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Identification
NameTroglitazone
Accession NumberDB00197  (APRD00488)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsWithdrawn
Description

Troglitazone was withdrawn in 2000 due to risk of hepatotoxicity. It was superseded by pioglitazone and rosiglitazone.

Structure
Thumb
SynonymsNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
NoscalNot Available
ResulinNot Available
RezulinNot Available
RomozinNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
CategoriesNot Available
CAS number97322-87-7
WeightAverage: 441.54
Monoisotopic: 441.160993669
Chemical FormulaC24H27NO5S
InChI KeyGXPHKUHSUJUWKP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C24H27NO5S/c1-13-14(2)21-18(15(3)20(13)26)9-10-24(4,30-21)12-29-17-7-5-16(6-8-17)11-19-22(27)25-23(28)31-19/h5-8,19,26H,9-12H2,1-4H3,(H,25,27,28)
IUPAC Name
5-({4-[(6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-2-yl)methoxy]phenyl}methyl)-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
SMILES
CC1=C(C)C2=C(CCC(C)(COC3=CC=C(CC4SC(=O)NC4=O)C=C3)O2)C(C)=C1O
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassHeterocyclic Compounds
ClassBenzopyrans
SubclassNot Available
Direct parentBenzopyrans
Alternative parentsOrtho Cresols; Meta Cresols; Phenol Ethers; Toluenes; Alkyl Aryl Ethers; Thiazolidinediones; N-unsubstituted Carboxylic Acid Imides; Secondary Carboxylic Acid Amides; Polyamines; Carboxylic Acids; Enols
Substituentsm-cresol; phenol ether; o-cresol; toluene; alkyl aryl ether; thiazolidinedione; phenol derivative; thiazolidinone; benzene; thiazolidine; carboxylic acid imide, n-unsubstituted; carboxamide group; secondary carboxylic acid amide; polyamine; ether; enol; carboxylic acid; carboxylic acid derivative; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the benzopyrans. These are organic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to a pyran ring.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus. It is used alone or in combination with a sulfonylurea, metformin, or insulin as an adjunct to diet and exercise.
PharmacodynamicsTroglitazone is an oral antihyperglycemic agent which acts primarily by decreasing insulin resistance. Troglitazone is used in the management of type II diabetes (noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) also known as adult-onset diabetes). It improves sensitivity to insulin in muscle and adipose tissue and inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis. Troglitazone is not chemically or functionally related to either the sulfonylureas, the biguanides, or the g-glucosidase inhibitors. Troglitazone may be used concomitantly with a sulfonylurea or insulin to improve glycemic control.
Mechanism of actionTroglitazone is a thiazolidinedione antidiabetic agent that lowers blood glucose by improving target cell response to insulin. It has a unique mechanism of action that is dependent on the presence of insulin for activity. Troglitazone decreases hepatic glucose output and increases insulin dependent glucose disposal in skeletal muscle. Its mechanism of action is thought to involve binding to nuclear receptors (PPAR) that regulate the transcription of a number of insulin responsive genes critical for the control of glucose and lipid metabolism. Troglitazone is a ligand to both PPARα and PPARγ, with a highter affinity for PPARγ. The drug also contains an α-tocopheroyl moiety, potentially giving it vitamin E-like activity. Troglitazone has been shown to reduce inflammation, and is associated with a decrase in nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and a concomitant increase in its inhibitor (IκB). NF-κB is an important cellular transcription regulator for the immune response. Unlike sulfonylureas, troglitazone is not an insulin secretagogue.
AbsorptionAbsorbed rapidly. Food increases the extent of absorption by 30% to 85%.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding> 99% (primarily to serum albumin)
Metabolism

A sulfate conjugate metabolite (Metabolite 1) and a quinone metabolite (Metabolite 3) have been detected in the plasma of healthy males. A glucuronide conjugate (Metabolite 2) has been detected in the urine and also in negligible amounts in the plasma. In healthy volunteers and in patients with type 2 diabetes, the steady-state concentration of Metabolite 1 is six to seven times that of troglitazone and Metabolite 3. In in vivo drug interaction studies, troglitazone has been shown to induce cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 at clinically relevant doses.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life16-34 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.868
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.8183
Caco-2 permeable - 0.6915
P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.7514
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.7854
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.7015
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.861
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8329
CYP450 2D6 substrate Substrate 0.8919
CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.7408
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.5726
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.6843
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9266
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.6359
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.5517
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.5121
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.584
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9211
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.9881
Rat acute toxicity 1.9768 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9911
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.6643
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Sankyo usa corp
  • Pfizer pharmaceuticals ltd
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral
PricesNot Available
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
United States58590371997-11-132017-11-13
United States56021331993-09-152013-09-15
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point184-186 °CNot Available
logP3.6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00121ALOGPS
logP4.16ALOGPS
logP5.5ChemAxon
logS-5.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)6.61ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area84.86 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity120.99 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability47.08 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Krishnamurthi Vyas, Chebiyyam Prabhakar, Sreenivas Dharmaraja Rao, Mamillapalli Ramabadhra Sarma, Om Gaddam Reddy, Rajagopalan Ramanujam, Ranjan Chakrabarti, “Polymorphic forms of troglitazone having enhanced anti-diabetic activity and a process for their preparation.” U.S. Patent US5700820, issued June, 1992.

US5700820
General Reference
  1. Aljada A, Garg R, Ghanim H, Mohanty P, Hamouda W, Assian E, Dandona P: Nuclear factor-kappaB suppressive and inhibitor-kappaB stimulatory effects of troglitazone in obese patients with type 2 diabetes: evidence of an antiinflammatory action? J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jul;86(7):3250-6. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD00395
PubChem Compound5591
PubChem Substance46504655
ChemSpider5389
ChEBI9753
ChEMBL
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP001337
PharmGKBPA451799
IUPHAR2693
Guide to Pharmacology2693
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/troglitazone.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/mtm/troglitazone.html
WikipediaTroglitazone
ATC CodesA10BG01
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelshow(501 KB)
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
CholestyramineDecreases the effect of troglitazone
CyclosporineTroglitazone decreases the effect of the immunosuppressant
Ethinyl EstradiolPossible loss of contracepitve effect
NorethindronePossible loss of contraceptive effect
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma P37231 Details

References:

  1. Kitamura S, Miyazaki Y, Shinomura Y, Kondo S, Kanayama S, Matsuzawa Y: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma induces growth arrest and differentiation markers of human colon cancer cells. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1999 Jan;90(1):75-80. Pubmed
  2. Demetri GD, Fletcher CD, Mueller E, Sarraf P, Naujoks R, Campbell N, Spiegelman BM, Singer S: Induction of solid tumor differentiation by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligand troglitazone in patients with liposarcoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Mar 30;96(7):3951-6. Pubmed
  3. Petrova TV, Akama KT, Van Eldik LJ: Cyclopentenone prostaglandins suppress activation of microglia: down-regulation of inducible nitric-oxide synthase by 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Apr 13;96(8):4668-73. Pubmed
  4. Camp HS, Whitton AL, Tafuri SR: PPARgamma activators down-regulate the expression of PPARgamma in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. FEBS Lett. 1999 Mar 26;447(2-3):186-90. Pubmed
  5. Satoh T, Furuta K, Suzuki M, Watanabe Y: Prostaglandin J2 and its metabolites promote neurite outgrowth induced by nerve growth factor in PC12 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Apr 29;258(1):50-3. Pubmed
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  7. Baek SJ, Wilson LC, Hsi LC, Eling TE: Troglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma ) ligand, selectively induces the early growth response-1 gene independently of PPAR gamma. A novel mechanism for its anti-tumorigenic activity. J Biol Chem. 2003 Feb 21;278(8):5845-53. Epub 2002 Dec 9. Pubmed

2. Long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: no

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 4 O60488 Details

References:

  1. Kim JH, Lewin TM, Coleman RA: Expression and characterization of recombinant rat Acyl-CoA synthetases 1, 4, and 5. Selective inhibition by triacsin C and thiazolidinediones. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jul 6;276(27):24667-73. Epub 2001 Apr 23. Pubmed
  2. Lewin TM, Van Horn CG, Krisans SK, Coleman RA: Rat liver acyl-CoA synthetase 4 is a peripheral-membrane protein located in two distinct subcellular organelles, peroxisomes, and mitochondrial-associated membrane. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002 Aug 15;404(2):263-70. Pubmed
  3. Lewin TM, Kim JH, Granger DA, Vance JE, Coleman RA: Acyl-CoA synthetase isoforms 1, 4, and 5 are present in different subcellular membranes in rat liver and can be inhibited independently. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jul 6;276(27):24674-9. Epub 2001 Apr 23. Pubmed

3. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 P05121 Details

References:

  1. Sobel BE: Insulin resistance and thrombosis: a cardiologist’s view. Am J Cardiol. 1999 Jul 8;84(1A):37J-41J. Pubmed
  2. Gottschling-Zeller H, Rohrig K, Hauner H: Troglitazone reduces plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression and secretion in cultured human adipocytes. Diabetologia. 2000 Mar;43(3):377-83. Pubmed
  3. Nordt TK, Peter K, Bode C, Sobel BE: Differential regulation by troglitazone of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in human hepatic and vascular cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Apr;85(4):1563-8. Pubmed
  4. Kato K, Yamada D, Midorikawa S, Sato W, Watanabe T: Improvement by the insulin-sensitizing agent, troglitazone, of abnormal fibrinolysis in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2000 May;49(5):662-5. Pubmed
  5. Kruszynska YT, Yu JG, Olefsky JM, Sobel BE: Effects of troglitazone on blood concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 in patients with type 2 diabetes and in lean and obese normal subjects. Diabetes. 2000 Apr;49(4):633-9. Pubmed

4. Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: no

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 Q99808 Details

References:

  1. Leung GP, Man RY, Tse CM: Effect of thiazolidinediones on equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 in human aortic smooth muscle cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005 Aug 1;70(3):355-62. Pubmed

5. Estrogen-related receptor gamma

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: no

Actions: inverse agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Estrogen-related receptor gamma P62508 Details

References:

  1. Wang Y, Fang F, Wong CW: Troglitazone is an estrogen-related receptor alpha and gamma inverse agonist. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010 Jul 1;80(1):80-5. Epub 2010 Mar 16. Pubmed

6. Steroid hormone receptor ERR1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: no

Actions: inverse agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Steroid hormone receptor ERR1 P11474 Details

References:

  1. Wang Y, Fang F, Wong CW: Troglitazone is an estrogen-related receptor alpha and gamma inverse agonist. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010 Jul 1;80(1):80-5. Epub 2010 Mar 16. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 2C8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C8 P10632 Details

References:

  1. Schoch GA, Yano JK, Sansen S, Dansette PM, Stout CD, Johnson EF: Determinants of cytochrome P450 2C8 substrate binding: structures of complexes with montelukast, troglitazone, felodipine, and 9-cis-retinoic acid. J Biol Chem. 2008 Jun 20;283(25):17227-37. Epub 2008 Apr 15. Pubmed
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

3. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1 P22309 Details

References:

  1. Watanabe Y, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: Troglitazone glucuronidation in human liver and intestine microsomes: high catalytic activity of UGT1A8 and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Dec;30(12):1462-9. Pubmed

4. Cytochrome P450 2C19

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

5. Cytochrome P450 19A1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 19A1 P11511 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

6. Cytochrome P450 1A1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A1 P04798 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

7. Cytochrome P450 2B6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2B6 P20813 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

8. Cytochrome P450 2C9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

9. Cytochrome P450 3A5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A5 P20815 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

10. Cytochrome P450 3A7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A7 P24462 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

11. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3 P35503 Details

References:

  1. Watanabe Y, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: Troglitazone glucuronidation in human liver and intestine microsomes: high catalytic activity of UGT1A8 and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Dec;30(12):1462-9. Pubmed

12. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4 P22310 Details

References:

  1. Watanabe Y, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: Troglitazone glucuronidation in human liver and intestine microsomes: high catalytic activity of UGT1A8 and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Dec;30(12):1462-9. Pubmed

13. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6 P19224 Details

References:

  1. Watanabe Y, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: Troglitazone glucuronidation in human liver and intestine microsomes: high catalytic activity of UGT1A8 and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Dec;30(12):1462-9. Pubmed
  2. Ito M, Yamamoto K, Sato H, Fujiyama Y, Bamba T: Inhibitory effect of troglitazone on glucuronidation catalyzed by human uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A6. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2001 Mar;56(12):893-5. Pubmed

14. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-7 Q9HAW7 Details

References:

  1. Watanabe Y, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: Troglitazone glucuronidation in human liver and intestine microsomes: high catalytic activity of UGT1A8 and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Dec;30(12):1462-9. Pubmed

15. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8 Q9HAW9 Details

References:

  1. Watanabe Y, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: Troglitazone glucuronidation in human liver and intestine microsomes: high catalytic activity of UGT1A8 and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Dec;30(12):1462-9. Pubmed

16. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9 O60656 Details

References:

  1. Watanabe Y, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: Troglitazone glucuronidation in human liver and intestine microsomes: high catalytic activity of UGT1A8 and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Dec;30(12):1462-9. Pubmed
  2. Barbier O, Villeneuve L, Bocher V, Fontaine C, Torra IP, Duhem C, Kosykh V, Fruchart JC, Guillemette C, Staels B: The UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A9 enzyme is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma target gene. J Biol Chem. 2003 Apr 18;278(16):13975-83. Epub 2003 Feb 11. Pubmed

17. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-10

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-10 Q9HAW8 Details

References:

  1. Watanabe Y, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: Troglitazone glucuronidation in human liver and intestine microsomes: high catalytic activity of UGT1A8 and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Dec;30(12):1462-9. Pubmed

18. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 P16662 Details

References:

  1. Watanabe Y, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: Troglitazone glucuronidation in human liver and intestine microsomes: high catalytic activity of UGT1A8 and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Dec;30(12):1462-9. Pubmed

19. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15 P54855 Details

References:

  1. Watanabe Y, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: Troglitazone glucuronidation in human liver and intestine microsomes: high catalytic activity of UGT1A8 and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Dec;30(12):1462-9. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Bile salt export pump

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Bile salt export pump O95342 Details

References:

  1. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Fluorescent substrates of sister-P-glycoprotein (BSEP) evaluated as markers of active transport and inhibition: evidence for contingent unequal binding sites. Pharm Res. 2003 Apr;20(4):537-44. Pubmed
  2. Funk C, Pantze M, Jehle L, Ponelle C, Scheuermann G, Lazendic M, Gasser R: Troglitazone-induced intrahepatic cholestasis by an interference with the hepatobiliary export of bile acids in male and female rats. Correlation with the gender difference in troglitazone sulfate formation and the inhibition of the canalicular bile salt export pump (Bsep) by troglitazone and troglitazone sulfate. Toxicology. 2001 Oct 5;167(1):83-98. Pubmed
  3. Saito H, Osumi M, Hirano H, Shin W, Nakamura R, Ishikawa T: Technical pitfalls and improvements for high-speed screening and QSAR analysis to predict inhibitors of the human bile salt export pump (ABCB11/BSEP). AAPS J. 2009 Sep;11(3):581-9. Epub 2009 Aug 18. Pubmed

2. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 Q9Y6L6 Details

References:

  1. Nozawa T, Sugiura S, Nakajima M, Goto A, Yokoi T, Nezu J, Tsuji A, Tamai I: Involvement of organic anion transporting polypeptides in the transport of troglitazone sulfate: implications for understanding troglitazone hepatotoxicity. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Mar;32(3):291-4. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:08