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Identification
NameDiethylstilbestrol
Accession NumberDB00255  (APRD00920, EXPT01164)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(E)-3,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hexene
(e)-4,4'-(1,2-Diethyl-1,2-ethenediyl)bisphenol
4,4'-Dihydroxy-alpha,beta-diethylstilbene
4,4'-dihydroxy-α,β-diethylstilbene
alpha,Alpha'-diethyl-(e)-4,4'-stilbenediol
DES
Diethylstilbestrol
Diethylstilbestrolum
Dietilestilbestrol
Distilbene
Stilboestrol
trans-4,4'-(1,2-diethyl-1,2-ethenediyl)bisphenol
trans-Diethylstilbesterol
trans-Diethylstilbestrol
trans-Diethylstilboesterol
α,α'-diethyl-(E)-4,4'-stilbenediol
External Identifiers
  • RCRA waste number U089
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Honvol Ampoules 250mgliquid250 mgintravenousCarter Horner Corp.1956-12-312000-11-17Canada
Honvol Tablets 100mgtablet100 mgoralCarter Horner Corp.1958-12-312001-05-22Canada
Stilbestrol 0.5mg Tablettablet.5 mgoralGlaxo Canada Inc1993-12-311998-07-30Canada
Stilbestrol 1.0mg Tablettablet1 mgoralGlaxo Canada Inc1991-12-311996-09-10Canada
Stilbestrol Tab 1mgtablet1 mgEverest Pharmaceuticals Ltd.1980-12-311999-07-14Canada
Stilbestrol Tablets 0.1 mgtablet0.105 mgoralWellspring Pharmaceutical Canada Corp1996-07-302009-02-23Canada
Stilbestrol Tablets 0.5 mgtablet0.51 mgoralWellspring Pharmaceutical Canada Corp1997-04-022009-02-23Canada
Stilbestrol Tablets 1.0 mgtablet1.0 mgoralWellspring Pharmaceutical Canada Corp1996-07-302009-02-23Canada
Stilboestrol Tab 0.1mgtablet.1 mgoralAllen & Hanburys A Glaxo Canada Ltd. Co.1951-12-311996-09-10Canada
Stilboestrol Tab 0.5mgtablet.5 mgoralAllen & Hanburys A Glaxo Canada Ltd. Co.1951-12-311996-09-20Canada
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
DistilbeneGerda
StilbestrolNysco
StilbetinBristol Myers-Squibb
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Diethylstilbestrol diphosphate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001389
Diethylstilbestrol diphosphate sodium
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001169
Categories
UNII731DCA35BT
CAS number56-53-1
WeightAverage: 268.3502
Monoisotopic: 268.146329884
Chemical FormulaC18H20O2
InChI KeyInChIKey=RGLYKWWBQGJZGM-ISLYRVAYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C18H20O2/c1-3-17(13-5-9-15(19)10-6-13)18(4-2)14-7-11-16(20)12-8-14/h5-12,19-20H,3-4H2,1-2H3/b18-17+
IUPAC Name
4-[4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)hex-3-en-3-yl]phenol
SMILES
CCC(=C(CC)C1=CC=C(O)C=C1)C1=CC=C(O)C=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as stilbenes. These are organic compounds containing a 1,2-diphenylethylene moiety. Stilbenes (C6-C2-C6 ) are derived from the common phenylpropene (C6-C3) skeleton building block. The introduction of one or more hydroxyl groups to a phenyl ring lead to stilbenoids.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassStilbenes
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentStilbenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Stilbene
  • Phenylpropene
  • Phenylpropane
  • Phenol
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed in the treatment of prostate cancer. Previously used in the prevention of miscarriage or premature delivery in pregnant women prone to miscarriage or premature delivery.
PharmacodynamicsDiethylstilbestrol is a synthetic estrogen that was developed to supplement a woman's natural estrogen production. In 1971, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a Drug Bulletin advising physicians to stop prescribing DES to pregnant women because it was linked to a rare vaginal cancer in female offspring.
Mechanism of actionEstrogens diffuse into their target cells and interact with a protein receptor, the estrogen receptor. Target cells include the female reproductive tract, the mammary gland, the hypothalamus, and the pituitary. The effect of Estrogen binding their receptors causes downstream increases the hepatic synthesis of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thyroid-binding globulin (TBG), and other serum proteins and suppress follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary. The combination of an estrogen with a progestin suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary system, decreasing the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hepatic.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySymptoms of overdose include nausea and vomiting, and withdrawal bleeding may occur in females.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9973
Blood Brain Barrier-0.5559
Caco-2 permeable+0.8264
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5737
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.6542
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8478
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8465
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8149
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5107
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9106
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.9064
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7017
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.9198
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.8361
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9488
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9579
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6772
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9111
Rat acute toxicity1.9462 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.6894
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6408
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Bristol myers squibb
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Tablicaps inc
  • Bayer pharmaceuticals corp
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Liquidintravenous250 mg
Tabletoral100 mg
Tabletoral1 mg
Tablet1 mg
Tabletoral0.105 mg
Tabletoral0.51 mg
Tabletoral1.0 mg
Tabletoral.1 mg
Tabletoral.5 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Diethylstilbestrol powder13.77USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point172Adler, E.,Gie, G.J. and von Euler, H.; US. Patent 2,421,401; June 3, 1947; assigned to Hoffmann-La Roche, Inc.
water solubility12 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP5.07HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-4.35ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0109 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.62ALOGPS
logP5.19ChemAxon
logS-4.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.13ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.46 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity83.24 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability30.69 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (9.87 KB)
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Adler, E.,Gie, G.J. and von Euler, H.; US. Patent 2,421,401; June 3, 1947; assigned to Hoffmann-La Roche, Inc.

General References
  1. Authors unspecified: Leuprolide versus diethylstilbestrol for metastatic prostate cancer. The Leuprolide Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1984 Nov 15;311(20):1281-6. [PubMed:6436700 ]
  2. DIECKMANN WJ, DAVIS ME, RYNKIEWICZ LM, POTTINGER RE: Does the administration of diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy have therapeutic value? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1953 Nov;66(5):1062-81. [PubMed:13104505 ]
  3. Ingle JN, Ahmann DL, Green SJ, Edmonson JH, Bisel HF, Kvols LK, Nichols WC, Creagan ET, Hahn RG, Rubin J, Frytak S: Randomized clinical trial of diethylstilbestrol versus tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1981 Jan 1;304(1):16-21. [PubMed:7001242 ]
  4. Kuchera LK: Postcoital contraception with diethylstilbestrol. JAMA. 1971 Oct 25;218(4):562-3. [PubMed:5171004 ]
  5. Herbst AL, Ulfelder H, Poskanzer DC: Adenocarcinoma of the vagina. Association of maternal stilbestrol therapy with tumor appearance in young women. N Engl J Med. 1971 Apr 15;284(15):878-81. [PubMed:5549830 ]
External Links
ATC CodesG03CB02G03CC05L02AA01
AHFS Codes
  • 68:16.04
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (73.1 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
CarbidopaThe metabolism of Diethylstilbestrol can be decreased when combined with Carbidopa.
EntacaponeThe metabolism of Diethylstilbestrol can be decreased when combined with Entacapone.
LevodopaThe metabolism of Diethylstilbestrol can be decreased when combined with Levodopa.
TolcaponeThe metabolism of Diethylstilbestrol can be decreased when combined with Tolcapone.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription fact...
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Munoz G, Ovilo C, Estelle J, Silio L, Fernandez A, Rodriguez C: Association with litter size of new polymorphisms on ESR1 and ESR2 genes in a Chinese-European pig line. Genet Sel Evol. 2007 Mar-Apr;39(2):195-206. Epub 2007 Feb 17. [PubMed:17306201 ]
  2. Dixon A, Wells CC, Singh S, Babayan R, Maric C: Renoprotective effects of a selective estrogen receptor modulator, raloxifene, in an animal model of diabetic nephropathy. Am J Nephrol. 2007;27(2):120-8. Epub 2007 Feb 15. [PubMed:17308373 ]
  3. Hart SA, Snyder MA, Smejkalova T, Woolley CS: Estrogen mobilizes a subset of estrogen receptor-alpha-immunoreactive vesicles in inhibitory presynaptic boutons in hippocampal CA1. J Neurosci. 2007 Feb 21;27(8):2102-11. [PubMed:17314305 ]
  4. Baron S, Escande A, Alberola G, Bystricky K, Balaguer P, Richard-Foy H: Estrogen receptor alpha and the activating protein-1 complex cooperate during insulin-like growth factor-I-induced transcriptional activation of the pS2/TFF1 gene. J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 20;282(16):11732-41. Epub 2007 Feb 22. [PubMed:17317669 ]
  5. Bains M, Cousins JC, Roberts JL: Neuroprotection by estrogen against MPP+-induced dopamine neuron death is mediated by ERalpha in primary cultures of mouse mesencephalon. Exp Neurol. 2007 Apr;204(2):767-76. Epub 2007 Jan 25. [PubMed:17320868 ]
  6. Kwok KC, Cheung NH: Measuring binding kinetics of ligands with tethered receptors by fluorescence polarization and total internal reflection fluorescence. Anal Chem. 2010 May 1;82(9):3819-25. doi: 10.1021/ac1002245. [PubMed:20387803 ]
  7. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Orphan receptor that acts as transcription activator in the absence of bound ligand. Binds specifically to an estrogen response element and activates reporter genes controlled by estrogen response elements (By similarity). Induces the expression of PERM1 in the skeletal muscle.
Gene Name:
ESRRG
Uniprot ID:
P62508
Molecular Weight:
51305.485 Da
References
  1. Greschik H, Flaig R, Renaud JP, Moras D: Structural basis for the deactivation of the estrogen-related receptor gamma by diethylstilbestrol or 4-hydroxytamoxifen and determinants of selectivity. J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 6;279(32):33639-46. Epub 2004 May 24. [PubMed:15161930 ]
  2. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by...
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
References
  1. Authors unspecified: Final amended report on the safety assessment of Methylparaben, Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, Isopropylparaben, Butylparaben, Isobutylparaben, and Benzylparaben as used in cosmetic products. Int J Toxicol. 2008;27 Suppl 4:1-82. doi: 10.1080/10915810802548359. [PubMed:19101832 ]
  2. Geistlinger TR, McReynolds AC, Guy RK: Ligand-selective inhibition of the interaction of steroid receptor coactivators and estrogen receptor isoforms. Chem Biol. 2004 Feb;11(2):273-81. [PubMed:15123288 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
O-methyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the O-methylation, and thereby the inactivation, of catecholamine neurotransmitters and catechol hormones. Also shortens the biological half-lives of certain neuroactive drugs, like L-DOPA, alpha-methyl DOPA and isoproterenol.
Gene Name:
COMT
Uniprot ID:
P21964
Molecular Weight:
30036.77 Da
References
  1. Engel LL, Weidenfield J, Merriam GR: Metabolism of diethylstilbestrol by rat liver: a preliminary report. J Toxicol Environ Health Suppl. 1976;1:37-44. [PubMed:11352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name:
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID:
P11511
Molecular Weight:
57882.48 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular Weight:
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Qu YQ, Fang ZZ, Yang L, Gao ZM, Liang R, Zhu LL, Dong PP, Zhang YY, Ge GB, Wang LM: Reversible inhibition of four important human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes by diethylstilbestrol. Pharmazie. 2011 Mar;66(3):216-21. [PubMed:21553654 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Qu YQ, Fang ZZ, Yang L, Gao ZM, Liang R, Zhu LL, Dong PP, Zhang YY, Ge GB, Wang LM: Reversible inhibition of four important human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes by diethylstilbestrol. Pharmazie. 2011 Mar;66(3):216-21. [PubMed:21553654 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Qu YQ, Fang ZZ, Yang L, Gao ZM, Liang R, Zhu LL, Dong PP, Zhang YY, Ge GB, Wang LM: Reversible inhibition of four important human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes by diethylstilbestrol. Pharmazie. 2011 Mar;66(3):216-21. [PubMed:21553654 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Qu YQ, Fang ZZ, Yang L, Gao ZM, Liang R, Zhu LL, Dong PP, Zhang YY, Ge GB, Wang LM: Reversible inhibition of four important human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes by diethylstilbestrol. Pharmazie. 2011 Mar;66(3):216-21. [PubMed:21553654 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular Weight:
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Qu YQ, Fang ZZ, Yang L, Gao ZM, Liang R, Zhu LL, Dong PP, Zhang YY, Ge GB, Wang LM: Reversible inhibition of four important human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes by diethylstilbestrol. Pharmazie. 2011 Mar;66(3):216-21. [PubMed:21553654 ]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Identical protein binding
Specific Function:
Thyroid hormone-binding protein. Probably transports thyroxine from the bloodstream to the brain.
Gene Name:
TTR
Uniprot ID:
P02766
Molecular Weight:
15886.88 Da

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both from mitochondria to cytosol and from cytosol to extracellular space, and cellular export of hemin, and heme. Xenobiotic transporter that may play an important role in the exclusion of xenobiotics from t...
Gene Name:
ABCG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNQ0
Molecular Weight:
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Sugimoto Y, Tsukahara S, Imai Y, Sugimoto Y, Ueda K, Tsuruo T: Reversal of breast cancer resistance protein-mediated drug resistance by estrogen antagonists and agonists. Mol Cancer Ther. 2003 Jan;2(1):105-12. [PubMed:12533678 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Rao US, Fine RL, Scarborough GA: Antiestrogens and steroid hormones: substrates of the human P-glycoprotein. Biochem Pharmacol. 1994 Jul 19;48(2):287-92. [PubMed:7914405 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 27, 2015 15:04