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Identification
NameGinkgo biloba
Accession NumberDB01381
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical
DescriptionThe extract of the Ginkgo leaves contains flavonoid glycosides and terpenoids (ginkgolides, bilobalides) and has been used pharmaceutically for hundreds of years. It has many alleged nootropic properties, and is mainly used as memory and concentration enhancer, and anti-vertigo agent. Ginkgo extract seems to have three effects on the human body: it improves blood flow (including microcirculation in small capillaries) to most tissues and organs; it protects against oxidative cell damage from free radicals; and it blocks many of the effects of PAF (platelet aggregation, blood clotting) that have been related to the development of a number of cardiovascular, renal, respiratory and CNS (Central Nervous System) disorders.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Adiantifolia
Bai Guo Ye
Baiguo
Fossil Tree
Ginkgo Folium
Herba Ginkgo Biloba
Japanese Silver Apricot
Kew Tree
Maidenhair Tree
Pei Go Su Ye
Salisburia Adiantifolia
Yen Xing
Yinhsing
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII19FUJ2C58T
CAS numberNot Available
WeightNot Available
Chemical FormulaNot Available
InChI KeyNot Available
InChINot Available
IUPAC NameNot Available
SMILESNot Available
Taxonomy
ClassificationNot classified
Pharmacology
IndicationAppears to be effective in: alleviating age-related memory impairment in some elderly people with mild to moderate age-related memory or cognitive impairment; improving cognitive function in healthy young to middle-aged people; improving symptoms of Alzheimer's, vascular or mixed dementia; improving damage to the visual field in patients with normal tension glaucoma; decreasing the number of painful attacks in patients with Raynaud's syndrome; and may improve symptoms of vertigo and dizziness in some patients.
PharmacodynamicsThe mechanism by which ginkgo biloba is thought to be effective for these conditions appears to be in part through active "ginkgolides" terpenoids and flavinoids that appear to inhibit platelet aggregation, neutrophil degranulation, and the induction of oxygen-free radical production
Mechanism of actionThe compounds found in ginkgo may have a protective role in different stages of the decline of intellectual function via several mechanisms of action: vasoregulating activity of arteries, capillaries, and veins (increased blood flow); platelet activating factor (PAF) antagonism; homeostasis of inflammation and oxidative stress; and prevention of cell membrane damage causedby free radicals; and neurotransmission modulation. The most important substances are flavonoids (ginkgo flavone glycosides) and terpenoids (ginkgolides and bilobalide).The compounds inginkgo act to varying degrees as scavengers for free radicals.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityFresh seeds are toxic may cause death. Roasted seed and crude ginkgo plant should not be used orally. Consumption of greater than 10 roasted seeds may cause difficulty breathing, weak pulse, seizures, loss of consciousness, and shock. Standardized ginkgo leaf extracts have been used safely in trials lasting several weeks to six years; however, cases of spontaneous hemorrhages have been reported with the conventional use of the standardized extract. As with all medications, individual risk factors must be considered in the assessment of safety of this medication. This medication is well-tolerated at standard oral doses. Ginkgo biloba may cause gastrointestinal upset, headache, dizziness, palpitations, nausea, vomiting, lack of muscle tone and weakness.
Affected organismsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal AbsorptionNot AvailableNot Available
Blood Brain BarrierNot AvailableNot Available
Caco-2 permeableNot AvailableNot Available
P-glycoprotein substrateNot AvailableNot Available
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INot AvailableNot Available
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINot AvailableNot Available
Renal organic cation transporterNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2C9 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2D6 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 3A4 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 1A2 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityNot AvailableNot Available
Ames testNot AvailableNot Available
CarcinogenicityNot AvailableNot Available
BiodegradationNot AvailableNot Available
Rat acute toxicityNot AvailableNot applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Not AvailableNot Available
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Not AvailableNot Available
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage formsNot Available
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Ginkgo biloba 40 mg tablet0.24USD tablet
Ginkgo biloba 120 mg caplet0.19USD caplet
Sm ginkgo biloba 60 mg caplet0.19USD caplet
Ginkgo 60 mg tablet0.14USD tablet
Ra ginkgo biloba 40 mg tablet0.11USD tablet
Ginkgo biloba 60 mg capsule0.1USD capsule
Ginkgo biloba 50 mg tablet0.09USD tablet
Ginkgo biloba 30 mg capsule0.04USD capsule
Pv ginkgo biloba capsule0.03USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
References
Synthesis Reference

Klaus-Peter Schwabe, “Method of preparation of an extract from Ginkgo biloba leaves and pharmaceuticals containing the extract.” U.S. Patent US5322688, issued July, 1989.

US5322688
General References
  1. Cohen AJ, Bartlik B: Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. J Sex Marital Ther. 1998 Apr-Jun;24(2):139-43. [PubMed:9611693 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN06DA53N06DX02
AHFS Codes
  • 92:02.00*
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (72.2 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
4-AndrostenedioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 4-Androstenedione is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
AcebutololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Acebutolol.
AcenocoumarolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Acenocoumarol.
AcetylcholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Acetylcholine.
Acetylsalicylic acidGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acetylsalicylic acid.
AclidiniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Aclidinium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
AlclometasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alclometasone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
AldosteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldosterone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
AlprenololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Alprenolol.
AmcinonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amcinonide is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
Aminosalicylic AcidGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Aminosalicylic Acid.
Anisotropine MethylbromideThe therapeutic efficacy of Anisotropine Methylbromide can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
ArecolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Arecoline.
ArotinololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Arotinolol.
AtenololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Atenolol.
Atracurium besylateThe therapeutic efficacy of Atracurium besylate can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
AtropineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
Beclomethasone dipropionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Beclomethasone dipropionate is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
BefunololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Befunolol.
BenactyzineThe therapeutic efficacy of Benactyzine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
BenzatropineThe therapeutic efficacy of Benzatropine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
BetamethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Betamethasone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
BetaxololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Betaxolol.
BethanecholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Bethanechol.
BevantololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Bevantolol.
BiperidenThe therapeutic efficacy of Biperiden can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
BisoprololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Bisoprolol.
BopindololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Bopindolol.
BudesonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Budesonide is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
BufuralolGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Bufuralol.
BupranololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Bupranolol.
CarbacholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Carbachol.
CarteololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Carteolol.
CarvedilolGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Carvedilol.
CeliprololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Celiprolol.
CevimelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Cevimeline.
ChlorphenoxamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorphenoxamine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
CiclesonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ciclesonide is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
Clobetasol propionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clobetasol propionate is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
ClocortoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clocortolone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
Cortisone acetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cortisone acetate is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
CyclopentolateThe therapeutic efficacy of Cyclopentolate can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
DarifenacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Darifenacin can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
DehydroepiandrosteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dehydroepiandrosterone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
dehydroepiandrosterone sulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
DesloratadineThe therapeutic efficacy of Desloratadine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
DesoximetasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desoximetasone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
Desoxycorticosterone acetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desoxycorticosterone acetate is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
DexamethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexamethasone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
Dexamethasone isonicotinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexamethasone isonicotinate is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
DexetimideThe therapeutic efficacy of Dexetimide can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
DicoumarolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Dicoumarol.
DicyclomineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dicyclomine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
DiflorasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diflorasone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
DiflunisalGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Diflunisal.
DifluocortoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluocortolone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
DifluprednateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
DipyridamoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Ginkgo biloba can be decreased when used in combination with Dipyridamole.
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Efavirenz can be decreased when it is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
EPIBATIDINEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with EPIBATIDINE.
EquileninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Equilenin is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
EquilinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Equilin is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
EsmololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
EstroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Estrone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
EthopropazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethopropazine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
Ethyl biscoumacetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Ethyl biscoumacetate.
FesoterodineThe therapeutic efficacy of Fesoterodine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
FludrocortisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fludrocortisone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
FlumethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flumethasone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
FlunisolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunisolide is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
Fluocinolone AcetonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluocinolone Acetonide is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
FluocinonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluocinonide is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
FluocortoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluocortolone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
FluorometholoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluorometholone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
FluprednideneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluprednidene is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
FluprednisoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluprednisolone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
FlurandrenolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurandrenolide is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
Fluticasone furoateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluticasone furoate is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
Fluticasone PropionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluticasone Propionate is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
Gallamine TriethiodideThe therapeutic efficacy of Gallamine Triethiodide can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
GlycopyrroniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycopyrronium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
GTS-21The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with GTS-21.
HexamethoniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Hexamethonium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
HomatropineThe therapeutic efficacy of Homatropine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
HydrocortisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydrocortisone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
HyoscyamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Hyoscyamine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
IndenololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Indenolol.
Ipratropium bromideThe therapeutic efficacy of Ipratropium bromide can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
LabetalolGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Labetalol.
LobelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Lobeline.
MecamylamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Mecamylamine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
MedrysoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Medrysone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
MelengestrolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Melengestrol is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
MesalazineGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Mesalazine.
MethacholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Methacholine.
MethanthelineThe therapeutic efficacy of Methantheline can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
MethylprednisoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylprednisolone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
MetixeneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metixene can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
MetoprololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Metoprolol.
MidazolamThe serum concentration of Midazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
MivacuriumGinkgo biloba may decrease the neuromuscular blocking activities of Mivacurium.
MometasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mometasone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
N-butylscopolammonium bromideThe therapeutic efficacy of N-butylscopolammonium bromide can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
NadololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Nadolol.
NicotineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Nicotine.
Nicotine bitartrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Nicotine bitartrate.
NVA237The therapeutic efficacy of NVA237 can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
OrphenadrineThe therapeutic efficacy of Orphenadrine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
OxprenololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Oxprenolol.
OxybutyninThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxybutynin can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
OxyphenoniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
PancuroniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Pancuronium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
ParamethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paramethasone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
PenbutololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
PentoliniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Pentolinium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
PhenindioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Phenindione.
PhenprocoumonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Phenprocoumon.
PilocarpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Pilocarpine.
PindololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Pindolol.
PipecuroniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Pipecuronium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
PirenzepineThe therapeutic efficacy of Pirenzepine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
PractololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Practolol.
PrednicarbateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prednicarbate is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
PrednisoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prednisolone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
PrednisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prednisone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
PregnenoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pregnenolone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
ProcyclidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Procyclidine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
PropanthelineThe therapeutic efficacy of Propantheline can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
PropranololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Propranolol.
QuinidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Quinidine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
RapacuroniumGinkgo biloba may decrease the neuromuscular blocking activities of Rapacuronium.
RimexoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rimexolone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
Salicylic acidGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Salicylic acid.
ScopolamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Scopolamine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
Scopolamine butylbromideThe therapeutic efficacy of Scopolamine butylbromide can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
SolifenacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Solifenacin can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
SotalolGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Sotalol.
SuccinylcholineThe serum concentration of Succinylcholine can be increased when it is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
TimololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Timolol.
TiotropiumThe therapeutic efficacy of Tiotropium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
TixocortolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tixocortol is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
TolterodineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolterodine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
TriamcinoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triamcinolone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.
TrihexyphenidylThe therapeutic efficacy of Trihexyphenidyl can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
TrimethaphanThe therapeutic efficacy of Trimethaphan can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
TropicamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Tropicamide can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
TrospiumThe therapeutic efficacy of Trospium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
TubocurarineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tubocurarine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
UmeclidiniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Umeclidinium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
VareniclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Varenicline.
VecuroniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Vecuronium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
WarfarinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Warfarin.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular Weight:
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Fehske CJ, Leuner K, Muller WE: Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) influences monoaminergic neurotransmission via inhibition of NE uptake, but not MAO activity after chronic treatment. Pharmacol Res. 2009 Jul;60(1):68-73. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2009.02.012. Epub 2009 Mar 21. [PubMed:19427589 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Phospholipid binding
Specific Function:
Thought to participate in the regulation of the phospholipid metabolism in biomembranes including eicosanoid biosynthesis. Catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides.
Gene Name:
PLA2G2A
Uniprot ID:
P14555
Molecular Weight:
16082.525 Da
References
  1. Kim HK, Son KH, Chang HW, Kang SS, Kim HP: Inhibition of rat adjuvant-induced arthritis by ginkgetin, a biflavone from ginkgo biloba leaves. Planta Med. 1999 Jun;65(5):465-7. [PubMed:10418340 ]
  2. Weichel O, Hilgert M, Chatterjee SS, Lehr M, Klein J: Bilobalide, a constituent of Ginkgo biloba, inhibits NMDA-induced phospholipase A2 activation and phospholipid breakdown in rat hippocampus. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1999 Dec;360(6):609-15. [PubMed:10619176 ]
  3. Lim H, Son KH, Chang HW, Kang SS, Kim HP: Effects of anti-inflammatory biflavonoid, ginkgetin, on chronic skin inflammation. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 May;29(5):1046-9. [PubMed:16651744 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name:
GLRA1
Uniprot ID:
P23415
Molecular Weight:
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Heads JA, Hawthorne RL, Lynagh T, Lynch JW: Structure-activity analysis of ginkgolide binding in the glycine receptor pore. J Neurochem. 2008 May;105(4):1418-27. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05244.x. Epub 2008 Jan 21. [PubMed:18221374 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
negative modulator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By si...
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Hanrahan JR, Chebib M, Davucheron NL, Hall BJ, Johnston GA: Semisynthetic preparation of amentoflavone: A negative modulator at GABA(A) receptors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003 Jul 21;13(14):2281-4. [PubMed:12824018 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
negative modulator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB2
Uniprot ID:
P47870
Molecular Weight:
59149.895 Da
References
  1. Hanrahan JR, Chebib M, Davucheron NL, Hall BJ, Johnston GA: Semisynthetic preparation of amentoflavone: A negative modulator at GABA(A) receptors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003 Jul 21;13(14):2281-4. [PubMed:12824018 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
negative modulator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG2
Uniprot ID:
P18507
Molecular Weight:
54161.78 Da
References
  1. Hanrahan JR, Chebib M, Davucheron NL, Hall BJ, Johnston GA: Semisynthetic preparation of amentoflavone: A negative modulator at GABA(A) receptors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003 Jul 21;13(14):2281-4. [PubMed:12824018 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Yale SH, Glurich I: Analysis of the inhibitory potential of Ginkgo biloba, Echinacea purpurea, and Serenoa repens on the metabolic activity of cytochrome P450 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Jun;11(3):433-9. [PubMed:15992226 ]
  2. Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL, Luo Y, Perloff ES, Horan KA, Bruce A, Reynolds RC, Harmatz JS, Avula B, Khan IA, Goldman P: Ginkgo biloba does not alter clearance of flurbiprofen, a cytochrome P450-2C9 substrate. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Feb;46(2):214-21. [PubMed:16432273 ]
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Drug created on July 06, 2007 14:33 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23