg tablet0.11USDtablet
Ginkgo biloba 60 mg capsule0.1USDcapsule
Ginkgo biloba 50 mg tablet0.09USDtablet
Ginkgo biloba 30 mg capsule0.04USDcapsule
Pv ginkgo biloba capsule0.03USDcapsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Klaus-Peter Schwabe, “Method of preparation of an extract from Ginkgo biloba leaves and pharmaceuticals containing the extract.” U.S. Patent US5322688, issued July, 1989.

US5322688
General Reference
  1. Cohen AJ, Bartlik B: Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. J Sex Marital Ther. 1998 Apr-Jun;24(2):139-43. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
PharmGKBPA449758
Drug Product Database889660
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/ginkgo.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/mtm/ginkgo.html
WikipediaGinkgo_biloba
ATC CodesN06DX02
AHFS Codes
  • 92:02.00*
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSshow(72.2 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbciximabAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
AcenocoumarolAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
Acetylsalicylic acidAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
AlteplaseAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
AnagrelideAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
ArgatrobanAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
BivalirudinAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
CilostazolAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
CitalopramAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
ClopidogrelAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
Dabigatran etexilateAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects of gingko may increase bleed risk for patients on dabigatran. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
DiclofenacAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
DiflunisalAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
DipyridamoleAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
EnoxaparinAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
EptifibatideAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
EscitalopramAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
EtodolacAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
FenoprofenAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
FluoxetineAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
FlurbiprofenAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
FluvoxamineAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
Fondaparinux sodiumAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
GinsengAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
HeparinAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
IbuprofenAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
IndomethacinAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
KetoprofenIncreased risk of bleeding due to additive antiplatelet properties of the two agents. Concomitant therapy should be avoided or monitored carefully for bleeding, bruising and altered mental status, which may be caused by CNS bleeds.
KetorolacAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
LepirudinAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
Meclofenamic acidAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
MeloxicamAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
NabumetoneAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
NaproxenAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
OxaprozinAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
ParoxetineAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
PiroxicamAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
PrasugrelAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
ReteplaseAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
RivaroxabanAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
S-AdenosylmethionineAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
SertralineAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
SulindacGinkgo biloba may enhance the anticoagulant effect of sulindac. Increased risk of bleeding, bruising and altered mental status due to CNS bleeds. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
TacrineGinkgo biloba may cause additive/toxic cholinergic effects when administered with Tacrine. Monitor for cholinergic toxicity.
TenecteplaseAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
Tiaprofenic acidIncreased risk of bleeding due to additive antiplatelet properties of the two agents. Concomitant therapy should be avoided or monitored carefully for bleeding, bruising and altered mental status, which may be caused by CNS bleeds.
TiclopidineAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
TirofibanAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
TolmetinIncreased risk of bleeding due to additive antiplatelet properties of the two agents. Concomitant therapy should be avoided or monitored carefully for bleeding, bruising and altered mental status, which may be caused by CNS bleeds.
TrazodoneIncreased effect and toxicity of both agents
UrokinaseIncreased risk of bleeding.
WarfarinAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter P23975 Details

References:

  1. Fehske CJ, Leuner K, Muller WE: Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) influences monoaminergic neurotransmission via inhibition of NE uptake, but not MAO activity after chronic treatment. Pharmacol Res. 2009 Jul;60(1):68-73. Epub 2009 Mar 21. Pubmed

2. Phospholipase A2, membrane associated

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Phospholipase A2, membrane associated P14555 Details

References:

  1. Kim HK, Son KH, Chang HW, Kang SS, Kim HP: Inhibition of rat adjuvant-induced arthritis by ginkgetin, a biflavone from ginkgo biloba leaves. Planta Med. 1999 Jun;65(5):465-7. Pubmed
  2. Weichel O, Hilgert M, Chatterjee SS, Lehr M, Klein J: Bilobalide, a constituent of Ginkgo biloba, inhibits NMDA-induced phospholipase A2 activation and phospholipid breakdown in rat hippocampus. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1999 Dec;360(6):609-15. Pubmed
  3. Lim H, Son KH, Chang HW, Kang SS, Kim HP: Effects of anti-inflammatory biflavonoid, ginkgetin, on chronic skin inflammation. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 May;29(5):1046-9. Pubmed

3. Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1 P23415 Details

References:

  1. Heads JA, Hawthorne RL, Lynagh T, Lynch JW: Structure-activity analysis of ginkgolide binding in the glycine receptor pore. J Neurochem. 2008 May;105(4):1418-27. Epub 2008 Jan 21. Pubmed

4. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: negative modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1 P14867 Details

References:

  1. Hanrahan JR, Chebib M, Davucheron NL, Hall BJ, Johnston GA: Semisynthetic preparation of amentoflavone: A negative modulator at GABA receptors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003 Jul 21;13(14):2281-4. Pubmed

5. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: negative modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2 P47870 Details

References:

  1. Hanrahan JR, Chebib M, Davucheron NL, Hall BJ, Johnston GA: Semisynthetic preparation of amentoflavone: A negative modulator at GABA receptors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003 Jul 21;13(14):2281-4. Pubmed

6. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: negative modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2 P18507 Details

References:

  1. Hanrahan JR, Chebib M, Davucheron NL, Hall BJ, Johnston GA: Semisynthetic preparation of amentoflavone: A negative modulator at GABA receptors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003 Jul 21;13(14):2281-4. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 2C9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

References:

  1. Yale SH, Glurich I: Analysis of the inhibitory potential of Ginkgo biloba, Echinacea purpurea, and Serenoa repens on the metabolic activity of cytochrome P450 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Jun;11(3):433-9. Pubmed
  2. Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL, Luo Y, Perloff ES, Horan KA, Bruce A, Reynolds RC, Harmatz JS, Avula B, Khan IA, Goldman P: Ginkgo biloba does not alter clearance of flurbiprofen, a cytochrome P450-2C9 substrate. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Feb;46(2):214-21. Pubmed

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Drug created on July 06, 2007 14:33 / Updated on September 13, 2013 11:06