You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NameTrimethoprim
Accession NumberDB00440  (APRD00103)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved
Description

A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to pyrimethamine. The interference with folic acid metabolism may cause a depression of hematopoiesis. It is potentiated by sulfonamides and the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. Trimethoprim resistance has been reported. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
2,4-Diamino-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl)pyrimidineNot AvailableNot Available
5-[(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]-2,4-pyrimidinediamineNot AvailableNot Available
ProloprimNot AvailableNot Available
TrimethoprimGermanINN
TriméthoprimeFrenchINN
TrimethoprimumLatinINN
TrimetoprimaSpanishINN
TrimpexNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
AlprimAlphapharm
CatinKojar
EumiHwang's
InflamnilSwiss Pharm
LannacherRoot
LariagoIpca Laboratories
MeprimJohnson
MetipineKojar
MonotrimGlaxoSmithKline
MotrimLannacher
PrimsolFSC
ProloprimGlaxoSmithKline
TrimpexNot Available
TriprimGlaxoSmithKline
Brand mixtures
Brand NameIngredients
Bactrimsulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim
Bethaprimsulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim
Co-trimoxazolesulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim
Cotrimsulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim
PolytrimTrimethoprim + Polymyxin B Sulfate
Septrasulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim
Sulfatrimsulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim
Sulfatrim Pediatricsulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim
Uroplussulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim
Categories
CAS number738-70-5
WeightAverage: 290.3177
Monoisotopic: 290.137890462
Chemical FormulaC14H18N4O3
InChI KeyIEDVJHCEMCRBQM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C14H18N4O3/c1-19-10-5-8(6-11(20-2)12(10)21-3)4-9-7-17-14(16)18-13(9)15/h5-7H,4H2,1-3H3,(H4,15,16,17,18)
IUPAC Name
5-[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]pyrimidine-2,4-diamine
SMILES
COC1=CC(CC2=CN=C(N)N=C2N)=CC(OC)=C1OC
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and Substituted Derivatives
SubclassPhenol Ethers
Direct parentAnisoles
Alternative parentsAlkyl Aryl Ethers; Aminopyrimidines and Derivatives; Primary Aromatic Amines; Polyamines
Substituentsalkyl aryl ether; aminopyrimidine; pyrimidine; primary aromatic amine; polyamine; ether; amine; primary amine; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the anisoles. These are organic compounds contaiing a methoxybenzene or a derivative thereof.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of urinary tract infections, uncomplicated pyelonephritis (with sulfamethoxazole) and mild acute prostatitis. May be used as pericoital (with sulfamethoxazole) or continuous prophylaxis in females with recurrent cystitis. May be used as an alternative to treat asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy (only before the last 6 weeks of pregnancy). Other uses include: alternative agent in respiratory tract infections (otitis, sinusitus, bronchitis and pneumonia), treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (acute or prophylaxis), Nocardia infections, and traveller's diarrhea.
PharmacodynamicsTrimethoprim is a pyrimidine analogue that disrupts folate synthesis, an essential part of the thymidine synthesis pathway. Inhibition of the enzyme starves the bacteria of nucleotides necessary for DNA replication.The drug, therefore, exhibits bactericidal activity.
Mechanism of actionTrimethoprim binds to dihydrofolate reductase and inhibits the reduction of dihydrofolic acid (DHF) to tetrahydrofolic acid (THF). THF is an essential precursor in the thymidine synthesis pathway and interference with this pathway inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis. Trimethoprim's affinity for bacterial dihydrofolate reductase is several thousand times greater than its affinity for human dihydrofolate reductase. Sulfamethoxazole inhibits dihydrofolate synthetase (aka dihydropteroate synthetase), an enzyme involved further upstream in the same pathway. Trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole are commonly used in combination due to their synergistic effects. This drug combination also reduces the development of resistance that is seen when either drug is used alone.
AbsorptionReadily and almost completely absorbed in the GI tract with peak serum concentrations attained 1-4 hours after oral administration. Widely distributed to tissues and fluids including kidney, lung, seminal fluid, aqueous humour, middle ear fluid, sputum, vaginal secretions, bile, bone and CSF.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding42-46% bound to plasma proteins
Metabolism

Hepatic metabolism to oxide and hydroxylated metabolites.

Route of eliminationTen to twenty percent of trimethoprim is metabolized, primarily in the liver; the remainder is excreted unchanged in the urine. After oral administration, 50% to 60% of trimethoprim is excreted in the urine within 24 hours, approximately 80% of this being unmetabolized trimethoprim. Trimethoprim also passes the placental barrier and is excreted in human milk.
Half life8-11 hours in adults with normal renal function
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityLD50=4850 (orally in mice)
Affected organisms
  • Gram negative and gram positive bacteria
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.994
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9381
Caco-2 permeable + 0.8867
P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.5845
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.8631
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.8382
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.8531
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8799
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.5732
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9046
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9071
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9231
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9025
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8467
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity High CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.5
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.8227
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9369
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.9949
Rat acute toxicity 1.7701 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9394
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.8734
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Monarch pharmaceuticals inc
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Hoffmann la roche inc
  • Fsc laboratories inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Bactrim ds tablet5.53USDtablet
Bactrim DS 800-160 mg tablet3.0USDtablet
Septra DS 800-160 mg tablet2.43USDtablet
Septra ds tablet2.33USDtablet
Trimethoprim powder1.79USDg
Bactrim 400-80 mg tablet1.63USDtablet
Septra 80-400 tablet1.49USDtablet
Sulfamethoxazole-tmp ds tablet1.44USDtablet
Sulfamethoxazole-tmp vial0.84USDml
Trimethoprim 100 mg tablet0.7USDtablet
Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim 400-80 mg tablet0.69USDtablet
Apo-Trimethoprim 200 mg Tablet0.55USDtablet
Primsol 50 mg/5 ml oral soln0.39USDml
Apo-Trimethoprim 100 mg Tablet0.27USDtablet
Sulfamethoxazole-tmp ss tablet0.17USDtablet
Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim 200-40 mg/5ml Suspension0.13USDml
Sulfatrim 200-40 mg/5ml Suspension0.13USDml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
United States57634491996-08-072016-08-07
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point199-203 °CPhysProp
water solubility400 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP0.91HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-2.86ADME Research, USCD
pKa7.12 (at 20 °C)PERRIN,DD (1972)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility6.15e-01 g/lALOGPS
logP1.26ALOGPS
logP1.28ChemAxon
logS-2.7ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)17.33ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)7.16ChemAxon
physiological charge1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count7ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count2ChemAxon
polar surface area105.51ChemAxon
rotatable bond count5ChemAxon
refractivity81.51ChemAxon
polarizability29.71ChemAxon
number of rings2ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveYesChemAxon
Ghose filterYesChemAxon
Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Yasushi Takagishi, Kiichiro Ohsuga, Sadao Ohama, “Suppository containing sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim complex and process for preparing the same.” U.S. Patent US4461765, issued December, 1975.

US4461765
General Reference
  1. Brumfitt W, Hamilton-Miller JM: Reassessment of the rationale for the combinations of sulphonamides with diaminopyrimidines. J Chemother. 1993 Dec;5(6):465-9. Pubmed
  2. Brumfitt W, Hamilton-Miller JM: Limitations of and indications for the use of co-trimoxazole. J Chemother. 1994 Feb;6(1):3-11. Pubmed
  3. Bean DC, Livermore DM, Papa I, Hall LM: Resistance among Escherichia coli to sulphonamides and other antimicrobials now little used in man. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005 Nov;56(5):962-4. Epub 2005 Sep 8. Pubmed
  4. Felmingham D, Reinert RR, Hirakata Y, Rodloff A: Increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from the PROTEKT surveillance study, and compatative in vitro activity of the ketolide, telithromycin. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2002 Sep;50 Suppl S1:25-37. Pubmed
  5. Johnson JR, Manges AR, O’Bryan TT, Riley LW: A disseminated multidrug-resistant clonal group of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in pyelonephritis. Lancet. 2002 Jun 29;359(9325):2249-51. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD00145
KEGG CompoundC01965
PubChem Compound5578
PubChem Substance46507125
ChemSpider5376
BindingDB18069
ChEBI9731
ChEMBLCHEMBL22
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000927
PharmGKBPA451788
Drug Product Database2243116
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic2/trimeth.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cdi/trimethoprim.html
WikipediaTrimethoprim
ATC CodesJ01EA01
AHFS Codes
  • 08:36.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelshow(98.5 KB)
MSDSshow(74.3 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
CapecitabineThe strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, Capecitabine, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Trimethoprim, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in therapeutic and adverse effects of Trimethoprim if Capecitabine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
DapsoneIncreased toxicity of both products
DelavirdineThe strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, Delavirdine, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Trimethoprim, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in therapeutic and adverse effects of Trimethoprim if Delavirdine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
DofetilideTrimethoprim may significantly reduced the clearance of Dofetilide. Trimethoprim is a cation transport inhibitor and may interfere with renal excretion of Dofetilide. Concomitant use is contraindicated.
FloxuridineThe strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, Floxuridine, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Trimethoprim, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in therapeutic and adverse effects of Trimethoprim if Floxuridine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
FluconazoleThe strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, Fluconazole, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Trimethoprim, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in therapeutic and adverse effects of Trimethoprim if Fluconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
FluorouracilThe strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, Fluorouracil, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Trimethoprim, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in therapeutic and adverse effects of Trimethoprim if Fluorouracil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
FlurbiprofenThe strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, Flurbiprofen, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Trimethoprim, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in therapeutic and adverse effects of Trimethoprim if Flurbiprofen is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
FosphenytoinTrimethoprim increases the effect of hydantoin
GemfibrozilThe strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, Gemfibrozil, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Trimethoprim, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in therapeutic and adverse effects of Trimethoprim if Gemfibrozil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
IbuprofenThe strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, Ibuprofen, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Trimethoprim, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in therapeutic and adverse effects of Trimethoprim if Ibuprofen is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
IndomethacinThe strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, Indomethacine, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Trimethoprim, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in therapeutic and adverse effects of Trimethoprim if Indomethacine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
KetoconazoleThe strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, Ketoconazole, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Trimethoprim, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in therapeutic and adverse effects of Trimethoprim if Ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
LeucovorinThe efficacy of Trimethoprim may be reduced by Leucovorin (folinic acid). The antibiotic, Trimethoprim, acts by blocking bacterial folic acid metabolism. Leucovorin may reduce the efficacy of Trimethoprim by providing an alternate source of folic acid. The therapeutic effect of Trimethoprim should be closely monitored.
Mefenamic acidThe strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, Mefenamic acid, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Trimethoprim, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in therapeutic and adverse effects of Trimethoprim if Mefenamic acid is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
MethotrexateTrimethoprim may increase the adverse/toxic effects of Methotrexate (e.g. bone marrow suppression). Concomitant use should be avoided or closely monitored for Methotrexate toxicity.
MiconazoleThe strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, Miconazole, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Trimethoprim, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in therapeutic and adverse effects of Trimethoprim if Miconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
NicardipineThe strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, Nicardipine, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Trimethoprim, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in therapeutic and adverse effects of Trimethoprim if Nicardipine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
PhenytoinTrimethoprim increases the effect of hydantoin
PiroxicamThe strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, Piroxicam, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Trimethoprim, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in therapeutic and adverse effects of Trimethoprim if Piroxicam is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
ProcainamideTrimethoprim may reduce the clearance of Procainamide. Alternative treatments should be considered. If Trimethoprim is initiated or the dose is increased, monitor for increased toxicity of Procainamide (e.g. QTc intervals, EKG, serum drug concentrations). If Trimethoprim is discontinued or the dose decreased, monitor for reduced effects of Procainamide.
RifampicinRifampin decreases the effect of trimethoprim
SitaxentanThe strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, Sitaxsentan, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Trimethoprim, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in therapeutic and adverse effects of Trimethoprim if Sitaxsentan is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
SulfadiazineThe strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, Sulfadiazine, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Trimethoprim, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in therapeutic and adverse effects of Trimethoprim if Sulfadiazine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
SulfisoxazoleThe strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, Sulfisoxazole, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Trimethoprim, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in therapeutic and adverse effects of Trimethoprim if Sulfisoxazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TobramycinIncreased risk of nephrotoxicity
TolbutamideThe strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, Tolbutamide, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Trimethoprim, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in therapeutic and adverse effects of Trimethoprim if Tolbutamide is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TrandolaprilIncreased risk of hyperkalemia. Monitor serum potassium levels.
TretinoinThe moderate CYP2C8 inhibitor, Trimethoprim, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of oral Tretinoin. Monitor for changes in Tretinoin effectiveness and adverse/toxic effects if Trimethoprim is initiated, discontinued to dose changed.
Food Interactions
  • Do not take calcium, aluminium, magnesium or iron supplements within 2 hours of taking this medication.
  • Take on empty stomach: 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals.
  • Take with a full glass of water.

Targets

1. Thymidylate synthase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Thymidylate synthase P04818 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Gamarro F, Yu PL, Zhao J, Edman U, Greene PJ, Santi D: Trypanosoma brucei dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase: gene isolation and expression and characterization of the enzyme. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1995 Jun;72(1-2):11-22. Pubmed
  4. Rosowsky A, Papoulis AT, Forsch RA, Queener SF: Synthesis and antiparasitic and antitumor activity of 2, 4-diamino-6-(arylmethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinazoline analogues of piritrexim. J Med Chem. 1999 Mar 25;42(6):1007-17. Pubmed
  5. Reche P, Arrebola R, Santi DV, Gonzalez-Pacanowska D, Ruiz-Perez LM: Expression and characterization of the Trypanosoma cruzi dihydrofolate reductase domain. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1996 Feb-Mar;76(1-2):175-85. Pubmed
  6. Oefner C, Parisi S, Schulz H, Lociuro S, Dale GE: Inhibitory properties and X-ray crystallographic study of the binding of AR-101, AR-102 and iclaprim in ternary complexes with NADPH and dihydrofolate reductase from Staphylococcus aureus. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2009 Aug;65(Pt 8):751-7. Epub 2009 Jul 10. Pubmed
  7. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

2. Dihydrofolate reductase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: no

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Dihydrofolate reductase P00374 Details

References:

  1. Laskowska E, Kuczynska-Wisnik D, Bak M, Lipinska B: Trimethoprim induces heat shock proteins and protein aggregation in E. coli cells. Curr Microbiol. 2003 Oct;47(4):286-9. Pubmed
  2. Floris-Moore MA, Amodio-Groton MI, Catalano MT: Adverse reactions to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in AIDS. Ann Pharmacother. 2003 Dec;37(12):1810-3. Pubmed
  3. Rosowsky A, Fu H, Chan DC, Queener SF: Synthesis of 2,4-diamino-6-[2’-O-(omega-carboxyalkyl)oxydibenz[b,f]azepin-5-yl]methylpt eridines as potent and selective inhibitors of Pneumocystis carinii, Toxoplasma gondii, and Mycobacterium avium dihydrofolate reductase. J Med Chem. 2004 May 6;47(10):2475-85. Pubmed
  4. Nahimana A, Rabodonirina M, Bille J, Francioli P, Hauser PM: Mutations of Pneumocystis jirovecii dihydrofolate reductase associated with failure of prophylaxis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Nov;48(11):4301-5. Pubmed
  5. Barrow EW, Bourne PC, Barrow WW: Functional cloning of Bacillus anthracis dihydrofolate reductase and confirmation of natural resistance to trimethoprim. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Dec;48(12):4643-9. Pubmed
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 2C9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

3. Cytochrome P450 2C8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C8 P10632 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Multidrug resistance protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

References:

  1. Romiti N, Tramonti G, Chieli E: Influence of different chemicals on MDR-1 P-glycoprotein expression and activity in the HK-2 proximal tubular cell line. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2002 Sep 1;183(2):83-91. Pubmed
  2. Polli JW, Wring SA, Humphreys JE, Huang L, Morgan JB, Webster LO, Serabjit-Singh CS: Rational use of in vitro P-glycoprotein assays in drug discovery. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Nov;299(2):620-8. Pubmed

Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 10, 2013 21:31