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Identification
NameSulfamethoxazole
Accession NumberDB01015  (APRD00076)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
3-(p-Aminophenylsulfonamido)-5-methylisoxazole
3-Sulfanilamido-5-methylisoxazole
4-Amino-N-(5-methyl-3-isoxazolyl)benzenesulfonamide
Gantanol (tn)
SMX
Sulfamethoxazole
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Sulfamethoxazole Tab 500mgtablet500 mgoralPro Doc Limitee1978-12-311999-08-12Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo Sulfamethoxazole Tab 500mgtablet500 mgoralApotex Inc1978-12-31Not applicableCanada
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
GantanolNot Available
SinominNot Available
UrobakNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Apo Sulfatrim DS TabApotex Inc
Apo Sulfatrim PediatricApotex Inc
Apo Sulfatrim TabApotex Inc
Apo-sulfatrim Oral SuspensionApotex Inc
BactrimAR Scientific, Inc.
Bactrim DSAR Scientific, Inc.
Bactrim DS Roche TabHoffmann La Roche Limited
Bactrim Roche InjHoffmann La Roche Limited
Bactrim Roche Suspension PaediatricHoffmann La Roche Limited
Bactrim Roche TabHoffmann La Roche Limited
Nu-cotrimox Sus 40/8mg/mlNu Pharm Inc
Nu-cotrimox Tab 400/80mgNu Pharm Inc
Nu-cotrimox-DS Tab 800/160mgNu Pharm Inc
Protrin Df TabPro Doc Limitee
Protrin TabPro Doc Limitee
Riva-sep DSLaboratoire Riva Inc
Roubac Tab 160/800Rougier Pharma Division Of Ratiopharm Inc
Roubac Tab 80/400Rougier Pharma Division Of Ratiopharm Inc
SeptraGlaxosmithkline Inc
Septra DS TabletsGlaxosmithkline Inc
Septra InjectionAspen Pharma Trading Limited
Septra Pediatric SuspensionGlaxosmithkline Inc
Sulfamethoxazole and TrimethoprimTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc
Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim (double Strength)Teva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc
Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim Double StrengthLake Erie Medical Dba Quality L Care Products Lc
Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim DSApotheca Inc.
Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim TabletsD.C. Labs Limited
SulfatrimSTI Pharma LLC
Teva-trimelTeva Canada Limited
Teva-trimel DSTeva Canada Limited
Trisulfa DS TabJaapharm Canada Inc.
Trisulfa S SuspensionJaapharm Canada Inc.
Trisulfa TabJaapharm Canada Inc.
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIJE42381TNV
CAS number723-46-6
WeightAverage: 253.278
Monoisotopic: 253.052111923
Chemical FormulaC10H11N3O3S
InChI KeyInChIKey=JLKIGFTWXXRPMT-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C10H11N3O3S/c1-7-6-10(12-16-7)13-17(14,15)9-4-2-8(11)3-5-9/h2-6H,11H2,1H3,(H,12,13)
IUPAC Name
4-amino-N-(5-methyl-1,2-oxazol-3-yl)benzene-1-sulfonamide
SMILES
CC1=CC(NS(=O)(=O)C2=CC=C(N)C=C2)=NO1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aminobenzenesulfonamides. These are organic compounds containing a benzenesulfonamide moiety with an amine group attached to the benzene ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzenesulfonamides
Direct ParentAminobenzenesulfonamides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Aminobenzenesulfonamide
  • Sulfonylaniline
  • Substituted aniline
  • Aniline
  • Imidolactam
  • Primary aromatic amine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Aminosulfonyl compound
  • Sulfonyl
  • Sulfonic acid derivative
  • Sulfonamide
  • Oxazole
  • Isoxazole
  • Azole
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment bacterial infections causing bronchitis, prostatitis and urinary tract infections.
PharmacodynamicsSulfamethoxazole is a sulfonamide drug that inhibits bacterial synthesis of dihydrofolic acid by competing with para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) for binding to dihydropteroate synthetase (dihydrofolate synthetase). Sulfamethoxazole is bacteriostatic in nature. Inhibition of dihydrofolic acid synthesis decreases the synthesis of bacterial nucleotides and DNA. Sulfamethoxazole is normally given in combination with Trimethoprim, a dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor, which inhibits the reduction of dihydrofolic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid. Studies have shown that bacterial resistance develops more slowly with the combination of the two drugs than with either Trimethoprim or Sulfamethoxazole alone.
Mechanism of actionSulfonamides inhibit the enzymatic conversion of pteridine and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) to dihydropteroic acid by competing with PABA for binding to dihydrofolate synthetase, an intermediate of tetrahydrofolic acid (THF) synthesis. THF is required for the synthesis of purines and dTMP and inhibition of its synthesis inhibits bacterial growth. Pyrimethamine and trimethoprim inhibit dihydrofolate reductase, another step in THF synthesis, and therefore act synergistically with the sulfonamides.
Related Articles
AbsorptionRapidly absorbed following oral administration. Also well-absorbed topically.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding70%
Metabolism

Hepatic. The metabolism of sulfamethoxazole occurs predominately by N4-acetylation, although the glucuronide conjugate has been identified.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Sulfamethoxazole
5-HydroxysulfamethoxazoleDetails
Sulfamethoxazole
N4-AcetylsulfamethoxazoleDetails
Sulfamethoxazole
Not Available
Sulfamethoxazole N1-glucuronideDetails
Sulfamethoxazole
Sulfamethoxazole N4-hydroxylamineDetails
5-Hydroxysulfamethoxazole
N4-Acetyl-5-OH-sulfamethoxazoleDetails
N4-Acetylsulfamethoxazole
Not Available
N4-Acetyl-5-OH-sulfamethoxazoleDetails
Sulfamethoxazole N4-hydroxylamine
Not Available
Nitroso-sulfamethoxazoleDetails
Nitroso-sulfamethoxazole
Not Available
Sulfamethoxazole GSH conjugateDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life10 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySulfamethoxazole may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and hypersensitivity reactions. Hematologic effects such as anemia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency may also occur. Sulfamethoxazole may displace bilirubin from albumin binding sites causing jaundice or kernicterus in newborns.
Affected organisms
  • Gram negative and gram positive bacteria
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Escherichia coli
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9382
Caco-2 permeable-0.5346
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8884
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9362
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8754
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9195
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7652
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9115
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7632
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9744
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7151
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8193
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9882
Rat acute toxicity1.6422 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9143
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8956
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Hoffmann la roche inc
  • Ascot hosp pharmaceuticals inc div travenol laboratories inc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Heather drug co inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Shionogi usa inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral500 mg
Liquidintravenous
Solutionintravenous
Injection, solution, concentrateintravenous
Suspensionoral
Tabletoral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Sulfamethoxazole-TMP DS 800-160 mg tablet0.94USD tablet
Sulfamethoxazole powder0.41USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point167 °CPhysProp
water solubility610 mg/L (at 37 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP0.89HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-2.62ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.459 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.79ALOGPS
logP0.79ChemAxon
logS-2.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)6.16ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)1.97ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area98.22 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity64.5 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability24.99 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (9.61 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Yasushi Takagishi, Kiichiro Ohsuga, Sadao Ohama, “Suppository containing sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim complex and process for preparing the same.” U.S. Patent US4461765, issued December, 1975.

US4461765
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesJ01EE01J01EC01
AHFS Codes
  • 08:12.20
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (35 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcetohexamideAcetohexamide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
AlogliptinAlogliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
AzathioprineSulfamethoxazole may increase the myelosuppressive activities of Azathioprine.
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Sulfamethoxazole can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.
CanagliflozinCanagliflozin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
ChlorpropamideSulfamethoxazole may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Chlorpropamide.
CitalopramSulfamethoxazole may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Citalopram.
CyclosporineSulfamethoxazole may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Cyclosporine.
DapsoneThe serum concentration of Dapsone can be increased when it is combined with Sulfamethoxazole.
DexketoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexketoprofen is combined with Sulfamethoxazole.
DicoumarolSulfamethoxazole may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.
DihydrotestosteroneDihydrotestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
DofetilideSulfamethoxazole may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dofetilide.
FloxuridineThe metabolism of Sulfamethoxazole can be decreased when combined with Floxuridine.
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Sulfamethoxazole can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.
GliclazideGliclazide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
GlimepirideGlimepiride may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
GliquidoneGliquidone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
GlyburideGlyburide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
GoserelinSulfamethoxazole may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Goserelin.
HexamethylenetetramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hexamethylenetetramine is combined with Sulfamethoxazole.
Insulin AspartInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
Insulin DetemirInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
Insulin GlargineInsulin Glargine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
Insulin GlulisineInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
Insulin HumanInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
Insulin LisproInsulin Lispro may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
LeuprolideSulfamethoxazole may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Leuprolide.
LinagliptinLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
MecamylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulfamethoxazole is combined with Mecamylamine.
MercaptopurineSulfamethoxazole may increase the myelosuppressive activities of Mercaptopurine.
MetforminMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
OxandroloneOxandrolone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
ParoxetineParoxetine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
PerindoprilSulfamethoxazole may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Perindopril.
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Sulfamethoxazole.
Picosulfuric acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium picosulfate can be decreased when used in combination with Sulfamethoxazole.
PralatrexateThe serum concentration of Pralatrexate can be increased when it is combined with Sulfamethoxazole.
RepaglinideRepaglinide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
SaxagliptinSaxagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
SecobarbitalThe metabolism of Sulfamethoxazole can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
SildenafilThe metabolism of Sildenafil can be decreased when combined with Sulfamethoxazole.
SparfloxacinSparfloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Sulfamethoxazole can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Sulfamethoxazole can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.
TestosteroneTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
TolbutamideTolbutamide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
TorasemideThe metabolism of Torasemide can be decreased when combined with Sulfamethoxazole.
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
TroglitazoneThe metabolism of Troglitazone can be decreased when combined with Sulfamethoxazole.
ValsartanSulfamethoxazole may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Valsartan.
VildagliptinVildagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
Food Interactions
  • Do not take calcium, aluminium, magnesium or iron supplements within 2 hours of taking this medication.
  • Take on empty stomach: 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals.
  • Take with a full glass of water.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the condensation of para-aminobenzoate (pABA) with 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin diphosphate (DHPt-PP) to form 7,8-dihydropteroate (H2Pte), the immediate precursor of folate derivatives.
Gene Name:
folP
Uniprot ID:
P0AC13
Molecular Weight:
30614.855 Da
References
  1. Hong YL, Hossler PA, Calhoun DH, Meshnick SR: Inhibition of recombinant Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthetase by sulfa drugs. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1995 Aug;39(8):1756-63. [PubMed:7486915 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Tetrahydrofolylpolyglutamate synthase activity
Specific Function:
Conversion of folates to polyglutamate derivatives.
Gene Name:
folC
Uniprot ID:
P08192
Molecular Weight:
45405.225 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Winstanley PA, Mberu EK, Szwandt IS, Breckenridge AM, Watkins WM: In vitro activities of novel antifolate drug combinations against Plasmodium falciparum and human granulocyte CFUs. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1995 Apr;39(4):948-52. [PubMed:7786001 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Cribb AE, Spielberg SP, Griffin GP: N4-hydroxylation of sulfamethoxazole by cytochrome P450 of the cytochrome P4502C subfamily and reduction of sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine in human and rat hepatic microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 1995 Mar;23(3):406-14. [PubMed:7628308 ]
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  4. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Arylamine n-acetyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Participates in the detoxification of a plethora of hydrazine and arylamine drugs. Catalyzes the N- or O-acetylation of various arylamine and heterocyclic amine substrates and is able to bioactivate several known carcinogens.
Gene Name:
NAT1
Uniprot ID:
P18440
Molecular Weight:
33898.445 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Arylamine n-acetyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Participates in the detoxification of a plethora of hydrazine and arylamine drugs. Catalyzes the N- or O-acetylation of various arylamine and heterocyclic amine substrates and is able to bioactivate several known carcinogens.
Gene Name:
NAT2
Uniprot ID:
P11245
Molecular Weight:
33542.235 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gastric epithelial cells, it is a key step in the generation of prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays an important role in cytoprotection. In platelets, it is involved in the gener...
Gene Name:
PTGS1
Uniprot ID:
P23219
Molecular Weight:
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative regulator of isoform 1.
Gene Name:
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID:
O60656
Molecular Weight:
59940.495 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
no
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Molecular Weight:
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Bratlid D, Bergan T: Displacement of albumin-bound antimicrobial agents by bilirubin. Pharmacology. 1976;14(5):464-72. [PubMed:1031216 ]
  2. Angelakou A, Valsami G, Koupparis M, Macheras P: Use of 1-anilino-8-napthalenesulphonate as an ion probe for the potentiometric study of the binding of sulphonamides to bovine serum albumin and plasma. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1993 May;45(5):434-8. [PubMed:8099962 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23