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Identification
NameAdapalene
Accession NumberDB00210  (APRD00780)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Adapalene is a topical retinoid primarily used in the treatment of acne and is also used (off-label) to treat keratosis pilaris as well as other skin conditions. It is currently marketed by Galderma under the trade names Differin in some countries, and Adaferin in India. [Wikipedia]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
6-(3-(1-Adamantyl)-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-naphthoic acid
Adaferin
Adapaleno
Adapalenum
Differine
External Identifiers Not Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Adapalenegel1 mg/gtopicalTaro Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.1996-05-312016-04-05Us
Adapalenegel3 mg/gtopicalOwen Laboratories, Inc.2009-09-152016-04-05Us
Adapalenecream.1 g/100gtopicalPerrigo New York Inc2010-10-262016-04-05Us
Adapalenelotion.1 g/100mLtopicalOwen Laboratories, Inc.2010-03-312016-04-05Us
Adapalenegel3 mg/gtopicalPrasco Laboratories2014-01-012016-04-05Us
Differingel3 mg/gtopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2008-10-242016-04-05Us
Differingel1 mg/gtopicalGalderma Laboratories, L.P.1996-05-312016-04-23Us
Differinlotion0.1 %topicalGalderma Canada IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Differincream1 mg/gtopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-04-192016-04-05Us
Differincream0.1 %topicalGalderma Canada Inc1998-01-08Not applicableCanada
Differingel1 mg/gtopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2004-07-072016-04-05Us
Differingel3 mg/gtopicalGalderma Laboratories, L.P.2009-09-152016-04-23Us
Differincream1 mg/gtopicalGALDERMA LABORATORIES, L.P2009-11-242016-04-23Us
Differinlotion1 mg/gtopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2010-04-272016-04-05Us
Differinlotion.1 g/100mLtopicalGalderma Laboratories, L.P.2010-03-312016-04-23Us
Differin - Gel Top 0.1%gel0.1 %topicalGalderma Canada Inc1996-12-31Not applicableCanada
Differin - Liq Top 0.1%liquid0.1 %topicalGalderma Canada Inc2001-08-082003-07-08Canada
Differin Xpgel0.3 %topicalGalderma Canada Inc2007-07-19Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Adapalenegel45 g/gtopicalPru Gen, Inc.2016-03-042016-04-05Us
Adapalenegel1 mg/gtopicalTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2010-06-022016-04-23Us
Adapaleneswab1 mg/mLtopicalCall Inc. (Dba Rochester Pharmaceuticals)2016-01-052016-04-05Us
Adapalenegel1 mg/gtopicalGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., Usa2010-07-012016-04-05Us
Adapalenecream1 mg/gtopicalPhysicians Total Caer, Inc.2010-10-012016-04-05Us
Adapalenegel1 mg/gtopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2010-07-092016-04-05Us
Adapalenegel3 mg/gtopicalSandoz Inc.2014-04-282016-04-05Us
Adapalenegel3 mg/gtopicalActavis Pharma, Inc.2014-10-272016-04-23Us
Adapalenecream1 mg/gtopicalE. Fougera & Co. a division of Fougera Pharmaceuticals Inc.2010-06-302016-04-23Us
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AdaferinNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
EpiduoGalderma Laboratories, L.P.
Epiduo ForteGalderma Laboratories, L.P.
TactupumpGalderma Canada Inc
Tactupump ForteGalderma Canada Inc
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII1L4806J2QF
CAS number106685-40-9
WeightAverage: 412.5201
Monoisotopic: 412.203844762
Chemical FormulaC28H28O3
InChI KeyInChIKey=LZCDAPDGXCYOEH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C28H28O3/c1-31-26-7-6-23(21-2-3-22-12-24(27(29)30)5-4-20(22)11-21)13-25(26)28-14-17-8-18(15-28)10-19(9-17)16-28/h2-7,11-13,17-19H,8-10,14-16H2,1H3,(H,29,30)
IUPAC Name
6-[3-(adamantan-1-yl)-4-methoxyphenyl]naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid
SMILES
COC1=C(C=C(C=C1)C1=CC2=C(C=C1)C=C(C=C2)C(O)=O)C12CC3CC(CC(C3)C1)C2
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as retinoids. These are oxygenated derivatives of 3,7-dimethyl-1-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl)nona-1,3,5,7-tetraene and derivatives thereof.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassRetinoids
Direct ParentRetinoids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Adapalene
  • Phenylnaphthalene
  • 2-naphthalenecarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • 2-naphthalenecarboxylic acid
  • Naphthalene
  • Methoxybenzene
  • Phenol ether
  • Benzoyl
  • Anisole
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the topical treatment of comedo, papular and pustular acne (acne vulgaris) of the face, chest or back.
PharmacodynamicsAdapalene is a chemically stable retinoid-like compound. Biochemical and pharmacological profile studies have demonstrated that adapalene is a modulator of cellular differentiation, keratinization, and inflammatory processes all of which represent important features in the pathology of acne vulgaris.
Mechanism of actionMechanistically, adapalene binds to specific retinoic acid nuclear receptors (gamma and beta) and retinoid X receptors but does not bind to the cytosolic receptor protein. Although the exact mode of action of adapalene is unknown, it is suggested that topical adapalene may normalize the differentiation of follicular epithelial cells resulting in decreased microcomedone formation.
Related Articles
AbsorptionAbsorption of adapalene through human skin is low. Only trace amounts (<0.25 ng/mL) of parent substance have been found in the plasma of acne patients following chronic topical application of adapalene in controlled clinical trials
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Metabolized mainly by O-demethylation, hydroxylation and conjugation, and excretion is primarily by the biliary route.

Route of eliminationExcretion appears to be primarily by the biliary route.
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityThe acute oral toxicity of adapalene in mice and rats is greater than 10 mL/kg. Chronic ingestion of the drug may lead to the same side effects as those associated with excessive oral intake of Vitamin A.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.7061
Caco-2 permeable+0.8439
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5408
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8074
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.5
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8646
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7171
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8925
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5116
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7812
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.7758
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9466
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.653
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8246
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8509
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8575
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8707
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9715
Rat acute toxicity2.6913 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9774
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8855
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Nycomed us inc
  • Galderma laboratories lp
  • Glenmark generics inc usa
  • Pliva hrvatska doo
  • Galderma research and development inc
  • Galderma Laboratories
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Creamtopical.1 g/100g
Creamtopical1 mg/g
Geltopical1 mg/g
Geltopical45 g/g
Swabtopical1 mg/mL
Creamtopical0.1 %
Geltopical3 mg/g
Lotiontopical.1 g/100mL
Lotiontopical0.1 %
Lotiontopical1 mg/g
Geltopical0.1 %
Liquidtopical0.1 %
Geltopical0.3 %
Geltopical
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Differin 0.1% Cream 45 gm Tube227.13USD tube
Differin 0.1% Gel 45 gm Tube227.13USD tube
Differin 0.3% Gel 45 gm Tube219.65USD tube
Differin 0.1% cream4.85USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US4717720 No1993-05-312010-05-31Us
US7579377 No2005-02-232025-02-23Us
US7737181 No2004-08-292024-08-29Us
US7820186 No2005-11-232025-11-23Us
US7834060 No2003-03-122023-03-12Us
US7838558 No2003-03-122023-03-12Us
US7868044 No2003-03-122023-03-12Us
US7964202 No2004-09-012024-09-01Us
US7998467 No2008-05-312028-05-31Us
US8071644 No2007-07-182027-07-18Us
US8080537 No2007-07-182027-07-18Us
US8105618 No2002-12-232022-12-23Us
US8129362 No2007-07-182027-07-18Us
US8241649 No2002-12-232022-12-23Us
US8435502 No2006-09-152026-09-15Us
US8445543 No2007-07-122027-07-12Us
US8703820 No2003-03-122023-03-12Us
US8709392 No2006-09-152026-09-15Us
US8729127 No2003-03-122023-03-12Us
US8785420 No2002-12-232022-12-23Us
US8809305 No2002-12-232022-12-23Us
US8909305 No2002-12-232022-12-23Us
US8936800 No2002-12-232022-12-23Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilityPractically InsolubleNot Available
logP8.6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.01e-06 mg/mLALOGPS
logP6.06ALOGPS
logP6.46ChemAxon
logS-8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.99ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area46.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity122.07 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability47.65 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings6ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Graziano Castaldi, Pietro Allegrini, Gabriele Razzetti, Mauro Ercoli, “Process for the preparation of adapalene.” U.S. Patent US20060229465, issued October 12, 2006.

US20060229465
General References
  1. Rolewski SL: Clinical review: topical retinoids. Dermatol Nurs. 2003 Oct;15(5):447-50, 459-65. [PubMed:14619325 ]
External Links
ATC CodesD10AD03D10AD53
AHFS Codes
  • 84:92.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (25.9 KB)
MSDSDownload (57.1 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
PorfimerAdapalene may increase the photosensitizing activities of Porfimer.
VerteporfinAdapalene may increase the photosensitizing activities of Verteporfin.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, acts m...
Gene Name:
RARG
Uniprot ID:
P13631
Molecular Weight:
50341.405 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RXR/RAR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence or presence of ho...
Gene Name:
RARB
Uniprot ID:
P10826
Molecular Weight:
50488.63 Da
References
  1. Shroot B, Michel S: Pharmacology and chemistry of adapalene. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997 Jun;36(6 Pt 2):S96-103. [PubMed:9204085 ]
  2. Shroot B, Michel S, Allec J, Chatelus A, Wagner N: A new concept of drug delivery for acne. Dermatology. 1998;196(1):165-70. [PubMed:9557255 ]
  3. Michel S, Jomard A, Demarchez M: Pharmacology of adapalene. Br J Dermatol. 1998 Oct;139 Suppl 52:3-7. [PubMed:9990413 ]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. The high affinity ligand for RXR...
Gene Name:
RXRG
Uniprot ID:
P48443
Molecular Weight:
50870.72 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Kim MJ, Ciletti N, Michel S, Reichert U, Rosenfield RL: The role of specific retinoid receptors in sebocyte growth and differentiation in culture. J Invest Dermatol. 2000 Feb;114(2):349-53. [PubMed:10651997 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5 (By similarity). Specifically bin...
Gene Name:
RXRB
Uniprot ID:
P28702
Molecular Weight:
56921.38 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Kim MJ, Ciletti N, Michel S, Reichert U, Rosenfield RL: The role of specific retinoid receptors in sebocyte growth and differentiation in culture. J Invest Dermatol. 2000 Feb;114(2):349-53. [PubMed:10651997 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RXR/RAR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, the RX...
Gene Name:
RARA
Uniprot ID:
P10276
Molecular Weight:
50770.805 Da
References
  1. Shroot B, Michel S: Pharmacology and chemistry of adapalene. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997 Jun;36(6 Pt 2):S96-103. [PubMed:9204085 ]
  2. Griffiths CE, Ancian P, Humphries J, Poncet M, Rizova E, Michel S, Clucas A: Adapalene 0.1% gel and adapalene 0.1% cream stimulate retinoic acid receptor mediated gene transcription without significant irritative effects in the skin of healthy human volunteers. Br J Dermatol. 1998 Oct;139 Suppl 52:12-6. [PubMed:9990415 ]
  3. Michel S, Jomard A, Demarchez M: Pharmacology of adapalene. Br J Dermatol. 1998 Oct;139 Suppl 52:3-7. [PubMed:9990413 ]
  4. Shroot B, Michel S, Allec J, Chatelus A, Wagner N: A new concept of drug delivery for acne. Dermatology. 1998;196(1):165-70. [PubMed:9557255 ]
  5. Kim MJ, Ciletti N, Michel S, Reichert U, Rosenfield RL: The role of specific retinoid receptors in sebocyte growth and differentiation in culture. J Invest Dermatol. 2000 Feb;114(2):349-53. [PubMed:10651997 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
no
Actions
other/unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. The high affinity ligand for RXR...
Gene Name:
RXRA
Uniprot ID:
P19793
Molecular Weight:
50810.835 Da
References
  1. Bernard BA: Adapalene, a new chemical entity with retinoid activity. Skin Pharmacol. 1993;6 Suppl 1:61-9. [PubMed:8142113 ]
  2. Kim MJ, Ciletti N, Michel S, Reichert U, Rosenfield RL: The role of specific retinoid receptors in sebocyte growth and differentiation in culture. J Invest Dermatol. 2000 Feb;114(2):349-53. [PubMed:10651997 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on April 30, 2016 02:29