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Identification
NameTiclopidine
Accession NumberDB00208  (APRD01257)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved
Description

Ticlopidine is an effective inhibitor of platelet aggregation. It is a prodrug that is metabolised to an active form, which blocks the ADP receptor that is involved in GPIIb/IIIa receptor activation leading to platelet aggregation. Ticlopidine is marketed under the brand name Ticlid and is indicated for patients who cannot take aspirin or in whom aspirin has not worked to prevent a thrombotic stroke. The FDA label includes a black-box warning of neutropenia, aplastic anemia, thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura, and agranulocytosis, so it is necessary to monitor patients’ WBC and platelets when they are taking ticlopidine.

Structure
Thumb
SynonymsNot Available
Salts
Name/CAS Structure Properties
Ticlopidine Hydrochloride
53885-35-1
Thumb
  • InChI Key: MTKNGOHFNXIVOS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 299.030225589
  • Average Mass: 300.247
DBSALT000179
Brand names
NameCompany
TiclidROCHE PALO
Brand mixturesNot Available
CategoriesNot Available
CAS number55142-85-3
WeightAverage: 263.786
Monoisotopic: 263.05354785
Chemical FormulaC14H14ClNS
InChI KeyInChIKey=PHWBOXQYWZNQIN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C14H14ClNS/c15-13-4-2-1-3-11(13)9-16-7-5-14-12(10-16)6-8-17-14/h1-4,6,8H,5,7,9-10H2
IUPAC Name
5-[(2-chlorophenyl)methyl]-4H,5H,6H,7H-thieno[3,2-c]pyridine
SMILES
ClC1=CC=CC=C1CN1CCC2=C(C1)C=CS2
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassHeterocyclic Compounds
ClassThienopyridines
SubclassNot Available
Direct parentThienopyridines
Alternative parentsChlorobenzenes; Aryl Chlorides; Pyridines and Derivatives; Thiophenes; Tertiary Amines; Polyamines; Organochlorides
Substituentschlorobenzene; aryl halide; aryl chloride; benzene; pyridine; thiophene; tertiary amine; polyamine; organohalogen; amine; organochloride; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the thienopyridines. These are heterocyclic compounds containing a thiophene ring fused to a pyridine ring.
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed in patients, who have had a stroke or stroke precursors and who cannot take aspirin or aspirin has not worked, to try to prevent another thrombotic stroke.
PharmacodynamicsTiclopidine is a prodrug that is metabolised to an as yet undetermined metabolite that acts as a platelet aggregation inhibitor. Inhibition of platelet aggregation causes a prolongation of bleeding time. In its prodrug form, ticlopidine has no significant in vitro activity at the concentrations attained in vivo.
Mechanism of actionThe active metabolite of ticlopidine prevents binding of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to its platelet receptor, impairing the ADP-mediated activation of the glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex. It is proposed that the inhibition involves a defect in the mobilization from the storage sites of the platelet granules to the outer membrane. No direct interference occurs with the GPIIb/IIIa receptor. As the glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex is the major receptor for fibrinogen, its impaired activation prevents fibrinogen binding to platelets and inhibits platelet aggregation. By blocking the amplification of platelet activation by released ADP, platelet aggregation induced by agonists other than ADP is also inhibited by the active metabolite of ticlopidine.
AbsorptionAbsorption is greater than 80%. Food increases absorption by approximately 20%.
Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution was not quantified.

Protein bindingBinds reversibly (98%) to plasma proteins, mainly to serum albumin and lipoproteins. The binding to albumin and lipoproteins is nonsaturable over a wide concentration range. Ticlopidine also binds to alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (about 15% or less).
Metabolism

Ticlopidine is metabolized extensively by the liver with only trace amounts of intact drug detected. At least 20 metabolites have been identified.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Ticlopidine
2-ChloroticlopidineDetails
Ticlopidine
2-OxoticlopidineDetails
Ticlopidine
ThienodihydropyridiniumDetails
Ticlopidine
Ticlopidine S-oxideDetails
Ticlopidine
Dehydrogenated ticlopidineDetails
Ticlopidine
Ticlopidine N-oxideDetails
Ticlopidine
di-HydroxyticlopidineDetails
Ticlopidine
    7-HydroxyticlopidineDetails
    2-Oxoticlopidine
      Active metabolite of TiclopidineDetails
      Ticlopidine S-oxide
        Ticlopidine S-oxide dimerDetails
        Thienodihydropyridinium
        ThienopyridiniumDetails
        Thienodihydropyridinium
        Ticlopidine lactam analog (M8)Details
        Route of eliminationTiclopidine is eliminated mostly in the urine (60%) and somewhat in the feces (23%).
        Half lifeHalf-life following a single 250-mg dose is approximately 7.9 hours in subjects 20 to 43 years of age and 12.6 hours in subjects 65 to 76 years of age. With repeated dosing (250 mg twice a day), half-life is about 4 days in subjects 20 to 43 years of age and about 5 days in subjects 65 to 76 years of age.
        Clearance

        Ticlopidine clearance was not quantified, but clearance decreases with age.

        ToxicitySingle oral doses of ticlopidine at 1600 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg were lethal to rats and mice, respectively. Symptoms of acute toxicity were GI hemorrhage, convulsions, hypothermia, dyspnea, loss of equilibrium and abnormal gait. The FDA label includes a black-box warning of neutropenia, aplastic anemia, thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura, and agranulocytosis, so it is necessary to monitor patients' WBC and platelets when they are taking ticlopidine.
        Affected organisms
        • Humans and other mammals
        Pathways
        PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
        Ticlopidine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00261
        Ticlopidine Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00611
        SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
        SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
        ADMET
        Predicted ADMET features
        Property Value Probability
        Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9902
        Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9906
        Caco-2 permeable + 0.6062
        P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.6111
        P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Inhibitor 0.8
        P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Inhibitor 0.8513
        Renal organic cation transporter Inhibitor 0.8152
        CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8234
        CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.9115
        CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.5155
        CYP450 1A2 substrate Inhibitor 0.9107
        CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.907
        CYP450 2D6 substrate Inhibitor 0.9209
        CYP450 2C19 substrate Inhibitor 0.8994
        CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8808
        CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity High CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.9666
        Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.6773
        Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9414
        Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.9959
        Rat acute toxicity 2.2022 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
        hERG inhibition (predictor I) Strong inhibitor 0.6392
        hERG inhibition (predictor II) Inhibitor 0.6333
        Pharmacoeconomics
        Manufacturers
        • Roche palo alto llc
        • Actavis elizabeth llc
        • Apotex inc
        • Caraco pharmaceutical laboratories ltd
        • Genpharm inc
        • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
        • Sandoz inc
        • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
        • Watson laboratories inc
        Packagers
        Dosage forms
        FormRouteStrength
        TabletOral250MG
        Prices
        Unit descriptionCostUnit
        Ticlid 30 250 mg tablet Bottle87.36USDbottle
        Ticlid 250 mg tablet2.61USDtablet
        Ticlopidine HCl 250 mg tablet2.1USDtablet
        Ticlopidine 250 mg tablet1.86USDtablet
        Apo-Ticlopidine 250 mg Tablet0.72USDtablet
        Mylan-Ticlopidine 250 mg Tablet0.72USDtablet
        Novo-Ticlopidine 250 mg Tablet0.72USDtablet
        Nu-Ticlopidine 250 mg Tablet0.72USDtablet
        Sandoz Ticlopidine 250 mg Tablet0.72USDtablet
        Ticlopidine 250 mg Tablet0.72USDtablet
        DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
        PatentsNot Available
        Properties
        Statesolid
        Experimental Properties
        PropertyValueSource
        melting pointapprox. 1 189°CFrom Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy
        water solubilityFreely solubleFrom Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy
        logP2.9Not Available
        Predicted Properties
        PropertyValueSource
        water solubility2.19e-02 g/lALOGPS
        logP4.25ALOGPS
        logP4.2ChemAxon
        logS-4.1ALOGPS
        pKa (strongest basic)7.31ChemAxon
        physiological charge1ChemAxon
        hydrogen acceptor count1ChemAxon
        hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
        polar surface area3.24ChemAxon
        rotatable bond count2ChemAxon
        refractivity74.33ChemAxon
        polarizability27.99ChemAxon
        number of rings3ChemAxon
        bioavailability1ChemAxon
        rule of fiveYesChemAxon
        Ghose filterYesChemAxon
        Veber's ruleYesChemAxon
        MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
        Spectra
        SpectraNot Available
        References
        Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
        General Reference
        1. FDA label.
        External Links
        ResourceLink
        KEGG CompoundC07140
        PubChem Compound5472
        PubChem Substance46504438
        ChemSpider5273
        ChEBI9588
        ChEMBLCHEMBL833
        Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000723
        PharmGKBPA451686
        Drug Product Database2239744
        RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/ticlop.htm
        Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cdi/ticlopidine.html
        WikipediaTiclopidine
        ATC CodesB01AC05
        AHFS Codes
        • 20:12.18
        PDB EntriesNot Available
        FDA labelshow(916 KB)
        MSDSshow(106 KB)
        Interactions
        Drug Interactions
        Drug
        Acetylsalicylic acidIncreased effect of ticlopidine
        AlteplaseIncreased bleeding risk. Monitor for signs of bleeding.
        ambrisentanTiclopidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Ambrisentan. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for adverse/toxic effects of Ambrisentan if Ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        AminophyllineTiclopidine increases the effect and toxicity of theophylline
        BortezomibTiclopidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Bortezomib. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for adverse/toxic effects of Bortezomib if Ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        CarbamazepineTiclopidine increases the effect of carbamazepine
        CarisoprodolTiclopidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Carisoprodol. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for adverse/toxic effects of Carisoprodol if Ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        CilostazolTiclopidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Cilostazol. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for adverse/toxic effects of Cilostazol if Ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        CimetidineCimetidine may increase Ticlopidine levels. Avoid concomitant therapy.
        CitalopramTiclopidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Citalopram. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for adverse/toxic effects of Citalopram if Ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        ClobazamTiclopidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Clobazam. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for adverse/toxic effects of Clobazam if Ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        ClomipramineTiclopidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Clomipramine. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for adverse/toxic effects of Clomipramine if Ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        CyclosporineTiclopidine decreases the effect of cyclosporine
        DiazepamTiclopidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Diazepam. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for adverse/toxic effects of Diazepam if Ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        DigoxinTiclopidine may decrease Digoxin levels. Monitor for Digoxin levels with Ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        DyphyllineTiclopidine increases the effect and toxicity of theophylline
        EscitalopramTiclopidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Escitalopram. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for adverse/toxic effects of Ambrisentan if Escitalopram is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        EthotoinTiclopidine increases the effect of hydantoin
        FosphenytoinTiclopidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Fosphenytoin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for adverse/toxic effects of Fosphenytoin if Ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        Ginkgo bilobaAdditive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
        HeparinIncreased bleeding risk. Monitor aPTT.
        IfosfamideTiclopidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Ifosfamide. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for adverse/toxic effects of Ifosfamide if Ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        ImipramineTiclopidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Imipramine. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for adverse/toxic effects of Imipramine if Ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        MephenytoinTiclopidine increases the effect of hydantoin
        MethsuximideTiclopidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Methsuximide. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for adverse/toxic effects of Methsuximide if Ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        MoclobemideTiclopidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Moclobemide. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for adverse/toxic effects of Moclobemide if Ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        NilutamideTiclopidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Nilutamide. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for adverse/toxic effects of Nilutamide if Ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        OxtriphyllineTiclopidine increases the effect and toxicity of theophylline
        PentamidineTiclopidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Pentamidine. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for adverse/toxic effects of Pentamidine if Ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        PhenobarbitalTiclopidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Phenobarbital. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for adverse/toxic effects of Phenobarbital if Ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        PhenytoinTiclopidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of phenytoin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for adverse/toxic effects of phenytoin if ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        PimozideAvoid combination with pimozide and other major CYP3A4 substrates due to the potential increase of pimozide concentration.
        ReteplaseIncreased bleeding risk. Monitor for signs of bleeding.
        Sodium bicarbonateSodium bicarbonate may decrease Ticlopidine levels. Administer agents 1 to 2 hours apart.
        StreptokinaseIncreased bleeding risk. Monitor for signs of bleeding.
        TamoxifenTiclopidine may decrease the therapeutic effect of tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
        TamsulosinTiclopidine, a CYP2D6 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tamsulosin, a CYP2D6 substrate. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamsulosin if Ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued, or dose changed.
        TenecteplaseIncreased bleeding risk. Monitor for signs of bleeding.
        TheophyllineTiclopidine increases the effect and toxicity of theophylline
        ThioridazineTiclopidine may decrease the metabolism of thioridazine. Concomitant therapy is contraindicated.
        TizanidineTiclopidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tizanidine. Consider alternate therapy or use caution during co-administration.
        TramadolTiclopidine may decrease the effect of Tramadol by decreasing active metabolite production.
        TreprostinilThe prostacyclin analogue, Treprostinil, increases the risk of bleeding when combined with the antiplatelet agent, Ticlopidine. Monitor for increased bleeding during concomitant thearpy.
        TrimipramineThe strong CYP2C19 inhibitor, ticlopidine, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of trimipramine, a CYP2C19 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in therapeutic and adverse effects of trimipramine if ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        WarfarinIncreased bleeding risk. Monitor INR.
        Food Interactions
        • High fat meals will increase ticlopidine absorption. As well, food can help ticlopidine-induced stomach upset.

        1. P2Y purinoceptor 12

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: yes

        Actions: antagonist

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        P2Y purinoceptor 12 Q9H244 Details

        References:

        1. Storey RF: The P2Y12 receptor as a therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease. Platelets. 2001 Jun;12(4):197-209. Pubmed
        2. Boeynaems JM, van Giezen H, Savi P, Herbert JM: P2Y receptor antagonists in thrombosis. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2005 Mar;6(3):275-82. Pubmed
        3. Gachet C: The platelet P2 receptors as molecular targets for old and new antiplatelet drugs. Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Nov;108(2):180-92. Epub 2005 Jun 13. Pubmed
        4. Zhan C, Yang J, Dong XC, Wang YL: Molecular modeling of purinergic receptor P2Y12 and interaction with its antagonists. J Mol Graph Model. 2007 Jul;26(1):20-31. Epub 2006 Sep 26. Pubmed
        5. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

        1. Cytochrome P450 2C19

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: substrate inhibitor

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

        References:

        1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
        2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
        3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
        4. Lexicomp

        2. Cytochrome P450 2D6

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: substrate inhibitor

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

        References:

        1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
        2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
        3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
        4. Lexicomp

        3. Cytochrome P450 3A4

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: substrate inhibitor

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

        References:

        1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
        2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
        3. Lexicomp

        4. Myeloperoxidase

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: substrate

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Myeloperoxidase P05164 Details

        References:

        1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed

        5. Cytochrome P450 2C9

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: inhibitor

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

        References:

        1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
        2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
        3. Lexicomp

        6. Cytochrome P450 2C8

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: inhibitor

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Cytochrome P450 2C8 P10632 Details

        References:

        1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

        7. Cytochrome P450 1A2

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: inhibitor

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

        References:

        1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
        2. Lexicomp

        8. Cytochrome P450 1A1

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: inhibitor

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Cytochrome P450 1A1 P04798 Details

        References:

        1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

        9. Cytochrome P450 2B6

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: inhibitor

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Cytochrome P450 2B6 P20813 Details

        References:

        1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
        2. Walsky RL, Astuccio AV, Obach RS: Evaluation of 227 drugs for in vitro inhibition of cytochrome P450 2B6. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Dec;46(12):1426-38. Pubmed
        3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
        4. Lexicomp

        10. Cytochrome P450 2E1

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: inhibitor

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Cytochrome P450 2E1 P05181 Details

        References:

        1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
        2. Lexicomp

        Comments
        Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:08